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February 06, 1965 - Image 3

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The Michigan Daily, 1965-02-06

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r-y%4rA -JRyaar

Soviets To Host World Communists
Despite Opposition of Red Chinese

Calls UN Crisis Misunderstood

MOSCOW (P)-The Soviet Un-
ion made a point of emphasizing
yesterday-while Premier Alexei
N. Kosygin visited Peking-that
it intends to play host to some
world Communist leaders here
next month in a meeting which
Red China has opposed.
Representatives of the Com-
munist parties of 26 nations will
gather in Moscow March 1, under
the Russian plan, to lay the basis
for a summer conference of all
Communist parties on the Mos-
sow-Peking dispute.
The new Kremlin leadership
thus is carrying through arrange-
ments drawn up by Nikita S.
Khrushchev before he was ousted
as Premier and First Secretary
of the Soviet party last October.
Red China Opposed
Mao Tse-Tung's regime has de-
nounced the meeting as an at-
tempt to split the world Com-
munist movement, a charge the
Russians deny.
Kosygin, Ighrushchev's succes-
sor in the premiership, stopped
over in Peking on his way with
a high ranking military delegation
to Communist North Viet Nam.

He expects to leave today for
Hanoi, which has leaned toward
Peking in the Soviet-Chinese
wrangling. The North Vietnamese
Communists also have welcomed
Chinese propaganda backing for
their support of the Viet Cong
war against South Viet Nam's
U.S.-backed government.
The affirmation of Soviet in-
tentions to hold the preparatory
meeting was presented in a Tass
dispatch from Ulan Bator, Mon-
golia, on talks between Soviet
Deputy Premier Alexander N.
Shelpin and the Mongolian Pre-
mier and Communist party chief,
Umzhagin Tsedenbal.
Mongolian Chief
The official Soviet news agency
quoted the Mongolian chieftain,
who has been struggling for two
years against a presumably anti-
Soviet faction trying to unseat
him, as saying:
"Our party attaches great im-
portance to the meeting of the
editorial board of fraternal par-
ties which will be held on March
1 this year."
And Shelepin said "we consider
that, no matter how great and

serious the disagreements are, they
cannot and must not be the basis
for a split of the socialist camp
and the whole Communist move-
The Soviet Deputy Premier also
touched on a major point of dis-
pute between the two Communist
giants-the Chinese call for mili-
tant tactics against capitalism as
opposed to the milder Russian
campaign line.
Tass quoted Shelepin as saying:
"We need peace and in foreign
policy we shall fight consistently
and tirelessly as before for the
implementation of the principles
of peaceful coexistence with capi-
talist states."
Some Urge Delay
Some Communist parties, among
them the British, have urged post-
ponement of the preparatory ses-
sion until the Chinese can be per-
suaded to attend. But Chinese
Premier Chou En-Lai indicated
in Jakarta Thursday the Chinese
aren't about to be persuaded.
As reported by the Indonesian
news agency Antara, he said the
Russians are trying to monopolize
world Communism and "debates

between Marxism-Leninism on
one hand and revisionism (mean-
ing Russian trends) on the other
will be continued."
Officially, however, Chou was
host to Koskgin in Peking. Radio
Peking announced he was among
high-ranking Chinese who wel-'
comed the Soviet Premier on his
arrival from Moscow.
The last specific mention of the
March 1 date came in a Tass dis-
patch from Ottawa Jan. 28 stat-
ing that the Canadian Communist
party supported the meeting.
European Communists
There have been strong indi-
cations that the Soviet leaders
were seeking backing from their
European Communist allies.
Leonid I. Brezhnev, first sec-
retary of the Soviet Communist
party, met secretly in Hungary
with party chief Janos Kadar Jan.
29-31. The March meeting was
believed to have been a top item
in their talks.
Brezhnev and Kosygin were also
believed to have discussed the
meeting with other European
Communists at a Warsaw Pact
session which ended Jan. 20 .

bassador to the United Nations
Adlai E. Stevenson said in an in-
terview yesterday that some na-1
tions "don't even perceive what's
involved" in the UN financial
crisis and some don't care.
But he expressed confidence
that the United States can muster!
the needed two-thirds vote in the
General Assembly in any show-
down with the Soviet Union on1
the matter of money and the right
to vote.
Stevenson said the dispute over
paying UN peacekeeping dues is
between "those who want to pre-
serve the organization intact and
those who don't, or don't care, or
who don't even perceive what's
Committee Negotiations
The Assembly meets Monday
and Stevenson said it may set up
a new committee to negotiate on
the whole subject of peacekeep-
At the same time, a British
spokesman announced yesterday
that several member countries
have asked Secretary-General U
Thant to take the lead in the
The Soviet Union, France and
11 other countries under article
19 of the charter stand to lose
their votes in the Assembly be-
cause they are two years behind
in their peacekeeping assessments.
Stevenson said the Assembly

