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August 03, 1966 - Image 1

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1966-08-03

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See Editorial Page



Mild and clear;
warmer Thursday

Seventy-Six Years of Editorial Freedom
Recent Discoveries Pose Legal, Ethical Pro


First of a two-part series
As the medical research field
expands at a fantastic rate-lit-
erally thousands of drugs are cur-
rently in the clinical proving
stage-medical experts are becom-
ing increasingly aware of the need
for a uniform code for the con-
duct of experiments with those

may not arise until long after the many drugs already on the market.'
testing period. Because of this, the The department is burdened and
chief aim of control legislation has as a result it is often more than a
been to prevent drugs which are year before a new drug receives
improperly prepared or tested the go-ahead for production for
from reaching the market. Rather general use.
than demanding perfection, pres- Applications must be accompan-
ent drug regulations merely aski ied by the results of a thorough
proof that a drug presents mini- evaluation of the drug's effects up-
mum risks. I on human subjects. The major

drugs on human beings. The government agency charged
Much danger lies in this trial with the control of drugs marketed
period, and even after exhaustive in the United States is the Food
experimentation, ,many medicines and Drug Administration. Its staff
prove harmful to humans. must regulate the sale and pro-
In the not-too-distant future an- duction of thousands of drugs it
other threat to medical ethics- has approved and rule on the effi-
the conduct of electric experi- cacy and safety of new drugs as
ments on the human mind - they are developed.
1 raises even more complex prob- Unfortunately, the FDA has a
lems. backlog of several thousand appli-
Doctors admit that no drug may cations for approval of new or re-
ever be deemed perfectly safe on vised drug compounds and is in
all patients and harmful reactions the, midst of a re-evaluation of

problem encountered by resew
ers of a new drug is finding
unteers for the huge volun
tests being carried on. And s
unfortunate situation has di
oped, untried drugs have bee]
ministered to unknowing
jects on many occasions atte
ing to speed application for
approval. This behavior has
eral times resulted in court to
the doctor's actions, without y
ing any concrete solutions.
Recently, Henry K. Bee

chairman of the Harvard medical
school's Committe6 on Ethics in
Human Experiments condemned
such testing. In an article in the
New England Journal of Medicine,
I he claimed to have evidence of 50
cases in which unproven drugs
were administered to subjects who
were unaware that they were be-
ing experimented upon. He
charged that these instances, In-
volving over a thousand persons,
all occurred in leading medical
schools and hospitals and cited
several cases within the govern-
ment military hospital system.
There has never been a formal,
complete definition of what type
of considerations a researcher
must make and by what procedure
consent is to be obtained. Every
doctor must develop his own set of
ethical standards. Legally, the
only restriction on medical experi-

mentation in this country is a 1962
amendment to the Food and Drug
Act which states that a doctor
must "obtain in advance the in-
formed consent of all persons to
whom experimental drugs are giv-
en." The final title, however, ac-
tually gives a researcher freedom
to refrain from asking permission
or even informing a patient he is
being experimented upon if it is to
"the best interest of such humanf

of plastic which operate perfectly
normally. Exchange of parts of the.
body, especially eye corneas and
kidneys, is now regularly success-
ful in improving or prolonging the
lives of patients who were con-
sidered hopeless just a few years
Doctors now speak confidently
of producing a successful artificial
heart within five years. An even
more exciting concept they believe

beings." in is free interchange of human
Stronger, more precise wording organs. They predict this will soon
in the Food and Drug Law would be made possible with the solution
alleviate most ethical questions in of the problem of tissue rejection.
drug research, but this would han- "A brave new science of the
dle only a part of a far more corn- mind," as David Kretch, professor
plex problem. New operations and of psychology at the University
techniques are daily revolutioniz- of California has termed it, is ad-
ing the surgical phase of medicine. vancing in laboratories through-
It is now possible to replace block- out the country. He described ex-
ed arteries and diseased sections periments being carried on at Yale
of bone with artificial parts made University in an interview for Sat-

