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August 11, 1966 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1966-08-11

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

Seventy-Sixth Year


d~ifloAre free; 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.
Will evi

NEWS PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the inidividual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

AUGUST 11, 1966


Detroit's Halfway Riot:
Less Than Pitiable

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DETROIT - Less than one hundred
teenage Negroes stoned cars last night
n Kercheval on the city's lower East Side.
Detroit hadn't had its first race riot
his year and this was not it. The teen-
gers involved-and they clearly were not
l the kids in the Kercheval neighbor-
food-flung the rocks and hooted the
ame insults at bystanders and police for
ver three hours.
During the night a supermarket was
ntered, a false fire-alarm dispatched, one
nan injured by a brick bat, several stores
toned, and at least 40 car windows
mashed by the Kercheval teens.
[N LESS than half an hour after the
first terrified motorists began to reel
nto Jefferson precinct near Belle Isle.
vith broken auto windshields the Detroit
>olice had the mile long trouble-zone
ealed off.
Its riot-trained, tactical, mobile units
vorked on foot through the zone. They
brought in carbines and loud-hailers.
They asked residents to get off the streets.
They moved through side streets and al-
eys opening on to Kercheval to get the
rouble-makers out..
Indications show that the incident
:ould have been much worse if allowed
o persist. Police arrested youths carry-
ng rifles and hatchets. They caught a
;roup brewing molotov cocktails.
The names of the Acme Youth Center,
he Afro-American Youth Association
vere mentioned as possible instigators.
But three hours after the police de-
achment reached a full force of 100, the
police were pulling out.
DURING THIS TIME a man named Her-
bert was sitting in his little car on a
ide street unable to get through a police
>lockade to his home on Kercheval.
Herb, a - heavy mustachioed Negro, is
in afternoon meat cutter in a Dearborn
area supermarket. He and his wife live
n a spacious five room apartment. Like
nost of the homes in the neighborhood
-erb's is old and weather-beaten but
lean and cheerful. Its rent poses no hard-
:hip to Herb on his meat-cutter's in-
Herb, who confesses he is not bright,
earned meat-cutting at a Detroit school.
the tuition was $500. In those tough
lays Herb and his wife were aided by
>ublic funds at a time when they were
uilding an income.
Herb described his neighborhood as "50-
0; integrated." He says there is no rea-
on for rioting where he lives. He says,
I'm a taxpayer and I'm not afraid to
:now how much this thing tonight is
osting me."

Herb stood on his porch for a while
when he finally got home, watched the
police at their mobile headquarters less
than a block from him home. At 11 p.m.
he went inside to watch the TV news.
OUTSIDE, the Kercheval teens were go-
ing through the last moments of at-
tention. Those loitering near the police
center were treating the night the same
way as those standing outside a pool hall
in a brick-battered block half a mile
It was a lark to them. They were not
angry, they grinned. And all they could
do was throw rocks, bricks and and the
same worn vile insults.
Residents said they could think of only
two cars of white people they would con-
sider night riders that night.
Herb says in his neighborhood it is
a lack of intelligence and education rath-
er than a lack of work or recreation that
was responsible for the outbreak. But he
says that the youths in the midst of the
trouble were drunk, and that is impor-
The police say the violence started
when two Negro youths were arrested
outside a Kercheval bar for fighting. The
routine arrest was used by the trouble-
makers as impetus for their embroil-
Detroit Councilman Philip Van Ant-
werp, a former policeman, was surprised
and pleased to see how speedily and
peaceably the police were able to gain
control of the area.
Herb was glad when the police turned
off their blue flashers and went back to
their precincts.
IF IT HAPPENS a second night - and
because of intelligent, considerate po-
lice work, it probably won't-it will be un-
fortunate for the Kercheval neighbors,
for they, like virtually every group of
Negro and white homeowners and ten-
ants, question, do not want, a riot.
The Kercheval teens were pathetic, be-
cause they were so low in intelligence,
sobriety, and dignity. They took their
cues from inflamatory remarks and riot-
ing elsewhere. Throughout the night they
asserted in word and action that they
were "cool dudes."
Though he wouldn't admit it, though
he wouldn't come down on his own, Herb,
the only Negro in the supermarket meat
department, was blushing in shame to
the end of his mustache.
The day Herb comes home from work
and stones my windshield, I will know
that something is wrong with Negro life
on Detroit's East Side.

