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February 21, 1965 - Image 1

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1965-02-21

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See Editorial Page


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Seventy-Four Years of Editorial Freedom



In SD-a
In Selma O le




-Associated Press
JUST BEFORE RANGER 8 crashed on the, moon yesterday, this picture was taken from an altitude
of 2400 feet. One of the spacecraft's last pictures shows an area 400 x 300 feet, the smallest crater
being five feet in diameter. One scientist supposes that the moon's surface is covered with lava-like
material that would make walking hazardous. Another scientist says that the surface might be hard.
tudy Ranger Moon Close-Ups

PASADENA, Calif. (P)-Range
8 sent to earth yesterday a se
ries of pictures of the moon'
surface. Scientists marveled, bu
disagreed in interpreting them.
Ranger 8 smashed at 1:57 a.mr
into the dusty plain, only 15 mile
from its original target point. Fo
23 minutes it sent back picture
expected to total more than 7000
nearly ;twice as many as the his
toric firstbatch of moonhclose
ups returned by Ranger, 7 las
July. Ranger 7 photographed a
different lunar sea 1000 miles
A bonus from Ranger 8 wa
that its cameras, by operating 1
minutes longer than Ranger 7'
and beginning much farther out
photographed a broad sweep o
rugged terrain rimming the Sea o
Tranquility. Ranger Ts shot show
ed only the sea it landed in.
News Conference
A group of experts, taking turn
addressing a news conference a
the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
which makes and guides the Ran-
gers, said that the quality oj
yesterday's pictures is at least as
good as those of Ranger 7.
Dr. Kuiper, of the Universit3
of Arizona, said he saw evidenc
that much of the moon's surface
is covered with lava-like material
He added that "We can expect
that if this material is lava it wil
be shot through with caverns and
"This could be very tricky and
treacherous. A man could take
a step forward and the tunnel
would give way, and he would fall
into a big hole or cavern.
First Astronauts
"It may be that the first astro-
nauts would be wise to carry long
poles to probe the surface ahead
of them to be sure it would hold
their weight.
"We know that it is treacherous
to walk on old lava flows inHa-
waii, and we have to assume that
the same conditions may be pres-
ent on the moon."
At another point, he remark-
ed that "it's impossible to say
from pictures taken overhead just
how strong the moon's surface
may be, but my guess is that it
has the strength of rock melted
in a vacuum-an experiment we
have conducted at the University
of Arizona in an attempt to sim-
ulate conditions on the moon.
Frothy Material
"Under heat and in a vacuum
Seek Deep Sea
Atomic Power
WASHINGTON ()-A compact
atomic power plant is being pro-
posed for superdeep-diving sub-
marine rescue and research ve-
hicles, official reports indicate.
Almost inexhaustible nuclear
power for such vehicles could
mean a breakthrough in a major
problem existing both in scientific
oceanography and in search and
rescue operations such as those
conducted for the lost submarine
Present deep submergence craft,
like the Trieste used in the
Thresher search and in ocean-
ographic exploration, are sharply
limited in mobility and dive en-
durance by their use of ordinary
storage batteries as the power

SELMA (A'--Negroes predict that
tomorrow could be "D-Day" for
civil rights in Selma as they await
replies to an ultimatum and the
arrival of their leader, Martin
Luther King, Jr.
King planned to address a mass
rally tomorrow night and might
lead a parade in the morning,
timed to coincide with the regu-
lar session of the Selma city coun-
Wilson Baker public safety di-
rector, claimed ysterday that it
was too late to issue Negroes a
parade permit. A Negro spokes-
man' maintained that a request
for such a permit was made by
registered mail Saturday, but Bk-
er said he had not received the
No Night Marches
In Montgomery, Gov. George C.
Wallace ordered state troopers to
join city and county officials in
preventing night marches.
"This action is taken under the
police power of the state," Wallace
said, "anid is for the purpose of
safeguarding all the people of af-
fected areas. This is the same ac-
tion taken by New York City in
banning nighttime demonstrations
and marches."
The governor also said that "any
demonstrations evidently conduct-
ed for the purpose of creating a
breach of the peace will bestop-
ped." He did not say whether
this would include daytime dem-
No Recurrence
He said that his ban against
night marches was to prevent any
recurrence of violence such as
occurred at Marion Thursday
Planned demonstrations were
put off for the weekend by Ne-
groes, who have been pushing a
voter registration drive for five
Baker, the city's highest rank-
ing law enforcement officer, per-
suaded 300 .Negroes Friday night
not to stage what he termed a
potentially dangerous night march
But he was handed several de-
mands when he conferred after-
wards with Negro leaders.
Hosea Williams, staff member
of King's Southern Christian
Leadership Conference, said Baker
was given until tomorrow to an-
swer, "or we return to the streets."
Negro Advises
Republicans To
Back Riohts
Atty. Gen. Edward W. Brooke of
Massachusetts urged Republicans
yesterday to take down the "out-
siders not wanted" sign and
launch a drive for racial equality
in the South.
Without naming Barry Gold-
water, the party's top elected
Negro official rejected the GOP
presidential nominee's brand of
conservatism and called on Re-
publicans to join in "a new be-
"We've got to not only take
down the sign 'outsiders not want-1
ed,' but we've got to put up the
sign 'all are welcome in the Re-
publican Party,'" Brooke told
conservative - minded Young Re-;
publicans at a political training;
Brooke drew murmurs of dis-
sent when he charged Republi-
cans turned their back on civil
rights in 1964 in a gamble for
white blacklash votes.


