TE MICHIGAN DAILY
!PU tlZJh ."1 .. J1'RW.ti UDZJ1'+7 : Ae.. 1S~*
_... rFrv n aY. .'v x.a i. VA LHIi e
.. F v y i
toans Impersonal'U' LifeI
ons and zeal are University, such an association is the grade getters and fails to
e according to essential in order to create a bring about desired stimulation
hmann, associate normal degree of enthusiasm." for eager students."
atlon school. He said the faculty must realize Lehmann recalled the program
se name has been this potential or the University designed to bring together vari-
possibility to re- will become only a factory turn- ous areas of the social science
dent for Student ing out a mass of fact filled ma- and relate them to present-day
. Lewis, said "un- chines. situations. "Only one person wa
lege graduates tc Honors Failure attracted, the others feared hav-
nly a superficial Commenting on the honors pro- , ing a C on their record since it
lack of enthus- gram, he said "it attracts largely did appear like a stiff course."
t be taken.".
hat the only way 'H WT 1
get noticed today The WeeK To Come:
veral small pacif-,
htits groups'which A Campus Calendar
emotion and also'
tention," he said
majority of stu-' TODAY, SEPT. 20 TUESDAY, SEPT. 22
ack zeal." 2:45 L. Sheffield 1:15 p.m.-Wilber Riddle, archi-
ir Itpterests a inrrae tect-coordinator of the Nela Park'
Sanational representative of the
this was pointed United Auto Workers Union, will Laboratories will '1 e e t u r e on
then one student discuss civil rights- progress in Building Illumination" in the ar-
to speak to them Michigan at the Bethlehem Unit- chitecture and design school audi-
ould be interested ed Church of Christ.. torum-
ation of lack of 8:3 pm. Ra* s 7:30 p.m.-Mrs. Alvin Bippus,
sn is the ~content 8:30 p.m. - RobertGlasgow, Jr., first lecturer at the Toledo
t Isp y the ostu- guest organist, will present a re- Museum of Art, will speak on "The'
year he said"It cital in Hill Aud. The program is Classical Heritage of Rome and
earthshaadng is- sponsored by the music school. the Oriental Splendor of Byzan-
n's hours. Such * * * tium" in the meeting room, Ann
ated grading sys- TOMORROW, SEPT. 21 Arbor Public Library.
up material nev- ,4 p.m. -Prof. Ferrel Heady of WEDNESDAY, SEPT. 23
Cs" that thee'the political science department, 4:15 p.m.-Dr. Peter Venables,
sed that; there director of the Institute of Pub- of London, England, will speak on
tops between thu lic Administration, will speak on "Autonomic and Cortical Rela-
dents. "With thc the topic, "Problems of Govern- tionships in Schizophrenia" in
t structure of thement Organization - Implications Aud. B.
~ stucuro~ t for Public Health" in Public s ' *
Health Aud. 7:30 " p.m.-Prof. Brice Carna-
) +eadline pm. ,, Thebad han of the chemical engineering
and biostatistics departments will
.: is8 pcon. -'"- 8Robert G. Th of speak on "An Introduction to Dig-
tQ~l Ils economist and joint ,author of ital Computers and the MAD Lan-
'The Triple Revolution," will ia optr n h A a-
° - TheTrile evoltio," ' wll guage" in the Natural Science Aud.
on deadline for I speak in the Multipurpose Rm. of I t N
istrict of Colum- the UGLI. The lEcononics Society 8 p.m.-The Association of Pro-
bly given as Sept and the faculty of the econom- ducing Artists repertory company
Daiy. 'The correct ics department are sponsoring his will present "War and Peace" by
6. speech. _____Erwin Piscator in Lydia Mendels-
.sn Theatre. The play is based
on Leon Tolstoy's novel.