- I

1967, 10) ORWR
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Automation and Negro Em ployment

IN MODERN society work is
more than a means to a liveli-
hood. It is a symbol of status. If
you are working, you belong. If
you are not, you don't.
Automation and a guaranteed
annual income may, gradually
change the prejudices of Western
man, formed by the teachings and
habits of centuries. But today a
man out of work is a second-class
citizen. He is so in his own opinion
as well as that of his neighbors.
Therefore, one does not have to
be an economic determinist or a
Marxist to say that in the United
States the unemployment figures
disclose a basic disorder in our
society. This is so because these
figuresreflect something more im-
portant than the conditions of
production. They show how many
people have been thrown out of or
excluded from the society and who'
they are.
BECAUSE OF the war in Viet
Nam, unemployment has been
steadily declining. But in the mid-
dle of June unemployment among
Negroes increased over the month
before and is twice the general
rate. Almost 8 per cent of all Ne-
groes are officially unemployed.
This is bad enough. But the fig-
ures on Negro youth are terrify-
ing. In the middle of June 32 per
cent of 18- to 19-year-old Negroes
were out of work. This was an in-
crease of 5 per cent over the num-
ber a year ago at the same date.
The unemployment statistics do
not present the real situation, for
they record only those who have
applied for work within a given
period. They do not include the

very large but unknown portion
of Negro youth who have given up
the search on the justifiable
ground that it is hopeless.
BECAUSE THE draft law favors'
young men who continue their ed-
ucation, and because the length
of education in this and every
other country depends on family
income, a larger proportion of Ne-
groes is drafted- than of whites.
There is some truth in the charge
that the war, in Viet Nam is being
fought by the poor-and the Ne-
groes are the poorest among us. In
view of the large numbers taken
into the armed forces, the size of
the unemployed group among Ne-
gro youth is as sensational as it is
It is so alarming that no other
explanation of the current dis-
orders in many large cities is re-
quired It seems a little silly for
government officers to be trying
to ferret out Cuban Communists
among the Negroes in Chicago.
There may be some there, and
they may be influential. But to
blame them for what has been go-
ing on in Chicago is no more in-
telligent than blaming it on the
heat. The _ Chicago riots would
have occurred if there had been
nobody there but Republicans and
they had been knee-deep in snow.
DO THE NEGROES aim at re-
form or revolution? Do they want
to join the society or overturn it?
The Center for the Study of
Democratic Institutions has listen-
ed to the experts and to all sec-
tors of Negro leadership as they
have talked about this subject for
the past five years.

I have noticed a change lately.
The voice of those who think the
Negroes want nothing but admis-
sion to the American Way of Life
is getting weaker. The Center is
hearing more and more often that
the resentment of Negroes is
reaching such a point that they
would not join the white society
if they could. This means a revo-
lutionary movement.
The peaceful settlement of Ne-
gro claims depends first of all on
a massive effort to provide work
and the status that goes with it
to the Negro population, and par-
ticularly to Negro youth.
* * *
ALTHOUGH MOST of the dis-
cussion of automation has
centered on its effects on employ-
ment, its consequences for the
school and the home are likely to
be quite as spectacular and even
more certain than the reduction
of the hours of labor.
The argument still goes on about
employment. The official view is
that the technological revolution
will dislocate labor only tempor-
arily. There is so much work to
be done that eventually everybody
able and willing to work will have
a job.
This seems to me to underesti-
mate the computer by treating it
as though it were just another in-
vention, whereas it cannot be com-
pared with any mechanical de-
vice in history. It adds a new di-
mension to the powers of men and
to human life.
TO SUPPOSE that so funda-
mental a change can leave the
economic system virtually un-
touched is to ignore the radical

nature of the new instrument that
mankind now has at its disposal.
I believe that wherever the com-
puter establishes itself-and it is
rapidly doing so everywhere-it
will eventually reduce labor as we
have understood it and may re-
duce it almost to the vanishing
It may also eliminate the school,
the college and the university as
we have understood them.
Technology will free education
from limitations of space, staff
and time.
A GLIMPSE OF the future
comes from an experiment in pro-
gress at Palo Alto, Calif. Some 150
pupils in the first grade are re-
ceiving instruction in reading and
mathematics from a computer lo-
cated miles awayat Stanford Uni-
versity. A teacher is on hand to
help those who fall behind, but
the lessons come from the com-
puter over the teletype to a tele-
vision screen.
The computer submits the ques-
tion, states the time limit for an-
swering them and reports if the
answer is correct.
The computer rapidly adjusts to
the characteristics, the learning
capacity and the knowledge or ig-
norance of the individual pupil.
The computer could be located
anywhere. The screen could be
located in the home. The teacher
could be like a visiting nurse, call-
ing round at intervals to ask how
the pupil was doing.
The effects on the home could
be as dramatic as those on the
school. The family might become
a learning unit.