-Associated Press
- GENERAL NGUYEN KHANII, shown here as he received news of the rebel surrender yesterday,
was again ousted from power yesterday afternoon by a military faction led by Gen. Nguyen Chanh
Thi. Thi rose in rank in the armed forces after Khanh took power 13 months ago and led a vote of
no confidence after rescuing Khanh from the latest coup.
Viet Nam Military Fells Khanh;
U.S. Still Opposes Negotiations

, .

In GOP Convention Feud
" . " ,R;Voice, Hand

-Associated Press

PICTURES LIKE THIS will "speed the day when men will land
on the moon," according to Prof. William H. Pickering of the
Jet Propulsion Laboratories at Cal Tech. "Further study will show
us what kind of craft will be needed to make safe landings on
the moon," he said.

this material blows up into a fro-
thy material of very low density,
about one-tenth of the density of
Ewen A. Whitaker, Kuiper's as-
sociate, said that he thought the
surface could support a manned
landing vehicle. The surface, he
said, probably was a foamy out-
flow from fissures and craters and
that over thousands of years thiE
had been broken into tiny bits by
the impact of meteorites.
If the dust that seems to cover
the moon originated in this man-
ner, he said, it probably would be-
come compact enough under the
weight of a landing ship to make
landings feasible.
Whitish Button
Prof. Harold Urey of the TTni-.
versity of California at La Jolla,
another member of the board
of experts, commented that "sev-
eral craters seem to show a whit-
ish button at the bottom. This'
indicates there may be very hard
material underneath."
Urey estimated the depth . of
some craters at 50 to 60 feet. This
might indicate the maximum
depth of soft dust-like material
he believes covers the surface, he
Eugene Shoemaker, another
team member, added that he does
not believe the strength of the
surface can be told from pictures.
A major conclusion, hesaid, is
that the surfaces of the seas
where Rangers 7 and 8 hit "seem
to be substantially the same."
Experts gave these reasons for
the difference between pictures
from Rangers -7 and 8:
-Achievement of a low tra-
jectory that allowed 23 minutes of
photographing, 13 more than orig-
inally expected and 10 minutes
more than accomplished by Ran-
ger 7;
-Two more sensitive cameras
and a brighter, apparently "clean-
er" landing field than Ranger i

edge about the lunar surface;
further study will show us what
kind of craft will be needed to
,make safe landings."
E. M. Cortwright, deputy asso-
ciate administrator for space
sciences of the U.S. Space Agency,
said Rangers 7 and 8 both showed
that many areas of the moon are
level enough for landings.
"Now the big question is to de-
termine whether any part of the
moon's surface is able to support
a landing vehicle."
Ranger 7's pictures showed a
generally flat landscape, with
many craters of various sizes
ranging down to 18 inches across.
The rounded nature of topogra-
phical features is what led many
scientists to believe the surface
was covered with dust.
Plans are moving full speed
ahead for three major launchings
in the next five weeks which are
to advance the nation nearer the
Ranger 8 photographed the
moon exactly three years after
astronaut John H. Glenn's orbital
flight committed the United States
to a manned lunar landing.