Dial668-6416 .!THURSDAY, SEPT. 24
DR DIRK BOGARDES WACKIEST PRESCRIPTION! 8 p.m.-The APA will perform
"War and Peace" by Erwin Pisca-
' l /,/s '-tor in Lydia Mendelssohn Thea-
1'8 p.m.-The Student Govern-
ment Council Campus Leaders'
Forum will be held in the Michi-
gan Union Ballroom. Vice-Presi-
dent for Academic Affairs Roger
t '' - W. Heyns, Prof. Marvin Felheim
of the English department, and
SGC President Thomas Smithson,'
/ '65, will speak.
STARRING * * *
- .DIRK BOQARDE' MYLENE DEMONGEOT FRIDAY, SEPT. 25
1A SROBERTSON- JUSTfCE 7 p.m.-The International Stu-
.AMES dents Association will sponsor a
MA$TROIAN NI in "TH E ORGANIZER" folk and cultural evening featur-
ingT Japan at the International
* * * ,
24,1964 AR E THE DAYS ON WHICH 8 p.m.-The APA will present;
"War and Peace" by Piscator in
INMENT HISTORY WILL BE MADE Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre.
S ,* * *
SE 8:30 p.m.-The Chicago Sym-;
phony Orchestra; with Jean Mar-"
rD.R tinon conducting, will perform in
SATURDAY, SEPT. 26
B U ''5 and 9 p.m.-The APA will pre-
sent Piscator's "War and Peace"
in Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre. t
* * *
8 p.m.-The International Cen-I
B IA IJILEI ter will sponsor a reception for
'r foreign students. Following a wel-
with the aibstar cast of the hit Broadway play! coming address in Rackham Aud.,E
. ... ma. s -- - - - -r... . there will be a reception in the
Michigan League Ballroom.
MICHIGAN THEATRE * * *r
.8:30 p.m.-Ahmad Jamal will
Tickets sold in advance give a Pershing Rifle's Concertf in1
Not Reserved Seats Hill Aud.
Guaranteed Seats at al 4 Shows SUNA, S . 2
Matinees at1_:31.03 SUNDAY, SEPT. 27
Matinees at 15:30-Price $1.50' 3 and 8p.m.-The APA will pre-
Nights at 8:00-Price.$2.50 I sent "War and Peace" by Pisca- I
I tor in Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre. F
(Continued from Page 1) . .. w -, ___________________________________..:_____,>.
"In the Hattiesburg area where
I was, the people were generally
cooperative to talk to but often
afraid to act. About three fourths
of the ones who promised to ac-
company us to the courthouse
backed out when we came to pick
them up," she recalled.
"There are legitimate reasons
for their fear. Although there is
no great probability of their being
physically harmed in Hattiesburg,
many have lost their jobs and
some have been cut off from state
welfare payments for registering.
The local newspaper publishes the
names of Negroes who register, a
standard policy in Mississippi,"
Miss Runkle said.
A second block to registering
Negro v o t e r s is Mississippi's
voter registration test. Not only
does this exam require literacy but
in most places includes interpre-
tive questions about the consti-
tution that must be answered to
the satisfaction of the registrar.
Local authorities have used this
last requirement in varying de-'
grees to exclude Negroes from
In Gulfport, Walker reported'
the registrar- had been compara-
tively fair to Negroes for many
years before local white citizens;
began insisting on a more dis-
criminatory policy. But as a re-;
sult of his former cooperation, the,
Negro registration figure in the
Gulfport area is about 20 perl
cent of the adult population-one;
of the highest in the state.
On the other hand, in Panola;
County, where Ericksen worked,
the interpretive questions had
been administered with such overt1
discrimination that the federal (
THIS MISSISSIPPI NEGRO CHURCH. (left) served as one of COFO's "freedom schools" when the more prosperous churches refused
to let the civil rights workers use their facilities. Inside the church (right) a special session of one of the "freedom schools",is under-
way. Most of the classes were larger than the one pictured.
tive Mississippi Democratic Party,.
which often opposes national
Democratic programs, with a lib-+
eral group dedicated to the civil
rights cause and to the national
"We tried to persuade as many
people as possible, both voters and
non-voters, to register as Freedom1
Democratic Party members," Rowe:
said. "We wanted to show the
Atlantic City convention that the
Freedom Democrats have a broad
base of grass-roots support. We
sought to develop a self-sufficient
movement in Mississippi repre-;
senting the national Democratic
'Our 'freedom registration' cam-
paign was quite successful and I.
am optimistic about the future
Although Miss Runkle described
the city as having been relatively
quiet this summer, she mentioned
that violence had broken out ear-
tier when Negroes picketed the
One of the few recent acts of
outright aggression in Hatties-
burg involved Werner, who was
beaten on the main street of town
in broad daylight.
