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May 19, 1966 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1966-05-19

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Seventy-Sixth Year

by Clarence Fan t. New Horizons for the Journalism Dept.

Where Opinione Are Free 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, Micl,.
Truth Wil Prevail

NEws PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily exPress the inidividual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.



-- -

A Lottery System Will
End Draft Discrimination

THE DRAFT examinations currently be-
ing administered to college students
across the country prove again that the
Selective Service is the most discrimina-
tory agency in the United States Govern-
It is not enough that the Selective
Service already discriminates against the
poor, the Negro, the rural boy, the bache-
lor, and the part-time student, who must
work to earn his tuition. Now, the Selec-
tive Service is making a calculated effort
to discriminate against the average and
mediocre student..
OSTENSIBLY, the Selective Service is
to fulfill the nation's military man-
power needs. But in the process it has set
itself up as the arbiter of the young peo-
ple's slives. It can even discriminate
against prospective historians and artists
in favor of mathematicians and physi-
But to belabor the inadequacies of the
current Selective Service System, is mere-
ly to confirm what is obvious to everyone
from General Hershey to the college un-
dergraduate: drastic change is needed in
the Selective Service law.
FHE DRAFT LAW comes up for. renewal
in Congress in July of 1967. As a re-
sult, there is a new issue that almost any
student in SDS or YAF, the Newman
Club or Hillel, Delta Tau Delta or Zeta
Beta Tau can work on: pushing for
changes in the Selective Service law.
What is needed here is full mobiliza-
tion of all the weapons in the student
arsenal. This may mean a change in
strategy. While protesting college policy
of handing class rankings over to draft
boards may have its merits, it would
seem far more to the point to force the
Editorial Staff
CLARENCE FANTO.....................Co-Editor
CHARLOTTE WOLTER ................... Co-Editor
BUD WILKINSON ...................Sports Editor
BETSY COHN................ Supplement Manager
NIGHT EDITORS: Meredith Eiker, Michael Hefter,
Shirley Rosick, Susan Schnepp, Martha Wolfgang.
Business Staff
SUSAN PERLSTADT ..............Business Manager
LEONARD PRATT............. Circulation Manager
JEANNE ROSINSKI,..............Advertising Manager
RANDY RISSMAN.............Supplement Manager
The Daily is a member of the Associated Press and
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Published daily Tuesday through Saturday morning.

House Armed Services Committee to open
hearings when it discusses the draft law
this summer.
The point is to put pressure on Congress
through student and faculty organiza-
tions to abandon the current system.
Then, a practical alternative is necessary.
THE SUGGESTION that currently seems
to have the broadest support among
educators, politicians and student groups
is a proposal for making non-military
service, such as the Peace Corps or Vista,
an alternative to military service.
This idea combined with a lottery sys-
tem may well be the most effective means
of eliminating the discriminatory features
of the Selective Service, while insuring
that military manpower needs are met.
Essentially, at the age of 19 men would
participate in a lottery held to select men
for military service. Men who have pro-
posed an acceptable non-military alter-
native prior to the lottery would not par-
ticipate in it.
Men whose names were not selected in
the lottery would be exempted from giv-
ing any form of service-their reward
for participating in the lottery. All other
men would be expected to give some form
of service.
INCENTIVES TO encourage men to join
the lottery include higher military pay,
a shorter term of service for military men
than for non-military men and a broad-
ening of the GI Bill.
Another feature is that men with edu-
cational deficiences would be allowed to
take remedial or job-training as part of
their service requirement. In other words,
a man might take two years with the job
corps learning a new trade as part of his
service requirement.
Yet, another feature of the plan is that
students would be allowed to continue
their education if they made a definite
commitment to some form of service after
A key advantage of this lottery system
is that it eliminates uncertainty. At 19 a
man knows where he stands with the
draft. But most important, it eliminates
many of the discriminatory features of
the current system. The poor, the Negro,
the mediocre and part-time student are
no longer discriminated against. And, in
this system there is more room for those
who have moral objections to fighting in
a war.
THAT THIS OR a similar plan is an
improvement upon the present Selec-
tive Service System is difficult to deny.
If college faculties and students can win
adoption of such a plan, then young men
in the future will not be subjected to the
discriminatory whims of the draft,

