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March 04, 1965 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1965-03-04

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Alru igat Dat ly
Seventy-Fifth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED NY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS

Where Opinions Are Free 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOw, MICH.
Truth WIll Prevael

NEWS PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
THURSDAY, 4 MARCH 1964 NIGHT EDITOR: JEFFREY GOODMAN

The LeVeque Motion:
An Enouraoing Start

THE ADOPTION of the LeVeque motion
Monday is an encouraging indication
that the literary college faculty is ready
to face up to the complex, disturbing
problems confronting the University.
In the past, the general tenor of Uni-
versity statements regarding growth and
academic standards has often been laud-
atory and superficial-more appropriate
for alumni reunion speeches than procla-
mations designed to provide leadership.
But Monday's resolutions and the fac-
ulty executive committee report on which
they were based have a more serious tone.
They imply that, while the University can
maintain and improve quality and still
meet its responsibilities to the state, it can
just as easily deteriorate into an "educa-
tion factory" without the ideological guid-
ance and academic excellence that are
the essential elements in a true educa-
tional community.
MOST IMPORTANT, the interest shown
by the faculty in these resolutions of-
fers hope that it is willing to accept its
responsibility to safeguard the education-
al goals of the University.
The committee report and the resolu-
tions Monday are, of course, only a begin-
ning; it is imperative that they be fol-
lowed up. As one professor recently re-
marked, the most discouraging aspect of
working on faculty committees is that
their proposals usually are merely trans-
ferred to other committees for further
study.
If this should happen with the ideas
expressed in the recent report and reso-
lutions, the result could be tragic for the
University. The post-war baby boom is
forcing the University to change rapidly;
if this change comes without guidance
from the academic sector of the campus
community, the quality of education will
inevitably decline.
This is by no means a call for hasty,
half-thought-out action; a change of the
magnitude that the University is under-
going demands more than this. Yet, pop-
ulation pressure and the University's ob-
ligations as a state institution do not
leave much time for decision making if a
generation of students is not to be lost
in a chaotic effort to find classroom seats
for all who fit into that hallowed category
of "qualified applicants."
Cheerios.
CONGRATULATIONS are in order for
the chemistry department for produc-
Ing the departmental hour exam (Chem.
106) with the lowest median this semes-
ter-30 points out of 100-and the enter-
prising student had a nice solid C.
Hey, Ma, I got 20 out of 100 on my
Chem hourly and I passed!
CHEERIOS, Chem Department!
-J. SKOWRONSKI
H. NEIL BERKSON, Editor
KENNETH WINTER EDWARD HERSTEIN
Managing Editor Editorial Director
ANN GWIRTZMAN . Personnel Director
BILL BULLARD....................Sports Editor
MICHAEL SATTINGER .... Associate Managing Editor
JOHN KENNY ...........Assistant Managing Editor
DEBORAH BEATTIE . Associate Editorial Director
LOUISE LIND ........ Assistant Editorial Director in
Charge of the Magazine
Subscription rates: $4.50 semester by carrier ($5 Dy
mal); $8 yearly by carrier ($9 by mail).
Second class postage paid at Ann Arbor. Mich.
Published daily Tuesday through Sunday morning.

'THE LEVEQUE MOTION contains an ex-
cellent resolution relevant to this
point. It calls for freezing freshman en-
rollments at 3100 from 1965 until 1968.
While this figure would lead to a 40 per
cent undergraduate enrollment increase
for the college-an apparent concession
to the inevitable-it at least draws a line.
The faculty has taken a stand; it has set
a limit and declared, in effect, that be-I
yond the limit expansion will have a
detrimental effect on educational quality.
Moreover, there is an implication in the
LeVeque proposal-stated more clearly in
the earlier committee recommendations
-that if either the 3100 quota is disre-
garded or financial support falls short of
expectations in any given year, fewer stu-
dents will be admitted in the following
year to compensate for the unanticipat-
ed burden.
These are sound proposals, and, since
the administration almost always closely
follows recommendations from the indi-
vidual schools and colleges in establish-
ing admissions quotas, Monday's resolu-
tions are apt to determine the direction
of final admissions policy.
THE FOUR YEARS without increases in
freshman admissions must be used to
develop both a vision of the role of the
University within the drastically changed
educational picture in the state and to
establish specific guidelines for imple-
menting necessary changes.
An infinite amount of thoughtful plan-
ning at the University will, of course, be
wasted if the state does not develop its
much publicized master plan; still, the
master plan will be equally ineffective
without preparation on the part of each
state supported school to assume a unique
role within the plan.I
The executive committee report and
the LeVeque motion both contain a num-
ber of interesting proposals in this area.
They are phrased only as suggestions for
further exploration, and, almost incred-
ibly, one section of LeVeque's motion re-
questing a study, was itself tabled for
further study at Monday's faculty meet-
ing.
QBVIOUSLY, THE DANGERS of red tape
and Inaction are still very much with
us. Moreover, it is significant to note
that, when the literary college dean re-
cently announced that the executive com-
mittee report was presented to a "well
attended" meeting of the faculty, he was
referring to a gathering of about 20 per
cent of the college's academic personnel.
Nevertheless, there does seem to be
some leadership emerging within the halls
of ivy; the executive committee report
states that faculty members are unhappy
with the burgeoning enrollments hap-
hazardly directed into overcrowded class-
rooms.
This concern and dissatisfaction must
now be channeled into defining the aca-
demic profile of the University in the
future and defending this profile against
the onslaught of "numbers game" admis-
sions pressure.
The executive committee report and the
LeVeque motion are the first steps in this
direction. If they are confused with solu-
tions or become entangled in red tape,
they will have accomplished little. The
faculty must accept the challenge. In
doing so, it will be taking on a gargan-
tuan task; but if it fails, the academic
future of the University is hardly bright.
-JOHN MEREDITH

