SUNDAY, SEPTEMBER 6, 1964
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
r c r: 'i'tixc : ;
Desegregation Resistance Lowers
CIVIL RIGHTS VIOLENCE:
Unsolved Cases Mark Mississippi Record
By DON McKEE
Associated Press Staff Writer
to school desegregation is disap-
pearing a decade after the land-
mark Supreme Court decision.
There still is resistance, resent-
ment and reluctant acceptance.
But the quiet,, sometimes volun-
tary erasure of color lines: this
fall throughout the South points
toward growing acceptance or
In Greenville, S.C., 14 white
schoois were 'desegregated last
Tuesday voluntarily. The worst
incident was a white boy's yell to
a Negro boy and girl.
" Go home," he yelled. But he
did nothing else.
Americus, Ga., a racial hotspot
last summer, voluntarily and
without any prior announcement
admitted four Negroes to its white
In Birmingham, Ala., where
violence came last year with de-,
spgregation, there was nothing
worse than some segregationist
And in hard-core Mississippi,
last of the states to begin deseg-
regation, seven Negro first-graders
sat in the sam classrooms with
white pupils last Monday at
That has been the story this
fall, from rural Virginia to rural
Louisiana and Mississippi. Oddly,
the border state entucky had
the first trouble - fires in the
Negro section of Mount Sterling
after schools were integrated.
The possibility of trouble, how-.
ever, has not been precluded
since all Southern schools have
not opened. Among schools facing
desegregation next week are those
in Montgomery, Ala., and Albany,
Figures on desegregation are
not kept in some of the states but
a survey indicates more than 100
new districts or counties are re-
moving racial lines this term.
More than 5000 Negroes will be
in desegregated schools in half a
dozen states-as an example.
Italian Economy Takes Dip'
By EUGENE LEVIN
ROME (R)-2Two or three years
ago Italians never tired of boast-
ing of an "economic miracle." Now
they talk of slump, dream of the
past, and worry about the future.
But there never was an unad-
ulterated boom, nor has it become
a complete bust. Things could
' have been better. They could get
The housewife is buying stewing
veal at $1.20 a pound, as much as
she paid a year ago for the finest
cutlets. But less than a decade
ago she might not have been able
to afford even the cheapest stew-
In northern Italy, factory work-
ers in some industries are finding
pay envelopes thinner because of
reduced working schedules. A few
years ago many lacked jobs.
Both the housewives and the
workers are beginning to worry
about making payments on the
washing machines and , automo-
By The Associated Press
GENEVA - A Russian atomic
scientist said yesterday the Soviet
Union plans to build, a fleet of
nuclear -powered icebreakers
which will keep the Arctic Ocean
open to shipping- the year round.
The second will be commissioned
ALEXANDRIA, Egypt-The sec-
ond Arab summit conference be-.
gan yesterday with spirited ap-
peals for the liberation of Pales-
tine from Zionism and southern
Arabia from British colonialism.
President Nasser of the United
Arab Republic opened the con-
MOSCOW -Premier Nikita S.
Khrushchev returned to Moscow.
yesterday for urgent policy talks
with Kremlin advisors on the
crumbling structure of world
Comnunist unity. Khrushchev is
expected to plunge/ into strategy
sessions on Italian and Chinese
declarations of discontent.
* * *
by a landslide victory over his
Communist - backed opponent,
President-elect Eduardo Frei yes-
teiday pledged closer relations'
'with the United States and called!
for a continuation of the late
'President John F. Kennedy's pol-
icies towards South America.
biles they bought at the height
of their prosperity. But the wor-
ries are eased by the memory of
This memory of tougher days
is one of Premier Aldo Moro's
problems in coping with the eco-
nomic slowdown. He must con-
vince Italians to tighten their
belts at a time when they are still
tasting the :benefits of a postwar
No Sense of Urgency
For many Italians it is difficult
to work up a sense of urgeney.
There is much talk about eco-
nomics, but action is slow motion,
and limited. A government crisis,
'President Antonio Segni's illness
and summer vacations delayed for
more than two months what had
been described as urgent economic
measures. And things got no'
Nor are workers being told they
must stop seeking wage boosts.