T HE UNIVERSITY'S journalism
department, having recently
marked its 75th anniversary and
saluted its retiring chairman,
Prof. Wesley Maurer, is about to
embark on an exciting venture
which should increase its already
high standing among the nation's
schools of journalism.
Maurer has infused the depart-
ment with a deep dedication to
the principles of a free press
(principles for the most part
unique in this country) and has
brought many of the leading fig-
ures in mass communications to
speak on campus.
He has also initiated a unique
training program which allows
students to obtain two years of
closely guided training on some of
the nation's leading newspapers
after they obtain master's degrees
in the department here. The Bal-,
timore Sun, the St. Louis Post-
Dispatch and other top-ranking
papers have served as the- train-
ing grounds for many of the de-
partment's graduates. Through the
"intern" program, they have been
able to obtain a far more useful
initiation into the field than would
have been possible otherwise.
joined the department four years
ago, will assume his role as chair-
man on July 1st. His tenure prom-
ises to be just as exciting as Maur-
er's 19 years as department chair-
man, and some new innovations
are likely as well.
Porter, one of the most respect-
ed members of the department by
students and colleagues alike, en-
visions undergraduate journalism
at the University as "the most
liberal" of the liberal arts degrees.
Students are likely to gain in-
creased freedom to pursue studies
in a variety of social sciences and
humanities while also taking some-
what fewer .journalism courses,
mostly of the non-technical varie-
There are also indications that
the department will be permitted
to expand its facilities and staff as
necessary in order to realize Por-
ter's goal.
increasing trend toward academic
over-specialization, both on the

undergraduate and graduate levels,
Porter realizes the need for the
"generalist" in mass communica-
tions - the individual with in-
depth knowledge of several areas
of social science and humanities
as well as an acquaintance with
many others.
Undergraduate journalism edu-
cation at the University has made
a start toward offering the stu-
dent this type of broad exposure
to many significant fields. Partic-
ularly in the new honors program,
the department's requirements for
hours of credit elected are less
stringent than is usually the case
in the literary college.
In the journalism department,
the student is presented historical
material relating to the field and
an intense exposure to the tradi-
tions and laws governing freedom
of the press as practiced in the
United States. More specialized
courses in writing, public rela-
tions and the electronic media are
also offered.
BUT THE MOST important role
of a good journalism department
should be that of intellectual cat-
alyst - a place where dissenting
concepts and ideas about modern
social trends and specific devel-
opments in government, foreign
affairs and the sciences can be
Too many other departments
are afflicted with a narrowness of
perspective resulting from academ-
ic clannishness and the pursuit of
status. (This is particularly true
among those social sciences which
are preoccupied with gaining re-
spect and recognition as valid sci-
ences-the type of recognition al-
ready granted to the natural sci-
In order to balance the aca-
demic stuffiness which often re-
sults from the mad pursuit of pro-
fessional recognition in the social
sciences, the journalism depart-
ment should, above all, be a place
of intellectual excitement, creativ-
ity and vigor. It should sponsor
debates and discussions on great
public issues. It should prove the
weaknesses of the various media,
and it should stimulate research
into the nature of the media them-
selves and the nature of audience
response (the impetus for which

has been provided by the work of
Marschall McLuhan).
IN SHORT, the journalism de-
partment should be far more than
a place to train future journalists,
although such training could not
help but be furthered by an at-
mosphere of intellectual excite-
ment and discovery:
Both on the undergraduate and
graduate levels, the department
has a unique opportunity to bridge
the gap between the social sci-
ences and focus on the important
findings of sociologists, anthropol-
ogists, political scientists and so-
ciologists regarding the nature of
political and social institutions, as
well as the nature of man as an
individual and as a social being.
Maurer's leadership has already
made a strong beginning in pro-
viding this indispensable type of
education. But more needs to be
done. Technical courses should be
pared to a minimum, since most
journalists can receive technical
training on the job. It has been
said by those in the field that
journalism students often have to
un-learn many of the technical
practices they were taught when
they go to work, in order to con-
form to a specific medium's re-
quirements and individual pecul-
Students should be required to
pursue studies in the English de-
partment. Without a basic knowl-
edge of literature, both modern
and historical, no individual can
be well-educated in our society.
"Minors" in a student's specified
field of interest-whether it be
economics, political science, his-
tory, or another area-should al-
so be encouraged. When possible,
journalism students should elect
at least 15-20 hours of courses in
one field as a cognate require-
ment. In this way, they receive a
broad knowledge of a specific field
but retain their freedom to ex-
plore a number of other areas at
the same time, all the while re-
ceiving a basic grounding in the
history and principles of Ameri-
can journalism.
The graduate program already
has a plan similar to this. Stu-