THE GREAT question about the
reduction of the hours of labor
always is: what are we going to
do with ourselves?
One thing we might do is learn;
and we might do it all our lives.
The new technology could make
it possible to develop a learning
society. Every home could be
equipped with a television set that
would give access to educational
material of every kind at every
These devices may strengthen
the worse tendencies in education,
which are to confuse it with train-
ing and the accumulation of in-
formation; these are objects they
can easily accomplish. They may
diminish the attention given to
reasoning and judgment; they
may reduce discussion; they may
promote centralization.
would be deplorable, are not in-
evitable. The computer has great
flexibility. Everything depends on
the conception of education held
by the people in charge. That is
what determines the educational
program today.
Hence, it is imperative to begin
thinking now about how the
enormous power of educational
technology is to be guided and
controlled. The giant corporations
are already moving into the field;
the scent of big money is in the
One of the most important so-
cial changes in history is impend-
ing. We shall have to develop new
social and political institutions to
cope with it.
Copyright, 1966, Los Angeles Times


TEX- -Stra nge Pen tagon Con trovyersy

The Blackout and Electronic
Birth Control Pills

A RECENT STORY in the New York
Times gave an explanation for an un-
usually large increase in births in New
York hospitals this month. It is now nine
months since the great Northeast power
"The lights went out and people were
left to interact with each other," was
the conclusion of sociologist Paul Siegel.
"They didn't have access to the major
source of amusement, the television, and
it is reasonable to assume a lot of sex
life went on."
PERHAPS this sociologist has discovered
the solution to the birth control con-
troversy. A simple, effective means of
holding down increasing population
throughout the world has been found.
The pill is obsolete, just keep that tele-
vision on all night. As long as the power
doesn't fail, the problem of overpopula-
tion can be solved with a good dose of
Johnny Carson.
Editorial Staff
LEONARD PRATT.....................Co-Editor
CHARLOTTE WOLTER..................Co-Editor
BUD WILKINSON....................Sports Editor
BETSY COHN................Supplement Manager
NIGHT EDITORS: Meredith Eker, Michael Heifer,
ShiievmRa . at ODonobu.al Knlan.*

Certainly it would be more easy to in-
troduce such a control in underdeveloped
nations than drugs or calendar watching.
The United Nations should begin im-
mediately on a total program of TV in-
stallation, which will not only introduce
real culture to the world's people, but
will force electrification of all rural vil-
lages and educate a brave new generation
of viewers in the wonders of "the tube."
WITHIN 20 YEARS, worldwide television
will be so firmly entrenched that the
birth rate will decline to the crisis point.
At that time someone will have developed
another system for maintaining the hu-
man race.
Hail to Our Ford.
Using Force
REPORTS HAVE IT that British sanc-
tions aren't forcing Rhodesian whites
into demanding their government's capit-
ulation, thus marking the failure of Eng-
land's attempts to use economic warfare
as an instrument of national force.
This almost certain failure should have
been evident from the start. Mature econ-
omies are very tough things, as the sur-
prising ineffectiveness of the American
bombings of Germany during World War
II and of North Viet Nam now illustrates.

all-purpose war plane which
Secretary of Defense Robert S.
McNamara hoped would save
money has been a subject of
controversy. An AP writer who
has studied the project gives a
progress report.
NEW YORK (P)-The bitter con-
troversy over whether Defense
Secretary Robert S. McNamara
forced a second best warplane on
the nation's military to save $1
billion is heating up again.
This latest outbreak centers
around development of the Navy
version of the TFX-tactical fight-
er experimental-now known as
the F-111B.
AS A WEAPONS system - air-
craft wedded to missile-the pro-
gram is 12 to 18 months behind
The first three prototypes were
so badly overweight they were
useless for carrier operations.
Further, the research and devel-
opment costs for the weapons sys-
tem are soaring although this is
not uncommon in projects involv-
ing new weapons.
The F-111-and there are two
versions to date-may not turn
out to be the all-weather, all-pur-
pose air superiority aircraft orig-
inally envisioned by McNamara.
The Marine Corps already has
told Congress it does not intend
to buy the F-ill In either the
Air Force or Navy versions for
close air support of troops.
There have been published re-
ports out of Washington indicat-
ing that the Senate Investigations
subcommittee, headed by Sen.
John L. McClellan (D-Ark), may
reopen its still unconcluded hear-

quirements although it, too, is still
somewhat overweight. The No. 4
has been flown for 80 minutes.,
A Navy decision of whether to
buy the F-111B is not expected un-
til December after full evaluation
of a fifth prototype, which is due
for production this month.
Secretary of the Navy Paul Nitze
said on July 27 that the F-111B
was a weapons system "we must
make work."
TFX, or F-111, began in 1962
wheyx McNamara overrode the
recommendations of a 235-man
panel of aircraft experts four
The panel had recommended ac-
ceptance of a design submitted by
the Boeing Co., of Seattle.
McNamara selected the General
Dynamics design on the grounds
that it offered the best chance of
producing an aircraft with a high
degree of what he called "com-
monality"; that is, identical parts.
The defense chief characterized
the Boeing cost estimates as un-,
realistic although Boeing had been
working on a design for a variable
sweep wing aircraft, such as the
TFX, since 1959.
In the original competition Boe-
ing proposed to build 23 research
and development aircraft for $466
million. General Dynamics' pro-
posal was $543 million.
Ian hearing the purchase of a sin-
gle warplane for use by the Air
Force, Navy and Marines would
save at least $1 billion.
Subsequently, when the subcom-
mittee asked the then Comptrol-
ler General Joseph Campbell to
check McNamara's savings claim,
Campbell reported he could find

