WHAT IS WRONG?
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Seventy-Five Years of Editorial Freedom
VOjL. LXXVI, No. 15S
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SATURDAY, MAY 21, 1966
Civil Rights Picture: From Intolerable to Dep
EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
concluding part of a four-part
series on the racial climate in
By GENE SCHROEDER
Associated Press Staff Writer
A cross is burned in front of
a Negro home in Bay City. Pickets
protesting segregated housing pa-
rade at Ann Arbor's City Hall. A
white student is stabbed by a
Negro outside a Detroit sports
To the outsider, these events of
recent years might indicate Michi-
gan is a seething racial volcano,
ready to erupt into violence.
But to most informed observers
of the civil rights scene, the state-
wide situation is not as volatile
as it may seem.
In the Bay City incident, the
cross burners turned themselves
in to police, apologized to the Ne-
gro family and the episode was
written off as a prank.
In Ann Arbor, the City Council
approved fair housing measures
covering virtually all real estate
And in Detroit, authorities de-
cided the stabbing was not strictly
a racial clash but rather a result
of the excitement stirred up by
Racial overtones were present in
each case, of course, but not to the
degree some believed.
Generally speaking, the civil
rights picture in Michigan has im-
proved in the past few years. But
as one observer put it:
"In some places this merely
means advancing from the intoler-
able to the deplorable."
While describing the situation
as grim, Burton Gordin, State Civil
Rights Commission executive di-
rector, says the picture is far
better in Michigan than elsewhere.
In contrast to other major cities.
for example, Detroit has escaped
the widespread riots which brought
terror to such widely divergent
communities as Los Angeles and
Rochester, New York.
Detroit, with a Negro population
of about 30 per cent has attracted
nationwide attention for its rela-
tively peaceful climate.
No one is saying categorically
that trouble will not break out this
summer or at any time. But no
responsible leader is predicting
blood will flow in the streets,
The secret of Detroit's success.
observers agree, is the fact white
and Negro community leaders are
in almost daily communication
with each other. Much of the
credit goes to Mayor Jerome P.
"During the summer months,
I estimate, about 70 to 75 per
cent of my time has been devoted
to matters related to civil rights
-race relations, police problems
and the like," says Cavanagh.
When the mayor first took office
five years ago, racial tensions were
at the boiling point and Cavanagh
plunged into the problem imme-
He called together leaders of the
Negro community and the building
trades unions to discuss complaints
"After our meetings, 17 of the
18 unions represented opened up
their apprenticeship programs to
Negroes," Cavanagh recalls.
"We kept the dispute off the
streets and on the table. The key
to solving our problems is not to
await developments and then re-
spond, but to anticipate trouble in
Cavanagh likes to point out De-
troit was the nation's first major
city to evolve a comprehensive
antipoverty program to combat
the despair and hopelessness that
grips the unskilled and untrained
slum dweller who cannot find a
job even in the midst of prosperity.
Kalamazoo has approached the
problem of unemployment among
high school dropouts in a dif-
ferent fashion, with three private
One is called "Outreach Proj-
ect." It was started a year ago
by a group of community leaders
who want to remain anonymous.
With money from the Kalama-
zoo Foundation, they made jobs
for some 60 so called problem boys
and girls along with some on the
fringe of trouble.
Three Negro men with back-
grounds in teaching and social
work walked the streets to per-
suade youngsters to join the
project and get paying jobs, re-
ports Tim Richards of The Kal-
" 'Outreach' wasn't 100 per cent
successful with 100 per cent of the
youngsters," Richards says, "but
it did help put many on the right
path to useful employment, and
it absorbed the energies of active
youths who might otherwise have
gotten in trouble."
Employment practices play a
major role in the Benton Harbor-
St. Joseph area picture.
Civil rights leaders say one of
the most blatant displays of dis-
crimination in the state can be
found at one of the Twin Cities'
largest manufacturing plants. Of
some 700 employes, only one is
As a result, the firm's products
are the target of a nationwide
.But some of the sharpest tension
that existed in the area two years
ago has eased somewhat, according
to Jerry Krieger of The Benton
Harbor News Palladium.