dents with previous experience in
journalism take a minimum of
journalism courses and range
widely through the course offer-
ings of the University's top-rank-
ing social science and humanities
THERE ARE high hopes that
Porter, as department chairman,
will be able to gradually modify
journalism education here in order
to better equip students to become
leaders in communications fields.
He conducted an honors course in
the mass media during the past
academic year which was well-
received by students and is an ex-
ample of the type of course which
should be added formally to the
journalism program.
He has also demonstrated an
ability to probe deeply into the
content of the media and lead
informed discussions revolving
around defects and weaknesses as
well as strengths in specific news-
papers, TV and radio networks,
and magazines.
AS A PROFESSION, journalism
is notorious for its reluctance to
criticize itself. There are only two
main organs of such discussion-
"Nieman Reports" published at
Harvard University and the Co-
lumbia University Journalism Re-
view-both of which have limited
circulation. The field's trade pub-
lication, Editor and Publisher, ab-
dicates its responsibility to probe
the media's problems and instead
concentrates on smug reassurances
that newspapers are better than
ever, and of course far better than
the arch-villain, television.
E & P also fills its pages with
silly debates about how many peo-
ple read papers rather than watch
the tube, all of which serves little
purpose and can best be left to
the rating services and audience-
measurement outfits.
WHAT IS NEEDED in journal-
ism is a close examination of why
the newspapers, radio and televi-
sion failed to inform the Ameri-
can people about the background
and dangers of the Viet Nam war
until we were too deeply involved

to extricate ourselves. (A few pub-
lications did devote space to an-
alyses of Viet Nam before the war
became an American preoccupa-
tion early in 1965-but the pro-
vincial press which reaches 80 per
cent or more of American news-
paper readers did not.)
Examination is also needed of
the problems in reporting trials
and crime news generally; of why
too many papers continue to fill
their pages with syndicated en-
tertainment features rather than
hard news; and of why news in-
terpretation and analysis is still
largely absent from the, wire serv-
ices and, hence, most newspapers.
OTHER TRENDS such as the
growth of services featuring col-
umns and news stories syndicated
by major papers such as the New
York Times, the Washington Post
and the Los Angeles Times also
deserve attention. A possible solu-
tion for the small or medium-
sized paper which wants to pre-
sent news interpretation is the use
of one of these services along with
the basic news report provided by
the Associated Press and United
Press International.
The increase in the domination
of the monopoly press - single
ownerships of all the newspapers
in cities as large as Los Angeles
-should be probed for its im-
pact on independent journalism.
Does a newspaper without com-
petition become less concerned
with active newsgathering and in-
vestigative reporting? How much
does a community suffer if it is
represented by only one editorial
voice, often a vague, middle-of-
the-road one?
UNIVERSITY journalism de-
partments offer the ideal setting
for intensive discussions'of issues
such as these. There seems good
reason to hope that the depart-
ment here, under Porter's leader-
ship will continue along the path
it has charted of offering the stu-
dent the broadest possible liberal
education, and will make new
strides in the presentation of in-
formed analysis and research on
the major problems facing mass
communications in a rapidly
changing social environment.

The Crumbling of the Ivory Tower

4 tl O s "

' _ :
ob r
,, ;,,,
%' . F;