urday Review Magazine. In a
group of experiments with pro-
tein-building chemicals, the mem-
ories of rats were improved and
those of goldfish were erased. The
results of another test implied that
learning may someday be trans-
ferred from one being to another
by chemical injection.
Brain functions may also be al-
tered to change behavior of ani-
mals and humans mechanically.
Tiny electrodes and certain radio
waves applied to specific sites of
the brain will stimulate reactions
which cannot be controlled volun-
tarily by the subject. Animals have
been made to reverse their entire
behavior pattern and even physi-
cally change as a result of electri-
cal stimulation. Humans react
similarly in such test situations.
For example, a quiet, listless
child became animated and talka-

tive whenever stimulated electron-
ically. Another experiment "block-
ed the thinking process and inhib-
ited speech and movement" of a
normally intelligent person. A doc-
tor involved with this experiment
suggested that some day it may be
possible to initiate genius and idi-
ocy at will. The most interesting
test described induced retiring
young women to flirt and hold
hands with their doctors and even
hint at marriage.
While experts have ventured
that mass control of behavior by
brain stimulation is highly unlike-
ly, Kretch emphasized the dangers
which may arise from our advanc-
ing knowledge of brain control. He
warned: "I don't believe that I am
being melodramatic in suggesting
that what our research may dis-

N ESt igWan ailyR

Meetings To
Ease Racial




. r'^"

City Officials Meet
-- I With Negro Leaders



Late World News
By Th le Associated Press
CHICAGO-INLAND STEEL CO. announced yesterday 2.1
per cent price increases on certain types of steel, the company's
.first hikes on the items since April 1963.
The company called the increases "moderate" and nonin-
The company said the base price of prime grade cold rolled
sheets, hot rolled sheets and strip would be increased 15 cents
per hundred pounds effective Aug. 10. Secondary grade of those
products would cost 10 cents more per hundred pounds as of
Aug. 10.
Inland said the increases amounted to 2.1 per cent of the
company's average price on the products.
The company stated that since the last price increase on the
items in April 1963, "as a result of cost increases well in excess of
productivity gains, our profit margins have been reduced by
substantially greater amounts than these increases."
"Though higher prices than these can be justified, we are
holding our advances down to modest amounts in keeping with
out desire to cooperate with the government's program of price
restraint," the firm said.
UNIVERSITY PRESIDENT and Mrs. Harlan H. Hatcher will
have an open house this evening from 7:30 to 9:30. All students
and faculty members are invited.
A UNIVERSITY GRADUATE student in philosophy is the
winner of the 1965 Broomfield Essay Competition, it was an-
nounced yesterday.
Robert Audi will receive $1,800 for his winning essay "Auto-
nomy and Social Responsibility: The Duty of Obedience," accord-
ing to Asst. Prof. Thomas E. Kauper of the law school, chairman
of the Broomfield Awards Committee.
Students and alumni are eligible to enter the annual compe-
tition, made possible by the late Archibald Broomfield.
DEAN MYRON WEGMAN of the School of Public Health has
been awarded a $491,500 Public Health Service Department of
Health, Education and Welfare training grant, Rep. Weston
Vivian (D-Mich i has announced.
* ,,*7
CHEMISTS FROM ALL OVER the world will attend an
International Symposium on Free Radicals in Solution here
Aug. 21-24, commemorating the 100th birthday of the University
chemist who discovered these unusual compounds, the late Prof.
Moses Gomberg.
Radicals are combinations of elements which behave like a
single element (and include such as ammonia, methyl, and many
carbon compounds). Free radicals contain an unshared electron
which would normally be combined with another electron from
another element to form a normal electron bond. The presence
of this unshared electron accounts for the unique properties
of free radicals and their theoretical and practical importance.
Their existence was hypothesized by chemists for a century
before Gomberg identified the first, tripiienyl methyl, about 1900.
Since then, their study and synthesis has had a great impact
on the petroleum and chemical industries. Most polymers, in-
cluding the common polyethelene and polypropylene, plastics,
are based on the chemistry of free radicals.