Mrs. Mary DeFoe, secretary of
the local branch of the NAACP,
says more people are beginning to
realize the existence and import-
ance of the civil rights problems.
The main problems themselves,
however, still exist and still re-
main to be solved satisfactorily,
she adds. These she listed as better
schooling, more and better housing
and a stated policy of open oc-
cupancy for housing and rentals,
and improved government.
Mrs. DeFoe says the urge for
demonstrations is not as strong
now, possibly because there is
recognition more people are at
least trying to see the problems of
Judd Spray, president of the
Twin Cities Human Relations
Council, says a neighborhood in
nearly all-white St. Joseph has
done a good job of accepting a
Negro family that bought a home
last year after months of uproar.
Spray's comment about the Twin
Cities reflects the general outlook
for all of Michigan:
"Some gains have been made,
but we've got a long way to go
Buddhists Continue To Strike
By The Associated Press
SAIGON - Virtual civil war
erupted in Da Nang early today
as Vietnamese government planes
bombed rebel positions there for
the first time. In Saigon, thou-
sands of Buddhist monks and nuns
staged a sit-down hunger strike
against the military government
of Premier Nguyen Cao Ky.
At Da Nang, rebel troops lobbed
mortar shells into the big U.S.
air base, jammed with aircraft to
fight the Communists. Eight U.S.
Marines were reported wounded.
There were unconfirmed reports
that U.S. Marine Phantom jets
were ordered into the air against
the Vietnamese government
planes. The planes were reportedly
recalled before they encountered
the government aircraft.
In Saigon, riot police fired tear-
gas grenades to disperse a crowd
of 5,000 striking Buddhists today
as unrest rocked the capital for
the second day.
Police moved into the crowd
outside the main pogoda where
yellow-robed Buddhist monks and
nuns were on a hunger strike to
back demands for the ouster of
the military government.
The showdown between the'
Buddhists and the government
was growing steadily and threat-
ened further turmoil.
The crowd fled in panic as
about 15 tear-gas grenades smash-
ed into it. A pall of tear gas hung
in the stifling noon heat.
American servicemen in Saigon
were warned to stay away from
demonstrations and points of pos-
From Hue, a Buddhist center 50
miles beyond Da Nang, the na-
tion's leading monk, Thich Tri
Quang, telephoned this ultimatum
to the Buddhist institute here for
relay to Ky: Resign or more blood
As the gulf between Ky and the
Buddhist-led opposition widened,
about 400 to 500 monks and nuns,
some carrying First Aid kits,
marched to Saigon's main Bud-
dhist institute to begin their hun-
ger strike. They were quickly
Joined by hundreds of others.
Thich Thien Minh, one of the
powerful institute leaders, urged
the Buddhists to "pray for the
people of Central Viet Nam"
where, he charged, hundreds of
persons have been killed or wound-
ed in the civil strife.?
At daybreak in Da Nang, four
Skyraiders from Ky's air force
made a low pass at rebel troops on
the east side of the Da Nang River
and dropped four or five 250-
Regents Approve Granting
They also strafed rebel soldiers.
No bombs were dropped into the
city itself and it did not appear
the government troops were mov-
ing on the pagoda strongholds
held by antigovernment ,forces.Pr
Heavy firing broke out as the
It was the first time air power oW
had been brought into the battle
of Da Nang, although there .were
reports that Vietnamese air force
planes yesterday strafed outside
U' First in
fighting in Da Nang yesterday.
In Saigon, U.S. Ambassador
Henry Cabot Lodge returned from
Washington conferences to on-
the-spot duty in U.S. efforts to
help work out a solution. The
Buddhists are demanding an end
to military rule.
"It feels fine to be back in this
beautiful country to which I am
so attached," Lodge said, smiling.
"I like it here."