Moro is simply asking them not to
ask for too much.
Despite the talk of slump, and
it's a more popular topic than the'
weather, city streets remain
crowded with cars. Cafes are busy
as ever. Stores are bustling.
Last- Monday, Moro's govern-
ment got around to the long-de-
layed economic measures. These
included a boost in the sales tax
and in upper-bracket income
In an effort to spur investment,
employer and employe contribu-
tions to Italy's vast social security
programs are cut.
Moro said other economic meas-
ures taken last February had
stemmed inflation and that now
the' key problem was tomaintain
The boom of the 1950s had al-
most eliminated Italy's chronic
unemployment. It had a1so
changed the country's way of life.
Refrigerators, cars and television
sets ceased to be luxuries. Work-
ers with rising incomes snapped
Then matters got out of viand.
Credit was easy to get. Install-
ment buying flourished. The
promissory note became a second
currency. The boom also had
weak spots. Southern ' Italy xe-
mained depressed.' The trade
deficit persisted but was hidden
by a favorable payments balance
due to tourism.
Eventually the cracks developed.
Prices spurted upward. Luxury
imports increased, and the favor-
able balance of payments dis-
Turned to Coalition
Meanwhile, Italy turned to
center-left government by a coal-
ition of Christian Democrats and
Socialists. Electric power was na-
This is the breakdown by states:
Alabama-Three more commun-
ities begin this year. Desegrega-
tion has expanded in Birmingham,
Mobile, Huntsville and Tuskegee
which began last year. The angry
resistance of last year is absent.
All the state's Catholic schools
were put on .an unsegregated
basis Tuesday. ,
Arkansas--Expansion of deseg-
regation at Little Rock and Fort
Smith, plus new desegregation at
eight .other cities and towns is
resulting in about 870 Negroes
attending previously white schools,
compared to 390 last year.
Twenty-one districts desegregated
compared to 13 last year.
Florida - Four more counties
have integrated, bringing to 21.
the number with desegregation
policy (the state has 67 counties).
Schools in northwest Florida inte-
grated without trouble. Estimated
8000 Negroes attending once-white
Georgia--Six more cities begin
desegregation, for total of 10-all
major cities. More than 900
Negroes in 28 schools of which
most are in Atlanta.
Louisiana-New Orleans deseg-
regation reaches the 4th grade.
High school at Greensburg en-
rolled three Negroes. East Baton
Rouge Parish begins Catholicl
school desegregation. Four public
high schools began last fall.
Mississippi - Sixteen Negroes
broke the racial barrier at four
Biloxi elementary schools. One
Negro registered at rural Carth-
age, birthplace of former Gov.
Ross Barnett. Jackson faces de-
North Carolina-Integration be-
coffing general and no figures
are available on number of Ne-
groes and school districts involved.
South Carolina-About 260 Ne-
groes attending once-white schools
in 12 counties in a big jump from
initial desegregation at Charles-
ton. Much has been voluntary this"
Tennessee-Nine new districts
desegregating, bringing total to
54 out of 154 districts. Knoxville
and Knox County have dropped
racial bars in all grades.
Texas-About 16 new districts
integrating this fall. Total now of
267 districts out of 1500. Esti-)
mated 300,000 Negroes attending
By ED McCUSKER
Associated Press Staff Writer
a civil rights ledger recently that
was billed "the long, hot summer."
The columns of civil disobed-
ience listed few reports of mas-
sive demonstrations, massive ar-
rests, rioting and looting.
The state has braced for this
summer, arming itself with new
laws, more law officers and a net-
work of informers to keep a check
on civil rights plans.
But the story of Mississippi's
summer is told in the ledger col-
umn marked "unsolved." '
Three civil rights workers slain
at Philadelphia, Miss.
Torsoes of two young Negroes
found in a murky Mississippi
river offshoot near Vicksburg.
Negro pedestrian mysteriously
gunned down while walking a
lonely road near Monticello.
Seventeen Negro churches ruin-
ed or damaged by fire.
