THURSDAY, 15 APRIL 1965
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
1 x tw 1M
THURSDAYs15 APRIa1965vTaE M1C1114l fl114111
Center Studies Ways
To Reduce Tension
U.S. Sees Offer as Hint of Softer Line
(Continued from Page 1)
Angell's study focuses on seven
types of transnational contact:
participation through non-gov-
i ernmental organizations, through
study abroad, through business-
men whose occupations take them
abroad, through members of the
military stationed abroad, through
people participating in "helpful"
work such as the Peace Corps,
technical assistance programs, and
work camps, through migration
and subsequent visiting relatives
abroad and through participants
4 in any form of a United Nations'
Angell developed his hypothesis
about participation because there
is evidence that living with a for-
eign- people helps people realize
the need for getting along inter-
The. importance of this, Angell
pointed out, is that if this expe-
rience affects people in such a
* way that they want to get along,
then these people, who are well
educated for the most part, influ-
ence those who make foreign pol-
icy in their own countries in such
a way as to lead toward accommo-
dation between nations.
V This does not mean that a busi-
ness man, for example, may love
the people he meets, Angell ex-
plained. However, he still can de-
velop a "cosmopolitan" attitude
which makes him want to get
along with these people.
Explaining what he has discov-
_ ered so far, Angell commented
that there have been books writ-
ten on particular forms of trans-
national participation but there'
have been very few studies giving
an overall view of this phenome-
Migration is another topic that
interests Angell. Between 1880 and
1915 migration into the U.S. re-
sulted in a great deal of hostility
and did little for world peace, he
said. But post World War II mi-
gration had much better results.
What made the difference is one
question Angell is trying to
As for stationing military abroad
in peace time, this probably has a
negative effect, Angell said. This
runs counter to his main hypothe-
4, sis.",For -example, in Munich the
American military is housed in
what amounts to an American en-
clave, separate from the German
population. This isolation, as well
as the fact that enlisted men are
usually not as educated as mem-
bers of the other groups, accounts
for the. negative effects, Angell
The case of United Nations agen-
cies is another concern of Angell's
work. He is not focusing on the
diplomats, but on those working
' in agencies such as the United;
Nations, Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization or the
World Health Organization.
4 There are approximately 10,000
people in this form of interna-
tional civil service, he said. What
? Angell is trying to determine is
whether these people have any in-
fluence on their own countries'
In order to determine this, An-
gell is using previous occupations
as an index. For example, lawyers,
doctors and teachers will probably
be people of great influence in
their own country, Angell ex-
Gamson, in his project, defined
behavior which decreases the
amount of disagreement as concil-
iatory behavior and behavior
which increases the amount of
disagreement as refractory beha-
He has evaluated- a series of 31
separate issues that have arisen
between the West and the Soviet
bloc at different times during a
seven-year period from January,
1946 to September, 1953. He in-
tends to extend the study up to
the present time.
*, These events include such
things as the Berlin blockade and
the invasion of 'Korea.
Gamson is using the New York
Times as his "weather vane" to
determine the degree of serious-
ness of the. actions.
The Times Compared
The Times is then compared to
a pool of nine other newspapers
Including Pravda and Izvestia.
This is to see whether there are
any particular biases that result
from using the New York Times.
The pool is then used as a con-
trol in the analysis of the events
when such biases occur.
By dividing the total magnitude,
which is determined by adding
all the individual magnitudes of
all the stories reporting an event
together, by the number of days
in the time period, Gamson de-
d termines a "daily average magni-
tude" score. He then can deter-
mine whether refractory action,
for example, clusters early in the
period, late in the period or is
spread throughout the period.
' hi fotn, ha nall 1the "eitr
of containment, since Russia
maintains a policy of cautious ex-
pansion, but would be unwilling
to take great risks or
-The U.S. should follow a less
aggressive policy than at present
since Russia like the U.S. has a
large stake in maintaining the
status quo. The aggressive behav-
ior of the U.S. merely forces Rus-
sia into a corner where fear of
American intentions cause them
An Increase in Conflict
Taking these three alternatives
into consideration then suppose
the U.S. does something which in-
creases conflict between Russia
and America, Gamson asked. By
the first theory Russia would. not
make concessions and if anything
might become more intransigent
because the U.S. had driven her
into a corner, by the next theory
she would make concessions only
if the threat is great and by the
last theory she would make con-
cessions only if the threats were
balanced by a willingness to com-
Comparing Russia's response
with those she is expected to give
should give some insight into the
accuracy of each of the assump-
tions, Gamson feels.
Thus far it appears that there
are very serious questions about
assumptions underlying the policy
of containment followed by all the
administrations since World War
Research by Hefner is on atti-
tudes in the United States toward
Two variables which, Hefner
found, were used frequently to
determine attitudes toward other
countries and international af-
fairs are whether they are rich or
poor, Communist or non-Com-
munist. This is according to a re-
cent interview conducted in the
The interview, called "Meas-
urement and Validation of In-
ternational Attitudes" was con-
ducted by Hefier and Prof. Shel-
don Levy of the psychology de-
partment. The results obtained
thus far are part of the first ob-
jective of the study on "the multi-
dimensional scaling of interna-
tional attitudes. In order to ob-
tain the variables used most coi-
monly in evaluating other coun-
tries, people were given general
questionnaires. In addition, a
number of "laboratory" techniques
of psychological scaling were tried
out in the survey.
The interview had two other ob-
jectives, the results of which have
not been fully analyzed, Hefner
The second objective, "a vali-
dation of attitudinal measures
against action criteria" is an at-
tempt to see ifa relationship ex-
ists between an individual's ac-
tivities related to international re-
lations and the attitudes he ex-
presses on international affairs.