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By WALTER LIPPMANN
RESPECTED colleague of
A mine, Richard Wilson who
writes for the Washington Even-
ing Star, suggested the other day
that many of us are returning to
the isolationist views of Sen.
Robert Taft and President Herbert
Hoover. This, if I may say so. is
like saying a man who has cut
back from being an advanced al-
coholic to being a moderate drink-
er is a teetotaler.
The old isolationists believed
that the vital interests of the
United States, the interests for
which the country should go to
war, lie within the boundary of
the two oceans.
THEIR OPPONENTS - in the
1930's, the interventionists of the
second world war, believed that
the Atlantic Ocean was not a
strategic boundary, but was in
fact the inner sea of the Atlantic
community. The Atlantic com-
munity-which was regarded as
including Australia, New Zealand
and the Philippines-was approxi-
mately coterminous with Western
civilization.
The issue between the old iso-
lationists and the old interven-
tionists was strongly debated.
However, the two took it for
granted, regarded it as a matter
of course, that American military
commitments were to serve only
the vital strategic interests of the
United States.
After the second world war there
broke out the cold war with Soviet
Communism. A new strategic doc-
trine, known as the Truman Doc-
trine, was put forward. It said, or
was understood to say, that the
spread of Communism anywhere

on the gloL gnd not only into
Western civiliza Lion, should be
resisted, if necessary, by American
arms.
NOW THERE is a case to be
made for the globalists. It is true
that the loss of any territory on
earth to a hostile Communist
power is against our interests and
in some measure diminishes our
security.
The opposing conservative view
today is that, while we have im-
portant interests on the Asian
and African continents, they are
not vital interests which would
justify a unilateral American com-
mitment of our military forces.
In these areas, which are beyond
the limits of our vital strategic
interests, the sound policy is to
rely on collective security.
The neo-isolationists, who re-
gard the whole Western society as
a vital American strategic interest,
are a long way from being the
isolationists of the 1930's. But they
have common differences with the
globalists. They view certain re-
gions on the Asian and African
mainlands as places where we
have interests, but not vital in-
terests. There the neo-isolationists
believe in working with and
through the United Nations and
other collective organizations.
Lest this be misunderstood, let
me say that this argument is en-
tirely and solely about military
intervention. It is not about eco-
nomic assistance, technical assist-
ance, the Peace Corps, cultural ex-
changes. It is about where and
when. and where and where not,
American fighting men should be
sent to intervene unilaterally.
(c) , 1965, The Washington Post Co.

TODAY AND TOMORROW:
Neo-Isolationists Seek
Untilaterial Intervention

t

4

it

DSIGN

FOR U. CMS SASI ES

4

MISSSSIPPIe FREEDOM PROJECT:

