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July 16, 1966 - Image 3

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1966-07-16

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Mysteries of


The big dish hangs over the
Chesire woodlands like some gi-
gantic spaceship.
Occasionally, almost impercept-
ibly, it shifts position, tilted by
some unseen power. The birds in
the treetops sing on undisturbed.
Beneath, in a complex of single-
story buildings hidden by the trees,
a small group of scientists are
seeking the answer to the oldest
of all questions: How did every-
thing start, and how will every-
thing end?
This is Jodrell Bank-a few
miles south of Manchester-
brainchild of Sir Bernard Lovell,
a leader among the new astron-
omers-those who listen instead
of look.
Spectacular feats in tracking
Soviet and American spaceshots
have brought world fame to Lovell
and his dish-Jodrell's huge radio
telescope. Yet space-tracking is

the merest fraction of his work,
a minor sideline.
His real task, and he has given
his life to it, is to probe far beyond
the moon and planets, far back
into space and time toward the
very act of creation. He is, quite
literally, in contact with things
that happened long before man
walked the earth.
To understand this, look up one
night at one of the brighter stars.
The light from the brightest star
in the Northern Hemisphere takes
nine years to reach us. So you
are seeing that star not as it is
now but as it was nine years ago.
Lovell's radio telescope and
others working with it are homing
in on radio emissions that seem
to have started in outer space
perhaps six billion years ago. By
some theories that is half way
back to the origin of the universe.
Now, at 52, Lovell believes'that
science is on the verge of a big

leap toward the answer to that
oldest question-how it all began.
Science is divided between two
main theories-that the universe
started with the explosion of a
primeval atom, or that it always
has been much as it is now, with
new galaxies forming from prim-
eval dust as old ones are destroyed.
At this very moment, Lovell
said, it is probably more difficult
than at any time in the past
decade to decide the answer. The
reason is that his and similar
studies have turned up so many
new facts which don't always fit
the theories.
The big dish started work in
1957, with the government and
public restive about its final cost
of $2 million. Then, in October
that year, the Soviets put up their
first Sputnik.

ly, pinpointed the course of the
satellite's silent carrier rocket.
Two years later Lovell told the
world the Soviets had placed their
Luna II rocket accurately on the
moon. The Russians came up with
this information later.
Since 1957, Lovell has acted as
a sort of middleman in the space
race. Both Russians and Ameri-
cans consult him and cooperate
with him, and occasionally rile
With the Russians he has co-
operated in bouncing signals off
the moon and Venus, projects po-
tentially important in internation-
al communications.
American scientists at Cali-
fornia's Mt. Palomar optical tele-
scope-the Big Eye-probe out
space for visual confirmation of
Lovell's radio findings at Jodrell,
the Big Ear.
Lovell denounced the American
project to put a ring of needles

in space around the earth. He Soviet space shots. The answer is
thought it a danger to other simple geography.
scientific projects. U.S. experts Most Soviet space shots are
insist he was wrong, controlled from a space head-

big dish was hooked up to the sort of the universe to mapping man's
of machine used by thousands of nearest neighbor, the moon, by
newspapers and man for the first radar.
time saw the moon's surface in Design studies have started for
closeup, an even more powerful radio tele-

He was equally critical of the
Soviet attempt to put an un-
manned rocket on Venus. This, he
said, could carry bacteria to the
planet and eliminate the chance
of discovering whether life could
exist independently there.
The Russians said the rocket
would be sterilized-it missed any-
way-but Lovell insists total ster-
ilization is impossible.
He is worried by the amount of
space junk whizzing around the
earth. He believes it may make
radio astronomy impossible by the
end of this century. He wants in-
ternational agreements to keep the
spaceways clear.
Americans sometimes ask why
Lovell so often seems ahead of
their own space experts in tracking

quarters in the Crimea. The Rus-
sians naturally time their shots
to arrive when the target, say the
moon or Mars, is above their hori-
zon and they can keep perfect
radio contact.
Jodrell is near enough the Cri-
mea to home in on the same tar-
gets. But when the Russians can
see the moon, the United States
The supreme example was this
year's Jodrell triumph in moni-
toring the Russians' first pictures
from the moon. Lovell's assistants
successfully tracked the Lunik's
soft landing and began picking up
signals from it.
They were exactly the same sig-
nals as are used to send wire-
photos to newspapers. Jodrell's