To Improve Situation
City officials who met withNe-
gro leaders last night in City
Hall will ask the City Council to
review present ordinances today.
The meeting was one of a se-
ries of discussions among the po-
lice and the Negro community in
an effort to relieve racial tensions.
Albert H. Wheeler, president of
the state chapter of the National
Association for the Advancement
of Colored People, said that his
profile, listing several areas of
concern here in the civil rights
field for review by the Atomic En-
ergy Commission may have b-n
a stimulus for the meeting. He
added that the near-riot wich
took place two weeks ago added a
sense of urgency to an immediate
review of the present racial sit-
Wheeler said that he thought
the city administrators were aware,
of the urgency of the situation and
as a result had established a citi-
zens review board of present poli-?
cies. He added that unless reason-
able signs of change were visible
within the next 7 or 10 days, there
was a definite possibility that fur-

ther clashes would erupt through- -
out the city.
Wheeler listed some recom-
mended policy changes which he ~ ~ ~ ~
said the police have recently ini- #/t
tiated -,
-They are changing, or clarify- v
ing, the rights of citizens through
meetings which "spell out" these k
rights. He added that these meet-
ings served an educational func-I
tion in the area of public rela-
tions, or more specifically, racial '
-The police department is in
the process of re-assigning mem-
bers of their personnel to differ- -Daily-Thomas R. Copt
ent areas of the city. IWITH ALL SIGNS POINTING TOWARD A VICTORY for Marvin Esch in yesterday's hotly contested primary for the GOP nomina-
Many of the city's residents and tion from Michigan's second' Congressional district, his supporters had much to celebrate. Esch was given a surprise birthday party by
businessmen attended last night's his wife amidst last night's election return festivities.
meeting in order to represent the
feelings of the average citizen.
Wheeler spid that they expressed
"a favorable attitude" to the es-
tablishment of a permanent citi- sek Wins Congressina Contest
zen's review board in the area of9

Williams To
Face Griffin
In November
Labor, Negro Vote
Favors Ex-Governor
In Primary Victory
Special To The Daily
DETROIT-Early this morning
Detroit Mayor Jerome P. Cav-
anagh conceded defeat in the
Democratic senatorial primary
election, and made plans to meet
with the victor, G. Mennen Wil-
Williams dealt Cavanagh a
crushing defeat, with about 56
per cent of the votes going to the
former governor. With 3,843 of the
state's 5,315 precincts reporting,
Williams had 319;604 to Cava-
nagh's 214,823.
In unopposed races, for gub-
ernatorial n o m i n a ti o n s, Gov.
George Romney piled up 297,166
votes, and Democrat Zolten Fer-
ency received 267,330 votes.
Observers felt Cavanagh's move
to see Williams was planned to
offset any feeling of a split in
the party. Earlier, Sen. Robert
Griffin (R-Mich) had visited
Cavanagh headquarters.
One Democratic ,official on the
scene commented that "the. Dem-
ocratic party will never be the
same." It was felt that despite
the defeat, Cavanagh will wield
more power in the party than he
did before running.
Williams enjoyed the backing
of most of the state's Democrat-
ic organizations, plus labor orga-
Cavanagh had pinned his hope.
for an upset on a crossover vote
by what he termed "enlightened"
Of the 110 key districts that
the Democratic Election Commit-
tee thought were indicative of the
entire state, only eight went tc
Cavanagh. All eight were all-whitE
districts that traditionally votes
In inner-city Negro districts
Williams was reported to have
won by margins as great as 20-1.
In races for the State Legisla-
ture, Democratic incumbents 'ap-
peared to be winning late lasi

racial relations. By CAROLE KAPLAN
Wheeler said that one of the
ordinances w h I c h should be .Official figures early this morn-
changed or clarified is the ordi- !in indicated that Marvin Esch
nance under w hich many are ar'- gidctdta avnEc
rested for expressions of profan- upset George Meader in yester-
ity. He claimed that the city law day's Republican primary for the
in this matter was more restrictive 2nd Congressional District. Mead-
than the state law, as was the case er, who had been U.S. Congress-
with many city ordinances. man from this district before, is