By SAM WALKER
Special To The Daily
EDITOR'S NOTE: Sam walker
graduated in December, 1964. He
spent last summer and this spring
working in Mississippi.
GULFPORT - The Mississippi
Summer Project is over and the
gaze of national attention is no
longer fixed upon the state. In
the past few months only the in-
dictments in Neshoba County have
made national headlines. What
the country at large does not real-
ize is that the grass-roots move-
ment in Mississippi continues
along much the same lines as in
the past summer and is very much
wiser from the experience.
It is difficult to get an accurate
picture of the state-wide situation,
for very few people have sufficient
knowledge of what is going on
across the state or the detach-
ment to appraise its significance.
Talking to those in the field .those
doing the dirty work of staffing
the local offices, canvassing for
prospective applicants, and dodg-
ing harassment) gives only a pic-
ture of frustration. On the day to
day level, tangible results are
meager and maintaining one's
emotional equilibrium is a big a
job as keeping healthy and out
of jail.
Mississippi is truly an iceberg
and movement is hard to detect.
Nevertheless, beneath the surface
great changes are taking place and
more are imminent. The major
problem is that of piecing the
story together from the various
fragmentary sources available.
THE MOST dramatic activity at
the moment is the challenge of the
Mississippi Congressional Delega-
tion seating. Under the auspices
of the Freedom Democratic Party
established this summer, the No-
vember election of the five Mis-
sissippi congressmen has been
challenged as illegal on the
grounds that Negroes in the state
are systematically and illegally
excluded from the political arena.
For the past 40 days, lawyers,
necessarily from the North, have

been taking statements from local
r-sidents concerning harassment
of regist'ration and voting at-
tempts. Taken in the presence of
a local notary public and often
in public meetings, these state-
ments will be presented to the
clerk in the House of Representa-
tives. They will then be published
by the House and presented as
evidence before the subcommittee
on elections which is the . 1e
judge in such questions.
The five Mississippi congress-
men will also have 40 days to
collect statements in behalf of its
side of the case which will also
be presented to the House, pub-
Pshed and used as evidence.
Both sides will then have ten
days each for the collection of e-
buttal statements. By the middle
of April, then, the House sub-
committee will begin the actual
hearing of the case.
OSTENSIBLY, the FDP is ask-
ing that the election be thrown
out and held over again. Obviously,
though, with only seven per cent
of the eligible Negroes registered
in the state, the results of another
election would be the same.
There are long-term goals, how-
ever. which should be far more
fruitful. The challenge will, once
again, call attention to systematic
oppression that exists in this :state.
These allegations will be sub-
stantiated by affidavits published
by the House and available to the
entire nation. FDP representatives
also hope that a full-scale Con-
gressional investigation of the
state will grow out of the sub-
committee hearings.
But these matters are remote
from the daily lives of people in
Mississippi. The most significant
aspect of the challenge is the act
of deposition itself. Negroes in this
state have been cruelly taught to
accept silently the most barbaric
treatment. Through economic har-
assment, physical abuse, property
destruction and outright murder,
the lesson has been driven home:
"politics is white folks business."
In the depositions, however, Ne-

groes are publicly speaking out
against specific acts and main-
taining their position in the face
of cross-examination by an an-
tagonistic white lawyer. This is
just one of the symbolic first steps
taken in this state.
* * *9
THE MAJOR accomplishmett
of the Sumter Project was the
sum of these first steps: the mere
maintenance of a civil rights of-
fice in some communities, the
sight of mixed groups walking
down the street, the knowledge
that whites-yes, even women-
were living with Negroes and the
appearence of prospective regis-
trants at the county court house.
Mississippi is essentially a way
of thinking. For whites it is the
blind refusal to accept any change
in the racial status-quo; for Ne-
groes it is the fatalistic accept-
ance of any and every form of
abuse. The real revolution is not
in the streets, but in men's minds;
the slow destruction of the Mis-
sissippi Way of Thinking.
THE MAJOR obstacle to the
registration of Negroes in Mis-
sissippi is still the legal stone
wall thrown up by the registration
requirements. Prospective appli-
cants must answer twenty tor-
tuously worded questions includ-
ing a Constitutional interpretation
and a "statement setting forth
your views on the duties and ob-
ligations of citizenship under a
Constitutional form of govern-
ment."
Of course, there are no correct
answers for any of the questions
and the local registrar may ar-
bitrarily disqualify a candidate
for any reason. Further, the ap-
plicant must wait thirty days and
return to the Court House to find
out if he has passed or failed. In
rural and impoverished Mississippi
these required trips to the court
house are simply a de facto pro-
perty qualification for voting.
If the registration test itself
were not enough, the lack of wtll-
ing applicants is the final blow.
"Politics is white folks business"
in this state and the lesson, taught
cruelly, has been learned well.
A MAJOR breakthrough on the
voter registration front lies in
the near future. The Supreme
Court has recently heard the argu-
ments in the case of United States
vs. Mississippi, a justice depart-
ment suit attacking all of Missis-
sippi's voting laws. The suit argues
mainly that the state is acting
unconstitutionally in requiring
literacy as a prerequisite for vot-
ing after providing inadequate
schools. Assuming a favorable de-
cision, which is due later in Lhe
spring, the massive registration
of Mississippi's 400,000 Negroes
can begin in earnest. At the mo-
ment, voter registration (except in
those counties where local suits
have been won) is largely carried
out for symbolic purposes only.
THE MOST EXCITING grass-
nots deveopnnmnt in Missisipni