Shouting against b o t h the
United States and the Vietnamese
-~ ~~ military government, about 1,000
youths sallied from the Buddhist
I o Sihare Privileges
In Borrowing Book: ;
TFO Applauds Move
The University Regents yester-
day approved changing library
regulations to have teaching fel- °
lows considered members of the
The Regents voted to have the
following changes made:
1) The loan period for faculty'
was established at eight weeks;
2) The teaching fellows were
gr anted the same loan pr ivileges
as the faculty;
3) The loan period for students
and other members of the Univer-
sity staff was lengthened to three
4) The loan period of all borrow- MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF REGE
ers at the Undergraduate library
was lengthened to three weeks; EXAM GIVEN TODAY:
5) The regulation that all suchL
books are subject to recall after
f r 7t - ie k rta inr d1/1 7'TC
Late World News
WASHINGTON OFP)-PRESIDENT JOHNSON called top ad-
visors to the White House last night to talk over the U.S.
position on revamping the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
A new idea for modernizing NATO has been reported under
official study. It would allow the Atlantic alliance to work
ultimately with the Soviet Union if Red China emerges as the
world's third superpower.
"In reorganizing NATO we should concentrate less on keeping
it as a purely defensive organization to meet military threats,"
said an authoritative British source.
"We should see it more as an organization of Western nations
that could negotiate from strength with the aim of arriving
at some common ground with Russia about attitudes to the world
of the 1980s and 1990s when we might have to contend with a
The informant, who made plain he was thinking of Com-
munist China as the third superpower, said this idea is under
consideration by various allied officials concerned with plans
for streamlining NATO.
THE PAPER, WITH ITS NEW PRINTER, went on sale at
Michigan State University yesterday, a day after its scheduled
publication date. The question of whether or not The Paper can
be distributed was apparently settled when MSU university
secretary Jack Breslin ruled the university will take no action
to stop its distribution.
ROOSEVELT UNIVERSITY STUDENTS yesterday resumed
a sit-in outside the school's administrative offices in a protest
Institute for a rampage in Saigon
streets reminiscent of previous
disorders halted by a mid-April
The torch-bearing mob, includ-
ing some screaming children,
smashed windows, stoned police
and hurled fire bombs. One ban-
"No Vietnamese lives for Ameri-
Among developments rounding
out the picture:
-Reports from the agitaion-
ridden northern provinces making
up the 1st Corps Area spoke of
two convoys of government troops
deserting to join the rebels, pre-
sumably at Da Nang. One con-
voy of defectors, from the town
of Hoi An, was reported strafed
by Ky's planes.
-American, officials expressed
hope that economic pressure on
the northern dissidents would help
to achieve a settlement. They
spoke of plans to cut off sup-
plies in order to bring the rebels
to their knees.
- Sporadic fighting went on
throughout the day in Da Nang,
a hotbed of antigovernment agi-
tation that the shooting has con-
verted into a city of confusion
and fear. Several rebel soldiers
surrendered, emerging with hands
up from the rebel-held complex of
pagodas. Machine gun bullets
chewed at the government's Da
Nang garrison headquarters. Gov-
ernment tanks and rebel gunners
staged a 10-minute duel by night
across the Da Nang River.
-Monsoon rains and wind lim-
ited air strikes against North Viet
Nam for the sixth straight day.
U.S. air cavalrymen fought on
against a Communist force in the
Central Tighlanis near An Khe.
ENTS are shown before the start of yesterday's meeting.
Lwo wee s was reamea .
After the announcement a
spokesman for the executive board
of the Teaching Fellows organ-
ization issued a statement on the
action. The statement said, "We
welcome the granting of staff
library privileges but consider it
only a first step toward clarifying
the status and improving the
working conditions of teaching
fellows at the University."
Also at yesterday's Regents
meeting it was announced that the
$55 Million Program has reached
a total of $42,307,063. This in-
cludes $1,838,942 accepted since
last month's meeting.
Eight $55 Million field offices
have been opened in large cities
near centers of University alumni
concentration, Regent Paul Goebel
Nearing the peak of the cam-
paign next fall, it is expected that
some 5,500 alumni will be actively
working as volunteers in all 50
states, soliciting a1u m n i and
friends of the University.