Election Returns Dim Cavanagh' s Hopes

alleged to be extremely right-wing,
while Esch calls himself "progres-
Although Ex-Governor G. Men-
nen Williams carried the state in
his bid for the Democratic nomi-
nation for U.S. Senator, his op-
ponent, Detroit Mayor Jerome
Cavanagh, won in Washtenaw
County by a substantial margin.
With about two-thirds of the
precincts reporting early this
morning, Cavanagh was leading
locally by a margin of 6,000 to
In other races, however, Wash-
tenaw County voted with the rest
of its district, -and with the rest
of the state.
In the gubernatorial contest, for
example, although both Gov.
George Romney and Democrat
Zolton Ferency ran unopposed,
Romney received a substantially
larger number of votes all over
the state, including Washtenaw
The most important local race
was the Second Congressional
District Primary for U.S. Congress.

we will have a victory. I am very
pleased with the results so far."
Meader had served 14 years as
Congressman from this district
prior to his defeat by Rep. Weston
Vivian in the 1964 election. He has
never before lost a Republican
Although Esch and Meader seem
to be at opposite poles of the
Republican philosophical position,
their campaign statements were
basically similar.
Both candidates criticized the
Johnson administration for its
handling of the war in Viet Nam
and the Poverty program. In par-

ticular, they felt that the present
administration is by-passing po-
tentially useful state and local
organizations in its attempts to
give aid.
Other local races, according to
official reports early this morn-
ing, showed the following results:
For State Senator: Bursley (R)
-8,937; Sallade (D)-8,108.
For State Representative: Frank-
lin (D)-3,984; Smit (R)-3,699.
For Circuit Court: Conlin -
11,323; Thayer-7,114.
For Probate Judge: O'Brien-
10,574; Campbell-6,833.


supporters, was having little or no

Special To The Daily Griffin, who will meet Williams
DETROIT - The ten o'clock in the November general election,
election returns bore bad tidings collected a surprising number of
for the Cavanagh headquarters votes in the Republican primary.
and quickly dampened the opti- While participating in a news
mistic spirit that had character- conference at his headquarters at
ized the evening's early arrivals. the Pick-Fort Shelby Hotel here,
The band "Surf Side Six," pos- Griffin made a surprise announce-
sibly imported from Florida with ment that the meeting would be
Haddad and Klampett, Cavanagh's temporarily adjourned while he
brilliant public relations firm, a visit to the headquarters
cheered things up only slightly. of the Detroit mayor,.

In a press conference that eve- many considered the insurmount-
ning Griffin outlined several as- able combination of the Michigan
pects of the campaign to follow. AFL-CIO and every Democratic
He indicated Viet Nam would be congressional district organization
the biggest issue as far as the in the state, staged a David and
voters were concerned. Goliath battle. Cavanagh and his
He said the bulk of his criticism supporters went into the fight en-
will be leveled at the non military thusiastically, constantly i emind-
side of the war, and Johnson's eco- ing themselves that just five years
nomic policies. earlier they had done the impos-
Griffin told The Daily "The sible by trouncing Detroit's Mayor
better of the two men has lost Louis Miriani, who too was en-
here tonight and I want to see dorsed by the AFL-CIO.
that the better of the two men Williams, a former six-term gov-
does not lose in November." He ernor and Assistant Secretary of

Students Prefer Professions

A fast-spreading cliche in the
business world is that colleges are
vaccinating students with the
anti-business virus. Last week, two
university placement officers said
the complaint merely underlined
that business spokesmen are mis-

nessmen are just becoming aware
of the attraction of such talent
and "wonder if they are missing
Harvard's Director of the Office
of Graduate and Career Plans,
Richard G. King, wrote in a re-

great numbers are needed in
professional and social ser
fields "if the improvement of
man welfare is to continue."
"Graduating seniors seem
sense this fact better than do
average businessmen or the

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