Special To The Daily
Long live the Humanities!"
Might we not one day hear this
cry and see the ivory towers of
academe, that last stronghold of
that solitary bird, the humanist
scholar, come crumbling down?
Snow, venerable old don of many
a British government. spoke at
the Rede lectureship at Cam-
I believe the intellectual life
of the whole western society
is increasingly being split into
two polar groups . . . at one
pole we have the literary in-
tellectuals . . . at the other the
Snow went on to pontificate
that the scientists "have the fu-
ture in their bones" and his lit-
erary friends' inability to quote
the Second Law of Thermody-
namics (much less understand it!)
was tantamount to the admission
by a scientist that he had never
read a work of Shakespeare's.,
Snow's "Two Cultures and the
Scientific Revolution" was re-
printed and given wide circula-
tion and study in British schools.
Subsequently, the phrase "two
cultures" has come to be a syn-
onym expressing the lack of com-
munciation and comprehension
between persons of the scientific
and humanistic persuasions.
THREE YEARS later in the
same annual lecture at which
Snow promulgated his thesis,
Prof. F. R. Leavis retailiated with
a scathing attack of Snow's "in-
tellectual nullity" for stressing the
superior merits of thescientists
above the values offered by the
Despite Leavis' elucidation that
Snow could not appreciate the
different orientations of scientific
and humanistic purpose, the "two
cultures" dichotomization persists.
This phenomenon is nowhere
more obvious in the United States
with the most advanced scientific
technology in the history of man.
The federal government has
even become concerned that the
creative and scholarly arts will
play bridesmaid to the sciences,
and has established a National
Humnities Foundation, some dec-,
ade and a half after the National
Science Foundation.
PROF. ROBERT H. Knapp of
Wesleyan, in "The Origins of
American Humanistic Scholars,"
published the results of a recent
study of the status of humanistic
scholarship in this country today.
Knapp confined his study to

ties also ranking high are Wis-
consin, Berkeley, Chicago, Penn-
sylvania and Michigan.
A COMPARISON of the fields
of undergraduate concentration in
95 degree - awarding institutions
showed that the majority of bac-
calaureate degrees in these five
fields are awarded to women, very
few of whom go on to the doc-
torate. The overall impression in
undergraduate education is that
the humanities are, numerically
and thus presumably influentially
as a society-shaping force, run-
ning a poor third behind the phy-
sical and biological sciences and
the technical and vocational
At the doctorate level, the ratio
of science doctorates to humani-
ties ranged in the Ivy League from
about 3 to 2 to the majority of
state-supported institutions where
scientists predominated, 5 to 1 or
better. Of the five humanistic dis-
ciplines, over 13,000 doctorates
were awarded in a 20 year period
ending in 1956. There were 4000
each in the more utilitarian his-
tory and English fields, but only
800 in music and fine arts.
of humanities as being in clear
need of effective recruitment and
prosecution, especially a m o n g
state universities.
"The main task, it seems to me,
is to accelerate the infusion of
humanistic thought and aware-
ness through the broad fabric of
American higher education. Its
realization would provide a sort
of intellectual leaven that could
lift our civilization to a new and
truly creative epoch."
not being done, charged William
Arrowsmith, chairman of the
classics department at the Univer-
sity of Texas, in "The Shame of
the Graduate Schools" (Harpers,
March 1966).
Arrowsmith's biggest criticism
of the system of graduate human-
ities education leads indirectly
back to Snow's "two culture"
The infusion of the scientific
method, strongly bolstered by the
splurge of federal spending on
science education since the first
Sputnik, has pervaded the human-
ities scholarly research.
"The humanities have been
distorted and their crucial en-
abling principle-the principle
of personal influence and per-
sonal example-has been neg-
lected and betrayed in a long,
servile imitation of the
sciences. .."
In every humanistic field today

is a simple but overwhelming
fact: we have trained as schol-
ars men who are not fit to be
scholars or who are fit to have
other fates. It is these reluctant
scholars whose efforts, born of
constraint and willfully persis-
tent hope, lack vigor."
WHAT CAN BE seen as the pos-
sible future development of the
humanities, if they are to shake
off their present lethargy and aim-
The distinction between the sci-
ences and the humanities' pur-
poses will go a long way to show
how they fulfill unique, proper
functions in a social context.
"Pure" science aims to augment
man's factual knowledge, indirect-
tly aiding men to "dominate mat-
ter by calculation."
The humanistic disciplines, on
the other hand, concern themsel-
ves primarily with values. They
deal in experiences and interac-
tions, the subjective perceptions
of the world that teach a man
how to live well and die well, in
a way that science cannot begin
to approach.
CURRENTLY, the hope of a
"new breed" of humanist scholar
lies in taking full advantage of