"The beating was not part of
any organized campaign against
COFO," he remarked. "Yet it is
indicative of the hostility that
lies under the surface.
"Although I was hit from be-
hind and did not strike back, the
police took me to the station
along with my attacker and charg-
ed both of us with assault and
battery. The charges against me
subsequently were dropped..
"The other man was fined $40,
but in delivering the verdict the
judge pointedly expressed his
sympathy for the defendant's mo-
Goldstein and Rowe, both of,
whom worked in Gulfport, alsoj
mentioned the white's resentment
of the civil rights movement,
"They considered us meddlers who
know nothing about the southern
Negro. But they themselves have
only a superficial contact with
their Negro neighbors and no un-
derstanding of the racial situa-
tion," Goldstein charged..
"The Mississippi white, for ex-
ample, has not accepted either the
inevitability of integration or the
ultimate authority of the federal
"While many whites do not dis-
like the Negro, they do not look
on his as an equal, either," Rowe
added. "In fact, they seem to find
it impossible to believe that white
people of character and intelli-
gence can support integration.
"There are unusual conditions
in Gulfport that hold back basic
hostility. Gulfport is a tourist.
town and must project a good im-
age to attract tourist trade. Fur-
thermore, it has a relatively low
percentage of Negroes compared to
the rest of the state."
Still, Gulfport is no haven for.
the Negro. The people are better
off financially than the tenant
farmers, sharecroppers, and day
laborers of Batesville's cotton
plantations, but their situation is
far from ideal.
"Except for a federal housing
project, their living conditions are
not really good," Goldstein said.
"Many are comfortable compared
to others in the state; they gen-
erally own television sets and
quite a few seem to have adopted
"Yet, their work is largely ir-
regular and the rents they pay
Law enforcement in Gulfpot
was describedby'nRowe as "re-
sponsible if not friendly. There
was never any arrest without legal
But Not Much
The legal backing was some-
times tenuous, however, as a case
involving Goldstein indicates. The
situation' developed' as several
COFO workers were escorting a
group of Negroes up the Gulfport
cour thouse steps to the registrar's
office. Goldstein was at the court-
houseeon Other business andrap-
peared to be a -part' of 'the group.
Law officers arrived and ar-
rested Goldstein, and two other
The pictures were taken by
Sam Walker, '65, during his
stay in Mississippi as a COFO
COFO workers for picketing, which
is illegal in Mi ssissippi. The case
is now in the courts, and Gold-
stein will have to return to Gulf-
port for the trial.
"COFO prepared us for things
like this before we went down,"
he remarked. "We were given the
facts about the racial situation
in Mississippi, ranging from prac-
tical information on how to pro-
tect ourselves from attack to a
philosophical background of the
"I was impressed with the cyni-
cal but hopeful attitude that
emerged as a trademark of COFO
leaders. While they dream of a.
different society with less em-
phasis placed on middleclass ma-
terialism, they realize the int-
mensity of the task and have not
lost sight of ;more immediate ob-
Though their speciality this
summer has been the cause of the
American Negro, the students ar=
ticulate a sense of social obliga-
tion that transcends any single
movement. Some have already
been active in other fields.. Walk-
er, for example, dropped out of
school for a: semester to teach in
a children's psychiatric hospital,
and Rowe spent a summer in
Senegal with "Operation Cross-
As Werner commented,''I want-
ed to give substance to one of my
convictions by helping the Negro
Yet the hummer's work has in-
tensified their interest in civil
rights, and all said that they
would like either to return to Mis-
sissippi or to work in some other
phase of the integration move-
"Mississippi still. needs help
from the outside," Ericksen com-
mented. "The white community is
not ready to accept the changing
times. Liberals dare to be liberals
in thought only; the society does
not tolerate difference of opinion.