Offices of Pulitzer Prize win-
ning editor bombed.
News.paper press at Laurel
Homes of several civil rights
Civil rights workers roughed up
while in custody of Hinds County'
Windows of Council of Federat-,
ed Organization headquarters here
knocked out several times by
There were other unsolved cases
in the tally, from the beating of'
summer volunteers to the severe
whipping administered to three
free-lance writers just outside of
Some of these cases have been
A massive investigation led by
the FBI has been in progress since
the charred station wagon of
three civil rights workers was.
found near Philadelphia.
Forty-three days after their dis-
appearance, their bodies were un-
earthed from a watershed dam
six miles from Philadelphia in
rural Neshoba County.
Roy Moore, special agent of the
FBI offices in Jackson, said the
investigation of the slayings of
New Yorkers Mickey Schwerner
and Andrew Goodman, and Mer-
idian Negro, Jamhes Chaney was
Moore heads. an office ordered
set up by President Lyndon John-
son after trouble shooter Allen
Dulles looked into law enforce-
ment of the state.
jury said recently that it found
"insufficient evidence to deter-
mine the cause of death" of the
three civil rights workers.
The state pathologist has not
made public his findings. A pri-
vate pathologist said Schwerner
was killed by a single shot in ;the
chest, and Chaney was severely
beaten before three bullets en-
tered his body.
No Reported Arrests
There have been no reported
arrests in the rash of bombingsl
Moore has 50
mand. But at
the search for
agents at his com-.
one time during
the three rights
were 153 federa]
that rocked civil rights connected
houses and offices.
The bombing of the Northside
Reporter, published by Pulitzer
Prize winning editor Mrs. Hazle
Brannon Smith, was the most
She said she felt her editorial
stands, not popular here, were re-
sponsible. Damage was set at
In most church fires, officials
report "no evidence" of arson.
Discovery- of two torsoes 'in a
Mississippi river offshoot was in-
vestigated for more than three
weeks. But the cases remain open
with no new developments re-
When an FBI crime report was
made public this summer pointing
out that Mississippi had the low-
est crime rate in the nation. Char-
les Evers, brother of slain Negro
civil rights leader Medgar, said
the figures did not include crimes
He said he knew of, at least 10
Negroes who met death in mys-
terious ways and their murderers
have never been caught.
OPEN MON. THRU FRI.
Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre 10-1 and 2-5 p.m.
PRESIDENT ANTONIO SEGNI
tionalized. Businessmen lost con-
fidence. The stock market feil
from an index figure of 14,000 in
August, 1960 to less than 6000 last
It could get worse. The govern-
ment warns that execessive wage
demands could price workers
right out of their jobs by forcing
plants to close. Moro's Communist
opponents threaten strikes and
say he is favoring big business in
dealing with the slump. The gov-
ernment's rightist opponents sayn
the stock market wrill 'not regain
confidence until the Christian
Democrat and Socialist coalition
Just what the average Italian
thinks of it all' may become evi-.
dent before the year ends. Nation-
wide municipal elections are
scheduled in November. Local
issues are expected to take a back
seat to the way the economy, is
Read and Use
Virginia -Desegregation begin-
ining in 25 county and city school
divisions, making 80 of 128 divi-
.sions in the state with some -in-
tegration. About 5000 Negroes at-
tending once-white schools. Iii-
eluded in new integration are
Prince Edward County schools, re-
opened after five years under Su-
preme Court decree.
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Wed., Sept. 16
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E - - '
BEGINNING THIS WEEK ...
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Graduate School Council, announces an open
meeting for undergraduate and graduate students
interested in graduate fellowships for 1965-66.
Campus faculty representatives will describe the
major fellowship programs, including:
You will find our store specially
c ui pped to supply you with
TWO NON-CURRICULAR COURSES
American Culture and the Crisis of Identity.
Tuesdays, Sept. 8-Nov. 24, 12:00-1:00 p m.,
Michigan League, Conference Room I, Luncheon 50c.
Instructor: Mrs. Elizabeth H. Sumner.
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is staffed by
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