Lovell was criticized by both
the Russians and some Western
scientists for releasing these moon
pictures. But he believes in free-
dom of information.
To the critics he said: "My'
duty is to release the information
obtained by the equipment at our
disposal whenever it is of scien-
tific and public interest. To do
otherwise would be unethical."
Jodrell, he insists, is not a gov-
ernment agency but part of a
great university . searching for
knowledge. Hardly 3 per cent of
its time is given to satellite and
space probe tracking.
Its real work, of which the pub-.
lie seldom hears, ranges from
mapping the furthest known limits

scope capable of probing back to
galaxies from which the light
would take nine billion years to
reach the earth.
If it could be built-and the cost
will run into millions-astron-
omers could begin mapping the
outer stars as they existed nine
billion years ago. This, they say,
could be decisive in choosing be-
tween the two theories of universal
Whatever the decision, Lovell
believes that somewhere out there
it is highly probable that life of
some kind exists or has existed.
"Man," he says, "must give up
the idea that he is unique, or at
least the idea that the solar sys-
tem is unique."

Lovell picked
signals but, stilla

up the Sputnik
more spectacular-



Ask Hanoi

Rights Bill Provision
Gains Key Supporter

No Progress Seen
In Air Strike Talks



civil rights spokesman for House
Republicans has endorsed the open
housing provision of the admin-
istration's 1966 civil rights bill.
The action yesterday by Rep.

By The Associated Press would be a more dangerous step," known to be prisoners, one st
As indications mounted that he said. It would "set loose emo- pected POW and 86 missing foi
North Viet Nam intends to try tions very hard to control in this total of 104.
United States pilots for "war country," he added, but he would Informed sources said intel
crimes," and that such action not speculate. gence reports of Hanoi's inte
would lead to American escalation Sources tions are conflicting, but t
of the war, 18 U.S. senators urged Well-informed sources have been many flatly declare the trials
the Communists yesterday "to re- reporting that if trials-rumored be held. Two East European Cc
frain from any act of violence" to start July 20-take place, some munist news agencies carried
against captured airmen. of the possible escalating measures ports on the situation, one se
Execution of the prisoners that might be considered by the ing 60 Americans would be ti
"would incite a public demand U.S. include: and the other predicting the tr
for retaliation swift and sure" -Bombing of North Viet Nam may start within days.
against the Hanoi government, the industry. The U.S. is believed to ha
senators, all Democrats, said in a -Bombing of port facilities at urged countries with missions
joint statement. Haiphong and vital irrigation and Hanoi to warn the Communist
Sen. Frank Church (D-Idaho) flood control dams. gime of the possible consequent
issued the statement, termed "a "Nothing they-North Viet Nam of the trials, which the U.S. vie
plea for sanity," as representing -could do would be more likely as a serious breach of the Gene
the view of senators who have ad- to increase the pressure on the conference on prisoners of war.
vised against any drastic escala- President to escalate the air war," Following Hanoi's recent para
tion of the war. a high government source said. ing of captured U.S. pilots,
Reduce Influence Hanoi appears under swelling State Department sent a sharl
The document said execution of popular pressure to act against worded protest claiming the acti
the captured men--as threatened the prisoners, mostly Air Force, was a clear violation of the Ger
by the Hanoi government-would Navy and Marine pilots shot down va document, which the Unit
"drastically reduce the influence during raids on North Viet Nam. States, Hanoi and South Viet Ni
of all those in the U.S. who have Much of thep ressure has been all have pledged to uphold. E
tried to curtail the fighting." generated by the government posing prisoners to intimidati
Church said the statement propaganda network which dra- insults or public curiosity is
"would not have been issued if we matically stepped up its efforts pressly prohibited.
wuhad not been made to feel there about one month ago. There has been no respo
The inability of North Viet from North Viet Nam and offic
is a very serious danger affecting Nam's Soviet-made missiles, MIG's sources said none was expeci
the lives of the American airmen." and anti-aircraft batteries to halt All past efforts by the Unit
That was his response when asked the daily American pounding of States, the Red Cross and frier
whether the senators had con- the homeland has caused a ser- ly and neutral governments to
sulted with the administration be- ous loss of face to the Ho Chi m a
fore issuing their statement. Minh regime. Hanoi thus may feel -
The State Department has said it is pushed into a corner where
threats of war crimes trials for it must hold trials despite the
the airmen are a matter of in- consequences.
creasing concern to the U.S. This Prisoners
was elaborated upon yesterday Official figures list 34 known
when Vice-President Hubert H. prisoners of war in North Viet
Humphrey warned it would be "a Nam, 56 others who are suspected The wity offiviai Bulletin is
very, very serious development" to be prisoners and 93 missing for ottiniai publication of the TUnie
ver, vrysits of Mi1fh'gan for which Thi
if the trials take place. a total of 183. In South Viet Nam Michigan Oaiiy assumes no editor
"I can't think of anything that the figures are 17 Americans tai responsibility. Notices should b