"A test of the relations between
international attitudes measured
by survey techniques on the one
hand; and as reflected in the
news media to which the person is
exposed on the other," is the third
objective of the study. In this part
of the study, the news media to
which the person is exposed are
evaluated to see if they can be
used as a prediction of his atti-
The survey is not intended to
be "just a study of U.S. attitudes,
but also an attempt to find ways
of extending the study to other
countries," Levy said. It is hoped
that the results of the latter part
of the study, the prediction of at-
titudes by an analysis of the news
media or by interviewing the elite,
will provide a means for a more
simplified study in other coun-
tries, particularly countries where
it is not feasible to carry out a
survey study, Hefner said.
(Continued from Page 3)
moval of American troops was
viewed as a possible trick to
continue Communist aggression
against the Saigon government.
U.S. authorities continue to in-
sist that North Vietnam exercises
complete command and control
over the Viet Cong guerrillas.
Officials have told a two-day
conference of news editors and
broadcasters that the United
States is seeking international
guarantees to prevent continued
infiltration from North Viet Nam.
U.S. authorities have said that
if the infiltration of arms and men
from the north is halted, it is be-
lieved the South Viet Nam govern-
ment could handle the Viet Cong
Continue Air Strikes
The United States is expected
to continue air strikes on North
Viet Nam at an intensified pace
in the next month. Officials claim
the bombing raids are causing
substantial trouble for the Hanoi
government and are interfering
with the flow of men and weapons
from the North to the South.
Officials noted that the North
Vietnamese proposals show that
Hanoi and Washington are still
far from achieving a viable basis
for exploratory negotiations on
ending the war.
In effect, the North Vietnamese
rejected President Johnson's re-
cent suggestion for talks without
conditions by asking that their
peace formula be adopted prior
to discussions, these officials say.
There were two viewpoints prev-
alent in Washington. Some ex-
perts claim that North Vietnam
would consider talks only if Wash-
ington first agrees to work toward
the settlement proposed by Hanoi.
Others said that President Lyn-
don B. Johnson had also proposed
a basis for a final settlement and
that most diplomatic soundings
begin with a discussion about tile
"basis" of negotiations and about
what is to be negotiated. Thus, it
was felt, North Vietnam's condi-
tions for talks represented its own
viewpoint as to how a final settle-
ment might look, just as Presi-
dent Johnson's Baltimore speech
last week did.
However, most Washington of-
ficials agreed yesterday that a
formula fo rtalks on the Vietnam
war had still not been reached
despite the more conciliatory tone
of Hanoi's latest plan. More fight-
ing and a possible further escala-
tion of the war is seen as likely
before any substantive talks can
There was no reaction as yet in
Washington to a French news-
paper report quoting Communist
China's premier, Chou En-Lai, as
stating that the U.S. is planning
to unleash a war against China.
Chou's interpretation of Ameri-
can motives differed from the
position expressed recently by Chi-
nese Communist party leader Mao
Tse-Tung, who said he believed
the U.S. wished to avoid a war
with Communist China.
(Continued from Page 3)
every government soldier killed
compared with a one-to-one ratio
six weeks ago. They are capturing
weapons at a 4-1 ratio compared
to 1-1 previously.
If the infiltration and direction
of the fighting by North Viet
Nam is stopped, officials said, the
South Vietnamese government has
the means to bring the guerrillas
Asked how the United States
would know that Hanoi has end-
ed infiltration and control, the of-
ficials said methods are available
which would soon determine the
end of such activity by the North
U.S. MARINES IN COMBAT GEAR WADE ASHORE from landing ships near the American mili-
tary base at Da Nang, South Viet Nam. The continued buildup of military strength at the vital
base has now placed 8,000 Marines at Da Nang to protect the U.S. installation and the important
air strip there.
Repots V iet Polcy Ga
1 T' f1TTTA!^1T7 i mD T'1..: 1... -I- 'l1... ,...__
LONDON (P) - British Foreign United States imperialists mustt
Secretary Michael Stewart said respect the Geneva agreements
yesterday United States policy and withdraw from South Viet
evolving in Viet Nam has been Nam."
winning ever wider support, even In his speech, Stewart left the
among doubters. impression he expects the SovietI
Speaking to 300 newsmen and Union to join Britain-as co-1
diplomats at a Foreign Press As- chairmen of the 1954 Indochinese1
sociation luncheon, Steward de- peace settlement-in the quest for
clared President Lyndon B. John- peace.
son's speech in Baltimore made Meanwhile, at the United Na-
clear that "the government of the tions, Wilson expressed belief that
United States is prepared to enter President Johnson's offer to enter
into any discussion in any form at into unconditional negotiations
any place and without precondi- could break "a vicious circle" in
tions." the Viet Nam crisis and lead to a
"The responsibility for the next lasting peace.
move now does lie on the other He told a crowded news confer-
(Communist) side in this dispute," ence at UN Headquarters that it
he added. is up to the parties concerned in a
There were these other develop- clear reference to the Communists
ments on the diplomatic front: j-to take up the President's offer.!
-British Prime Minister Har- Wilson will meet tomorrow with
old Wilson was in New York for President Johnson in Washington,
talks with Secretary-General U where Viet Nam is expected to
Thant on the Vietnamese crisis rank high among matters to be
and will see President Johnson in discussed.
Washington tomorrow. The prime minister was asked if
-A Tass dispatch from Hanoi he believed North Viet Nam would
quoted President Ho Chi Minh enter peace talks while undergo=
of North Viet Nam as saying "the ing U.S. bombardment.
I (I IAA .kA rrdirrc'% -I El kiiwi~ U
"It's a bit of a vicious circle,"
he commented in reply. But he
added that he believed President
Johnson's offer on negotiations
made in his speech in Baltimore
last Wednesday could begin to
break the circle, and it was up to
the parties concerned to enter in-
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