the teaching function as a persua-
sive factor in winning adherents
to the humanistic viewpoint. The
"publish or perish" dictum so
bruited about lately may not be
as serious as imagined, for schol-
arly research and verification
should always remain a bulwark
of the humanist's art.
But the "English bards versus
Scotch reviewers" attitude has
split many of the humanistic dis-
ciplines (especially philosophy and
English). Such a trend is deadly
for it relegates the scholar to the
role of librarian and archivist of
the living and dead languages. It
denies him the position to play a
decisive role in the creation of
current standards of art, litera-
ture and morality.
PROF. KNAPP observed that
the clustering of humanities-or-
iehted institutions on the East
Coast indicated that they were
"deeply committed to European
intellectual traditions," notably
still moving "in the spirit of a
pre-industrial age."
Arrowsmith's charge that a ques-
tion mark lies over the whole
field, gives one hope that the uni-
versities - the prime centers of
modern humanistic endeavors -
will answer that question with a

vigorous recruiting p r o g r a m
among teachers and prospective
students, with a revamping of de-
partmental structures to "moder-
nize" the humanities.
The humanities are in an ex-
treme financial bind compared to
the sciences. This may be the re-
sult of the Sputnik-caused over-
emphasis on the scientific educa-
tion, but part of the trouble no
doubt lies in the above-mentioned
situations within the humanities
themselves. Until they can present
substantial evidence by example
that they are of intrinsic value to
society, they will continue to be
relegated to secondary status in
those public institutions "dedicat-
ed to service in utilitarianism."
THERE MAY BE some who wIl
argue that the humanistic arts
should not have to justify them-
selves in terms of any other value
than their own contemplation. A
better case can be made that ac-
tion is the end of thought; the hu-
manities can bridge the widening
gulf of technology and the living
of the good life.
In forging such an almagam,
the humanists would be in for a
large part of the leadership, as
they were in the first Rennaisance
500 years ago.




Kautsky Misrepresents Marx


To the Editor:
THE DAILY of Sunday, April 13,
1966 carried a review of Earl
Kautsky's "The Dictatorship of
the Proletariat." The review was
written by Prof. Carl Cohen.
The succession of publications
which the University Press has
published or reprinted about
Marxism, Socialism, and related
subjects once again brings to mind
the complaint of Karl Marx that
people can not read (meaning an
inability to understand that which
they read).
APPARENTLY with an attach-
ment to the "gospel" of the dis-
credited Social Democrats or, per-
haps, with intent to confuse and
mislead, Prof. Cohen repeats the
claim made for Kautsky in the in-
troduction to Kautsky's "Dictator-
ship of the Proletariat." Prof. Coh-
en stated: "Kautsky knew Marx
and Engels personally," implying,
thereby, that Kautsky was quali-
fied to be and was the "chief lit-
erary executor" of Marx and En-
gels. Prof. Cohen -continues: ". . .

his daughter by letter in 1881:
"He is a mediocrity with a small-
minded outlook, superwise, very
conceited, industrious in a certain
sort of way, he busies himself a
lot with statistics but does not
read anything very clever out of
them . . ." And this is the man
whom Prof. Cohen concurs to have
been the "chief literary executor"
of Marx and Engels!
For 34 years, Kautsky carried
on in the Neue Zeit the same op-
portunism which Engels, stated in
a letter to Kautsky (1884) was
"overrun with philanthropy, hu-
manitarianism, sentimentality and
whatever all the antirevolution-
ary vices" of the opportunists of
the clay were called.
Referring to the opportunists of
the Neue Zeit, Engels continued:
"People who do not want to learn
anything fundamentally and only
make literature about literature
and incidentally out of literature,
naturally achieve more printed
pages per annum than those who
grind at something. . ." The cur-
rent crop of regurgitators and re-

At other times he uses the word
democracy where only the expres-
sion Socialist Industrial Democra-
cy would have been correct. At
other times. the context in which
Kautsky uses the term democracy
is so vague that it would be dif-
ficult to precisely define what
Kautsky meant. And this "small-
minded" opportunist is being pass-
ed off in University circles as the
"chief literary executor" of the
uncompromisingly scientific Marx
and Engels!
IF UNIVERSITY pedants want
to sincerely bring Marx and Engels
analyses of capitalism to light and
the general tactics which they,
Marx and Engels, concluded would
have to be followed by workers in
accordance with the conditions
prevalent at a given time and
place, they will go directly to the.
works of Marx and Engels rather
than to the distorters and detrac-
tors of Marx and Engels.
If the pedants really want to
apply the findings of Marx and
Engels to the American scene, they
will discover and publicize the
findings and voluminous works of



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