By The Associated Press
SAIGON-Military leaders who
rescued Lt. Gen. Nguyen Khanh
from South Viet Nam's latest coup
turned on his yesterday with a
vote of no confidence and decided
to strip him of power, sources
Despite the continuing political
crisis in Saigon, the Johnson ad-
ministration was reported firmly
resisting all efforts by allied gov-
ernments to involve it in imme-
diate negotiations over a Viet-
namese peace settlement.
Moving into Khanh's spot as
the national strong man appeared
to be Brig. Gen. Nguyen Chanh
Thi who rose quickly in the armed
forces after Khanh took power 13
months ago.
Long Voyage
Khanh vanished from Saigon at
noon Saturday and sources said
he was on "a long voyage."
Informants said 15 young gen-
erals met with the government's'
civilian premier Pham Huy Quat,
Saturday afternoon at Bien Hoa
air base, 12 miles north of Saigon,
and there turned thumbs down on
Khanh. The group expressed con-
fidence in Quat's government, in-
stalled Tuesday.
United States administration
leaders expressed relief that the
uprising had ended without blood-
shed and hoped for political sta-
Communists Confident
The administration believes that
the Communists are confident they
are winning and are not prepared
to negotiate on terms acceptable
to the U.S. and South Viet Nam,
although a peace conference is
said to be the ultimate U.S. stra-
tegy aim.
President Lyndon B. Johnson
stated the U.S. position to French
Foreign Minister Maurice Couve
de Murville Friday. The French
diplomat, who favors a U.S. peace

bid to the Communists, wound up
three days of discussions here in
a final session with Secretary of
State Dean Rusk yesterday.
Thi, formerly commander of the
4th corps in upper South Viet
Nam, became commander of the
armed forces in. Saigon. He gave
the 15 leaders of Friday's coup
24 hours to surrender or face
military trials.
Coup Leaders Hiding
Thi said that the coup leaders,
including Lam Van Phat and Col.
Pham Ngoc Thao, formerly as-
signed to the South Vietnamese
embassy in Washington, had gone
into hiding. A search for them had
been started,
Informants said the rush of the
Thi group to save Khanh was not
so much to keep Khanh in power
but to prevent the Thao group
from taking over. Thao got sup-
port from Lt. Gen. Tran Van
Khiem, Vietnamese ambassador
to Washington, whose status re-
mains uncertain.
U.S. sources said the American
effort in Friday's maneuvering in
Saigon was aimed solely at pre-
venting fighting from breaking
out and is not involved in the
present political pockeying within
the army.

One happy note in an otherwise
unhappy situation, in the U.S.
view, was continuation of the
existing civilian government.
Large-scale U.S. aid is continuing
and talks with the civilian gov-
ernment are being stepped up.
In other action, by far the big-
gest haul of weapons, ammunition
and supplies for the Viet Cong was
uncovered yesterday near a remote
cove 240 miles northeast of Saigon
where a vessel was sighted and
sunk earlier in the week. Officials
estimated 80 tons of armaments-
much of it Russian and Chinese-
had fallen into government hands.
"This is one link of the massive
chain introducing weapons into
South Viet Nam. This is one of
the reasons why we and our
American allies have had to take
the actions we have taken," Gen.
Luu Lan, commander of the 23rd
Division, explained.
This was a reference to retalia-
tory air strikes in North Viet Nam
and jet attacks on Viet Cong
supply lines in Laos.
U.S. sources said the apparent
buildup of Communist arms along
the coast may coincide with re-
ports that increased numbers of
guerrillas have been infiltrating
from North Viet Nam in the past
30 days.

Votes Cause.
Elly Peterson Elected
New State Chairman;
Sen. Murphy Speaks
Special To The Daily
LANSING-Gov. George Rom-
ney gained overwhelming support
for his fiscal reform policy yes-
terday with a strong speech that
crushed a coalition's movement to
amend the GOP state convention
resolution that supported the gov-
ernor's stand.
What seemed like a routine
convention changed suddenly when
the 14th-district faction initiated
a heated floor discussion on dele-
gate Robert G. Hatchen's propos-
ed amendment. The amendment
called for a state-wide referendum
on any tax reform proposals.
Romney's 15-minute speech
which he said afterwards "either
works or we're through," evident-
ly convinced the delegation. They
backed him by a vote of 1279-239.
Seconding Speeches
Hatchen's proposal set off a
series of seconding speeches, one
by an old Romney foe, Richard
Durant of Grosse Pointe. A voice
vote was then called and conven-
tion chairman Frederick O. Rouse,
Jr. of the St. Clair County Re-
publican Committee ruled that
the Hatchen motion was defeated.
The close voice vote that had oc-
curred resulted in loud objections
to Rouse's decision.
Temporary parliamentarian Nor-
man E. Philleo then ruled that
tellers take a hand vote, but this
was overruled in favor of a roll-
call vote when delegate Patrick
Kitsman pointed out that in a
hand vote it is impossible to dis-
tinguish between a delegate and
an alternate.
Romney forces, led by retiring
chairman Arthur G. Elliott, Jr.
and delegate Lawrence B. Lind-
emer, then delayed the roll-call
vote in favor of hearing Sen.
George Murphy's (R-Cal) - speech
to the convention. Romney follow-
ed by making, a personal plea to
the delegation before the vote
was taken.
The governor then delivered his
speech in defense of his position.
"If this amendment is adopted,
you can kiss goodbye the future
of the Republican Party in the
United States," he shouted.
"If this state does not get tax
reform now-and I mean now-
we will risk being plunged back
into the very type of financial
difficulty that caused us to lose
our reputation in 1958 and 1959."
He emphasized on several oc-
casions the necessity of achieving
fiscal reform in order to finance
programs that otherwise would be
in the hands of the federal gov-
ernment. "We must keep the re-
sponsibility here. Every time we
let Washington give educational
aid," he pointed out, "we get one
dollar back for every two dollars
we give."
Taking Blame
Romney stressed the importance
of not putting the state party in
the position of "taking blame" for
problems that may arise if a tax
reform is not achieved until after
November 1966. With the Republi-
cans a minority in the state Leg-
islature, he said, failure to gain
fiscal reform would only mean a
Democratic failure.
"If Romney was bound by the
party by the referendum amend-
ment, the Republican Party could
be blamed for the deficit that
would probably result," observed
National Committeeman J o h n
Martin after the convention.