"Whites fear even chance as-
sociation with the integration
movement that could be miscon-
strued by their neighbors. We had
difficulty in some places just. find-
ing facilities in which to conduct
school classes and hold meetings."
Added Walker, "I enjoyed as-
sociating with the people involved
in this movement. Working with
people from all parts of the na-
tion, including local supporters,
gave our efforts a sense of nation-
al involvement, which is impor-
tant because Mississippi is really
a national problem.
"More help from the North,
along with greater aggressiveness
by the federal government, is
needed to raise living standards,
develop better local civil rights
leadership and, eventually, elim-
inate discrimination in Missis-
THE CHARACTERISTIC group singing of ."freedom.
which has buoyed the rights movement since the first
kept spirits up in the hostile atmosphere of Mississippi.
Justice Department brought a
suit against the county registrar.
A federal court ruled last May
that the questions had to be elim-
inated, opening the door for Ne-
gro registration last summer,
He said, however, that Negroes
still face many difficulties in try-
ing to obtain their voting rights.
"The literary test itself is un-
fair to Negroes," Ericksen said.
"Lack of educational opportunity
prevents many from learning how
to read and write, and the test
denies them voice in government."
The other .students agreed that
the literacy ,test is not legitimate.
Miss Runkle pointed out that, with
modern means of communication
such as television, reading is no
longer necessary to gain a gen-
eral knowledge of current affairs.
According to the COFO work-
ers, the voter registration drive
did not produce spectacular num-
bers of new voters during the sum-
mer, because of the difficulties
just discussed, plus a second fac-
tor: the emphasis that COFO
placed on developing the Freedom
This organization is a key ele-
ment in COFO's plans. It is an
attempt to replace the conserva-
opera ion of the party structu
set up this summer. Some COF
Sworkers have remaihed in t
South to. help guide the ne
Other students echoed Rowe
optimism. But all declared tha
there is a great deal still wrong
Mississippi. They understand tha
the tension is there; they feE
that it may increase as civil right
activity is stepped up. And the
are areas where racial hostilil
already is being expressed con
sistently and with open violence
McComb is such a place. "Thei
were six bombings in . McComl
this summer, one while I wa
there," Werner remarked. "Th
people are horrified.
"When I canvassed neighbor
hoods for the 'freedom registra
tion drive a few Negroes wouldn
even open their screen door whi:
we talked. They kept looking u
and down the street, counting th
seconds until I left.:
"In many cities COFO hel
adult classes to supplement thi
freedom schools. None were sched
uled because the adults are afrai
to go to integration activities."
The white attitude toward CO
FO in McComb is illustrated by a
incident involving a soft-drin
firm that installed a vending ma
chine for the convenience of CO
FO workers. Whites boycotted th
company's product until the ma
chine was removed.
Other places displayed hostilit
in less open form. Ericksen re
ported one tear gas bombing i;
Batesville but no other major in
cidents of violence.
"The local White Citizens' Coun
cil had a restraining influence o
anti-Negro aggression," he com
mented. "It represents the wealth
and business interests of the are
and fears that violence will scar
"However, Batesville had no
had much civil rights activity be
fore this year, and I am concerned
that resentment of the more po
tent integration movement may
take criminal forms if national in
terest in Mississippi wanes thi
Past events in Hattiesburg give
credence to Ericksen's evaluation.
Sylvia Homer, L.l.S.T.D.
CLASSICAL BAILET, C.M.
PROF ESSIONAL-I NTERMEDIAT E
and BEGINN ERS
MODERN JAZZ CLASS taught by "MAC JOUBRAU"
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525 E. Liberty f
* Phone 668-8066-668-7227
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