of political activity in the past.
The matter of funds is the most
important, and the FDP met this
test by raising a surprising amount
of money through community bar-
becues and other local functions.
The real proof of the FDP's suc-
cess is the fact that the idea will
probably be copied in other deep-
South states, notably Alabama. Al-
ready, SNCC, the mainspring be-
hind Mississippi's COFO, is ex-
panding its operations in Alabama,
Georgia, Louisiana and Arkansas.
ANOTHER nascent grass-roots
organization is the Mississippi
Student Union, comprised of jun-
ior high school, high school and
college students. Its strength is
spotty, but it has had considerable
impact in some areas. After it
threatened to picket the segregat-
ed library in Indianola, where the
Citizens Council was founded ten
years ago, the city fathers con-
verted an old grocery into a Ne-
gro library. The MSU picketed the
opening ceremonies and eventually
picketed the white library, where
they were arrested.
In Sharkey and Issaquena coun-
ties, served by a single school
district, 150 students were sus-
pended for wearing freedom pins.
Four hundred other students walk-
ed out in sympathy, and by the
end of the week over 800 students
were participating in the boycott.
In some areas MSU activity has
spurred the growth of the adult
FDP.
Much MSU activity has been
directed against public accommo-
dations, which, of course, raises
the fact that compliance with the
1964 Civil Rights Act is boor~
throughout the state. There are
exceptions, notably the big motels
such as the Jackson "Sun-and-
Sand" which serves civil rights
big-wigs: lawyers, ministers, re-
porters, etc. For the average res-
taurant and lunch counter, how-
LETTERS TO THE EDIT
New Adrnis4
Will Hurt,
To the Editor:
I HAVE HAD occasion to observe
the processing of the applica-
tions for admission of two can-
didates for the class of 1969, and
have been dismayed at their quick
rejection and the reasons given.
The applicants are seniors at
one of the top girls' preparatory
schools in New York City, with
excellent scholastic records and
college boards in the middle 700's.
One is the daughter of two Uni-
versity alumni. Nevertheless, they
both have been advised that the
strong priority given to Michigant
residents necessitates their ex-
clusion.
THIS IS a short-sighted policy.
Here are two serious, well-moti-

ever, the word is still "never."
IN THE AREA of education, the
state is facing a major crisis.
Local school boards must sign an
integration compliancehstatement
by May 1 or face the loss 'of
federal funds. This has brought
out the embarrassing fact that,
despite states rights rhetoric, fed-
eral money keeps the state afloat.
Some local boards have already
signed the compliance order;
Vicksburg signed on February 8th
and Vicksburg is regarded as a
"hard" town. The governor, mean-
while, is vacillating, asking local
boards to "go slow," consult with
the state's attorney and wait until
the last minute before acting.
Meanwhile, the Mississippi Free-
dom Project continues, though not
with the frenzied activity of the
summer. In some areas real prog-
ress is being made; in Panola
County in the North, for instance,
where the justice department won
a suit last year, Negroes are regis-
tering in large numbers. There
have been no major atrocities,
but spontaneous beatings and ar-
rests are routine.
Mostly it is a holding action,
a matter of maintaining presence
-a major accomplishment in
some areas-and -waiting for the
big breakthrough. The past one
hundred years have beaten all but
the last bit of hope out of the
Mississippi Negro and he is wait-
ing to see some tangible results
before he dares to believe in the
future again. The FDP and the
MSU have been living on that last
bit of hope, and unless some major
accomplishments are forthcoming,
they too will die.
.The big breakthrough will have
to come from Washington in the
form of court decisions to facili-
tate registration and executive ac-
tion to insure personal safety.
Meanwhile, the Freedom Project
maintains its presence and nur-
tures what hope their is.
MOR:
totns PolIcy
University
stature of its higher-education
system, and the product of its own
secondary schools are best served
by maintaining a student body
of catholic background and wide
geographic diversity. Too much
emphasis on residence and the
University will lose its greatness
and come to exemplify the second-
ratedness which characterizes too
many publicly-supported univer-
sities.
And certainly it no longer will
warrant out-of-state financial
support of the magnitude it has
come to expect.
-Robert S. Johnson, '36
New York City
E )TOls NOTE: Mr. Johnson's
leter brings to light a ,policy
c~hance in UTTivr.itQ2admssions.

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