might recess to let a committee
work but added:
"In our country, we would like
as short a postponement as pos-
sible, because if there is going to
be a permanent solution it ought
to be reached quickly.
In a far-ranging interview,
Stevenson also said the organiza-
tion can't stand still. He said Red
China is trying to break up the
United Nations, expressed belief
UN troops pulled out of the Congo
too soon, and declared he has no
present intention of leaving the
United Nations although he finds
his Job more that of executing
policy than making it.
Asked if he thought other dis-
satisfied countries might with-
draw from the United Nations now
that Indonesia has set the ex-
ample, Stevenson replied:
"I think this is always a prob-
lem, and now the ice is broken
it's a hazard . . . either this or-
ganization gets stronger and the
reliance upon it continues to be
universal, or it's going to get
Stevenson said there was "strong
leadership from the Chinese Com-
munists to break up the organ-
ization because it is a peacekeep-
ing organization, or because it
doesn't promote the ambitions of
the Chinese Communists. But I
don't apprehend much trouble
from that source."


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Agree Castro Is Not Soviet Puppet

EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third
in a series of article on dJcussions
of world affairs held at the Over-
seas Press Club last weekend.
Managing Editor
Special to The Daily
NEW YORK - Whatever Fidel
Castro may be, he's not just an-
other puppet of Moscow.
This was the general consensus
in a panel of Latin America ex-
perts presented during the sev-
enth annual College Editors' Con
ference. The panelists, most of
them foreign' correspondents, also
examined and 'criticized the Al-
liance for Progress.
Several of the correspondents
observed that the Cuban premier
and his subordinates have become
concerned more with establishing
Cuba as a stable, prosperous na-
tion than with implementing
Marxist ideology. Juan de Onis,
New York Times Latin American
correspondent, said there is a
"more rational approach and a
more critical attitude" toward
Cuba's needs than before, an em-
phasis on performance rather
than on pledges of allegiance to
Communist Ideals. "The highly,
emotional elements of the revolu-
tion have subsided to a consider-
able degree," at least partly be-
cause the initial fervor had led to
ecenomically disastrous decisions,
he remarked.
Why Communism?
The experts disagreed some-
what on Castro's reasons for de-
claring himself a Marxist-Leninist
aligned with the Soviet Union.
John Gerassi of Newsweek maga-
zine argued that it was "because
the United States reacted the way
it did" after the revolution. "The
only sure, incorruptible elite he
could turn to was the Communist
Party," Gerassi said.
But Castro has tried to keep
Cuba under his, not the party's,
control, Gerassi contended. He
cited the Cuban premier's March
1964 order which dismembered the
party central committee because
it was getting too strong.
"Under the circumstances, what
happened in Cuba couldn't have
happened any other way. Had we
negotiated with Castro, perhaps
Cuba would be the unaligned
Country Castro wanted it to be,"
Gerassi said.
Local Enthusiasts
Dan Kurzman of the Washing-
ton Post attributed Castro's com-
munism to enthusiastic pushing
by Cuban Communists. "Local
party members, afraid Castro
would take the role of a Nasser,
got to him with the idea that un-
less Cuba, in effect, forced itself
on Russia, the regime could not
last." The Soviets, Kurzman
claimed, are somewhat reluctant
to' have the small, isolated and
somewhat insecure Cuban regime
identified as part of the Com-
munist bloc, because they become'
responsible for Cuba's problems.
"Castro thinks he can use the
Russians," but has become econo-
mically dependent to the point
that his greatest fear is that he
may be abandoned by them. "Dur-

ing the missile crisis, when the
Russians pulled out their weapons,
harly consulting Castro, this old
fear came back," Kurzman said.
The panelists discounted the
significance of the much-publiciz-
ed trial and executions which fol-
lowed the revolution. Prof. John
Alexander of Columbia University,
who was in Cuba around that
time, said he "heard very little
protest" there.
"The trials didn't have all the
guarantees of Anglo-Saxon jus-
tice," but were not "trials like
those in the French revolution.
They were criminal, not political
trials," Alexander said. "The
American press did a miserable
job of reporting them."
DeOnis noted that Cuban in-
tpllectuals have somewhat dis-
couraged Castro from suppressing