Also announced at yesterday's
meeting was the appointment of
Prof. Morris Bornstein of the eco-
nomics department as director of
the Center for Russian Studies.
Pnfa Willim Rolna.r.f fhoan-
r ! etctsu ofJ
lege Draft Delay
Big Ten. To
Await Similar Moves
By Other Universities
Before Using Degree
By MICHAEL HEFFER
The University Regents yester-
day approved the granting of a
Certificate to graduate students
who have completed all doctoral
requirements except the disserta-
The Certificate is the first step
toward. the establishment of an
intermediate degree between the
master's and the Ph.D. It will
serve as formal recognition that
those who receive it have reached
the stage of Candidate, en route
to the Ph.D.
Vice - President for Academic
Affairs Allan Smith, in announc-
ing the granting of the Certificate
to 164 graduate students, said the
University "should not create a
degree unless it becomes accepted"
The University is awaiting sim-
ilar moves by other Big Ten uni-
versities. Although this type of
Certificate is being started in a
few other institutions, the Uni-
versity is the first Big Ten school
to adopt it.
The move was recommended by
Dean Stephen Spurr of the Rack-
ham School of Graduate Studies,
who was the chairman of a meet-
ing of the Committee on Institu-
tional Cooperation on this subject
At that meeting, which included
graduate school deans from the
Big Ten schools, the concept of
an intermediate certificate recog-
nizing formal admission to can-
didacy to the Ph.D. degree was
Spurr said "there is a great need
for this degree. The Candidate's
certificate is proposed to give not
only recognition to the many stu-
dents who have completed all
their requirements except the dis-
sertation, but also to meet the
needs of students who wish to be-
come thoroughly exposed to the
subject matter of a particular
field of specialization, and yet
who are not interested in the type
of detailed and extended scholar-
ship required by the doctoral dis-
DALLAS OP)-Very few if any
college students will be drafted
unless the monthly quota jumps
over 30,000 men, the director of
the Selective Service System says.
Lt. Gen. Lewis Hershey said
yesterday nonstudents and college
dropouts are in sufficient num-
bers to fill current military needs.
Hershey, in Dallas to attend the
annual meeting of the National
Council of the Boy Scouts of
America, made his remarks to a
Dallas Times Herald reporter.
He said college students are not
deferred because they have "any
inherent right or special quality
come down from haven," but rath-
er because colleges must plan for
Michigan Netmen Clinch,
By BUD WILKINSON match 6-4, 5-7, 7-5, by complete-
Special To The Daily ly changing his style of play.
.LM According to Wolverine Coach
EAST LANSING-The Michi- Bill Murphy, Hedrick played "a
gan tennis team wrapped up its very cautious, careful game, most
second straight Big Ten title yes- unlike his normal power game. He
terday by mathematically elimi- showed remarkable control con-
nating all other teams from con- sidering the strong wind, which
tention when the Wolverine net- seemed to bother Power more than
ters advanced to the finals at Hedrick."
eight of nine positions. After the match while drinking
Michigan finished the day's a Coke like Arnie Palmer in the
semi-finals action with 126 points commercials, Hedrick explained
in 109. forr unner-un Michigan mi .p .n, eA n snmp hie tvlD n f
the future manpower needs of so-
Selective Service assumes that a
college graduate will make a more
productive citizen than the non-
graduate, Hershey said.
Considering how long it takes
to train a professional man, and
since we don't know how many
doctors, for instance, we'll need 15
years from now, we must consider
the importance of the students
who will eventually graduate,"
"What we're trying to deter-
mine in testing and evaluations is,
who in school is not likely to fin-
ish school; because if they're not
going to finish, then what are they
He said the student who is like-
ly to drop out will benefit from
military service, perhaps "find
himself," and then when he goes
back to college, will "be ready to
really do something."
He said experience after World
War II and the Korean War prov-
ed this statement conclusively:
"Those who came back brought
more with them."
Draft quotas this year, largely