testimony that to buy 1,704 TFX
warplanes with spare parts and
spare engines would cost around
$7.8 billion.
As matters now stand, Rear Ad..
miral W. E. Sweeney told a House
Appropriations subcommittee last
March the Navy F-111B research
program was running about 30 per
cent higher than estimated.
Further, Sweeney said, overall
research, development and engi-
neering costs had climbed from
$84 million to around $210 million.
encountered in the program has
been development of the Phoenix
missile. Research costs reported-
ly have climbed from $137 million
to around $240 million.
The TFX, or F-111, comes in two
versions-the "A" for the Air Force
and the "B" for the Navy. Gen-
eral Dynamics claims the two ver-
sions have 85 per cent commonal-
ity. The F-111B is being built for
General Dynamics by Grumman
Aircraft Engineering Corp., on
Long Island, N.Y.
Both versions employ a wing
which will sweep from 16 degrees
off a right angle extension, or
nearly straight out, to 72.5 de-
grees for high speed operations.
The Air Force version has a
wingspan of 63 feet and is 73 feet
long. The Navy version has a 60-
foot wingspan and length of 66.8
The Air Force has bought the
F-111 as a fighter-bomber, while
the Navy plans to use it as a long-
range interceptor
Since their missions differ, the
electronic equipment, or "black
boxes," differ radically.
THE AIR FORCE version is de-
signed to travel at two and a half

at its Fort Worth plant. There is
no weight problem with the F-
As for the Navy versions, the
No. 3 had a 78,000 pound gross
weight, a fact which set off the
current controversy when the in-
formation became public.
After an intensive weight-reduc-
tion program, Grumman turned
out a slimmed down F-111B in
July with a gross weight of 64,778
pounds, according to one source.
This was still higher than the
maximum of 55,000 pounds set by
the Navy.
ON THE BASIS of information
gleaned from assorted sources in
Congress, among the military and
in industry, here is the way the
No. 4 F-111B compares with the
original specifications.
The Navy asked for an empty
weight of 39,000 pounds. No. 4
weighs 43,000 pounds.
The Navy specified an aircraft
which could land on a carrier an-
'shored in a dead calm. This re-
quirement was changed by Mc-
Namara to an arresting wind-
over-deck of 10 knots, or 11.6
miles per hour.
The Navy originally asked for
an aircraft which could "loiter"
for more than three hours at a
distance of 750 miles from the
fleet. This was reduced by the
Pentagon to a range of around 500
miles and a loiter time under three
hours. No. 4 is expected by Grum-
man to meet the compromised
loiter and range requirements.
THE SERVICE ceiling of 55,000
feet has yet to be met by the
F111B. A Grumman spokesman.
said the No. 3 was never taken to
its ceiling because Grumman knew
if uns mr..un.,annt Anr+ onA nonn.-

tion but what the Navy would not
take them. We now think we have
one hell of an aircraft and the
Navy will buy it."
One of the chief sources of the
controversy concerns costs and in
this area there is a welter of often
confusing and conflicting figures.
Both Davis and Lemlein say
there is now no way to assess unit
costs. They contend the unit costs
can be ascertained only after a
decision is made on how many
aircraft will be built.
. The Pentagon has announced a
plan to buy 431 F111s, 24 of which
will be for the Navy. This figures
out to a unit cost of $2.3 million.
General Dynamics original unit
cost estimates, based on an order
of 1,704 aircraft, with spare parts
and spare engines came to $2.9
million each.
WHAT MAKES the Pentagon
purchase order unusual is that it
was announced before a final de-
cision on the F111B had been
made and even before the No. 4
improved model had been turned
Davis said in the telephone in-
terview the only contract lie had
in hand was a research, develop-
ment and test one for $460 mil-
lion with an allowable overrun'of
10.09 per cent. Any costs. above
that, he said, will come out of the
company's pocket.
Actually, the number of aircraft
the Pentagon proposes to buy has
varied considerably. While the
original costs centered around a
"buy" of 1,704 for the latest fig-
ures reportedly under discussion
call for a purchase of 950 for the
Air Force and 231 for the Navy
plus 50 for the United Kingdom
and 24 for Austraia:~



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