expected to work harder and put
in unpaid hours; the middle
class, most of which originally
welcomed the revolution, "hates
Castro" but can do nothing be-
cause so many of its people have
fled the country, Kurzman said..
'I'd hesitate to put percentage
figures on it, but that's roughly
correct," John E. Pearson of Busi-
ness Week magazine commented.
DeOnis questioned whether class
reactions are that uniform, but
agreed that Castro has "no effec-
tive opposition" in Cuba.
Or outside: the panelists agreed
that exile attempts to overthrow
Castro will continue to be abor-
tive. "Over 200 different exile
groups each claim to be the true
government," Kurzman noted.
Negro Support
He added that Cuban Negroes
are overwhelmingly in favor of
Castro because he has "given
them privileges they'd not had be-
DeOnis also said that the mass-
es have been incorporated into the
governmental hierarchy as never
before. "The organization covers
urban areas almost block by block.
It's a great pyramid that builds to
the top--Castro's person, the sym-
bol and voice of the revolution."
Despite its mistakes, the Castro
government has handled the Cub-
an economy well in comparison to
its predecessors, Alexander said.
He cited the failure of Cuban
democracy between 1940 and 1952
and the corruption of the Batista
regime, asserting that the fact
that Cuba "is not bad off, rela-
tively speaking," is "despite, not
because of, these governments.
The failure of all pre-Castro gov-
ernments was their failure to take
any concern with thet economy,"
he commented.
Economic development under
Castro has necessarily been under'
tight state control, Gerassi said.
"No country can become develop-
ed without rigid state planning.
This is why 99 out of 100 Latin
American intellectuals are, eco-
nomically, Marxists," he argued.
Thus, he asserted, "repressive
measures" will be the rule among
other Latin American nations
seeking economic growth.
But whether these measures will
include either Castroism or other
forms of Communism is another
question. Castro himself is "not
trying to export Communism as
much as his own kind of revolu-
tion," Kurzman declared.
'Take It Easy'
And Moscow, he added, is con-
cerned more with calming Castro's
revolutionary zeal than with in-
flaming it. "The USSR doesn't
want a small island like Cuba to
upset its peaceful coexistance pol-

Castro as a revolutionary "lost
status tremendously" in the Cuban
missile crisis, Alexander observed.
"There are nationalists in Latin
America who see the difference
between nationalism and Commu-
nism. They felt that Castro had
delivered himself." The Soviet be-
trayal left Castro feeling "a purer
but no less strident nationalism,"
Alexander said.
Cooling this nationalistic pas-
sion has been a major goal of the
United States' Alliance for Pro-
gress program. But the panelists
warned that, since the death of its
founder, President John F. Ken-
nedy, the Alliance has taken a
turn for the worse.
Dried Up
Robert Goldman of Vision mag-
azine, a Latin American publica-
tion, voiced the sentiments of the
group when he charged that the
Alliance has become "a dry and no
longer inspirational program of al-
most pure economics."
DeOnis declared himself "mild-
ly optimistic" about the Alliance's
future. He said the appeal of the
Cuban revolution has declined in
Latin America, and what appeal
it has "is attributable almost en-
tirely to the success of the Cuban
revolution, not to the failures of
the Alliance for Progress."
New Imperialism
David Littig of the United
States National Student Associa-
tion's international desk said that
Latin American students "are in-
terested in revolution-though not
necessarily violent. So they look
with suspicion upon the Alliance
as a rebirth of conservatism and
This perception is quite accu-
rate, Gerassi contended. The Al-
liance "has taught the conserva-
tive oligarchy how to present a
facade. Not only has it failed in
its declared aims, it has rein-
forced the oligarchy," he declared.
"The whole Alliance is earmark-
ed for projects that will advance
free enterprise. It was designed
in terms of American thinking,
which doesn't apply in Latin
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World News Roundup
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON-The administration's far-reaching school-aid
bill cleared its first obstacle in Congress yesterday, winning approval
of a House education subcommittee.
The $1.26-billion measure, aimed primarily at improving the
educational opportunities of impoverished children, was endorsed
by all six Democrats on the subcommittee.
* * * *
WASHINGTON - The State Department said yesterday the
United States, Britain, France and the Soviet Union remain respon-
sible for the reunification of Germany. The repetition of this
longtime position was in reference to the statement by President
Charles de Gaulle of France Thursday that the German problem is
"essentially European."

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* * *



NEW YORK--One of the state's
weirdest political episodes in years
has ended with Republicans set-
tling a month-long Democratic
fight over legislative leadership.
The GOP minority did it by
throwing its votes to a Demo-
cratic slate backed by Mayor
Robert F. Wagner .of New York.
Wagner thus came back from
the edge of defeat to retain his
position as de facto leader of the
state's Democrats despite the
emergence of Sen. Robert F. Ken-
nedy as a power in the party.




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the arts. "Cuba has, by compar-
ison with any other Communist
country, an extremely liberal cul-
tural'policy," he said.
Not Unusual
So, because of Castro's unusual
mixture of Communism and na-
tionalism and the survival of
many aspects of pre-Castro Cuba,
"life in Cuba is not too different
from life elsewhere in Latin Amer-
ica,' deOnis said.
Cuba still has its economic woes,
John Wilhelm of the McGraw-Hill
World News Service added. Fall-
ing sugar prices have hurt, and a
shortage of cane-cutters has mul-
tiplied the problems of the is-
land's main industry. The econ-
omy "is not going to get much
worse than it has been in past
years - but it is not going to im-
prdve much," Wilhelm predicted.
Problems notwithstanding, Cas-
tro's regime is securely in power,
the panelists agreed. The poorest
classes, whose condition has im-
proved greatly under Castro, are
solidly behind him, Kurzman
said, estimating this group com-
prises about 20 per cent of the
Workers Unhappy
Other classes, he continued, are
either acquiescent or powerless or
both. The workers rather dislike
the government because they are



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