The tax dispute was followed by
the unanimous election of Mrs.
Elly Peterson of Charlotte as the
new Republican State Central
Committee Chairman. She became
the nation's first woman GOP
state chairman and received .the
support of the largest off-year
Michigan Republican Convention
-over 3000 delegates and alter-

Civil Rights Commission
Reports Encouraging Signs
JACKSON, Miss. UP)-The United States Civil Rights Commission
yesterday reported encouraging signs amid "extremely serious and
unwarranted denials of voting and law enforcement" in Mississippi.
John Hannah, chairman of the six-member commission and
president of Michigan State University, summarized commission
opinions as 10 days of public and private hearings ended.
After hearing from some 100 Negro and white Mississippians,
Hannah said that "Despite some encouraging signs of change, many

Tax on Graduate Study V aries
Eammgmagamassesammammgmas#mgsmam mgm2 m m e

EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
first of a series of articles which
Will appear from time to time
in The Daitly on questions of
special interest to graduate stu-
dents. The writers are the presi-
dent and former president, re-
spectively, of Graduate Student
Graduate students. who re-
ceive fellowships, scholarships
and academic prizes are not
subject to paying federal in-
come tax on these awards. The
University usually does not de-
ruct withholding taxes from

taxable income is whether or
not the research or teaching is
required and is primarily in-
tended for the purpose of train-
ing and educating the recip-
ient or grantee.
Nature Irrelevant
The nature of the teaching
or research is irrelevant as long
as it meets this requirement.
That is, a research assistant on
a project under contract to the
government may still qualify
for the exemption. On form
1040 he may report his total
income on line 7 and subtract
on line 8 listing your adjusted

their eligibility for an exemp-
tion for these reasons should
consult their advisor or de-
partment chairman-and save
a great deal of money.
Degree Candidates
Candidates for degrees, that
is, those students who are en-
rolled in the University and
expect to obtain degrees (not
only those who are formally
"accepted to candidacy" by
Rackham or some other gradu-
ate school) are not limited in
the amount of a grant that
they can exclude from their
taxable income.

income. If you receive $7
month, you are taxed on $4
Fulbright grants for t
ing or lecturing are cons
ed taxable, and cannot
claimed as tax-exempt fo
income because it is paid
United S t a t e s govern
agency. On the other 1
Fulbright awards for stud
research are non-taxabl
whole or in part, deper
upon whether or not the
cipient is a candidate for
Teachers pursuing grad
study solely for the purpo

of Mississippi's Negro citizens con-
tinue to face extremely serious
and unwarranted denials in voting
and law enforcement.
"There are still places in Mis-
<sissippi where merely seeking to
00 a register, much less to vote, re-
400. quires considerable courage. Some
each- white Mississippians in far too
ider- many counties are still bent on
t be denying the vote to Negro citizens
,eign by the application of discrimina-
by a tory standards, intimidation and
ment violence.
hand, "It is hoped that thoughtful and
dy or conscientious white leaders will
e in take every necessary step to guar-
ding antee the free exercise throughout
e re- Mississippi of this fundamental
a de- right."
Hannah said that commission-
luate ers were "heartened during this
se to hearing by signs of a developing

i ..

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