better treatment for U.S. POW's William M.Mca uoch (R-Ohi)
have run into stone walls. widened a split in Republican
The North Vietnamese contend ranks over the disputed section.,
the prisoners are war criminals in The Senate GOP leader, Everett
an undeclared war and thus are M. Dirksen of Illinois, has express-j
not entitled to the protection of ed firm opposition to the propo-
the Geneva convention. sal.
Among other things the conven- McCulloch Rebl
tion requires: human treatment, the Judiciary ormttee bican on
no reprisals against POW's, reg-the verdiciar Coieesboe
ular mall and inspection of PO with several party colleagues on
the committee in lining up for thes
camps and interviews with prison- compromise provision which
ers by a third party. ,,,,*,,,a A

height of legislative hyprocisy."
Another said it is of doubtful con-
stitutionality. A fourth said it
is badly drafted and likely to be
- McCulloch joined with Mathias
in pledging to support the proposal
when it comes to the floor. Re-
portedly under pressure from the
House Republican leadership, Mc
M Culloch had voted against the pro-
posal in committee.
Mathias and McCulloch ac-
knowledged it would leave wide
areas of housing untouched, but
said the provision would assure
that houses in new developments
would be open to all who could
afford theirs

chinists strike against five major
airlines entered its second week-
end last night with the parties
still far apart.
Assistant Secretary of Labor
James J. Reynolds recessed ne-
gotiations at 5:30 p.m. and asked
the disputants to caucus among
themselves during the evening.
He then asked that the negoti-
ators for the AFL-CIO Interna-
tional Association of Machinists
and the five airlines come back
today at 10 a.m. with "some new
approaches to the problem."
Reynolds characterized yester-


North Viet Nam already has
executed three Americans in Te-
prisal for the execution of three
Viet Cong terrorists by the South
Vietnamese government,
A key section says prisoners
prosecuted for acts committed be-
fore capture still must enjoy all
protection guaranteed by the trea-
ty-in other words no executions.
North Viet Nam, as well as some
other Communist countries, in
binding themselves to the treaty
specifically excluded this section.
The United States does not rec-
ognize any exclusions to the trea-
Hanoi says trials are sanctioned
under the Nuremberg principle.
One U.S. source said the trial of
German war criminals "set one
of the worst possible precedents
which we may see come back to
haunt us."

would largely exempt indivdual
homeowners from its proposed
ban against discrimination in the
sale or rental of housing. It was
adopted as a substitute for a com-
plete ban proposed by the admin-
This compromise sponsored by
Rep. Charles M. Mathias, Jr. (R-
Md drew fire yesterday from a
real estate spokesman and most
Republican members of the Sen-
ate Judiciary subcommittee, which;
is holding hearings on the Senate
version of the bill.
The wide range of Republican
views on the issue within the
House Judiciary Committee was
disclosed in a series of opinions
added to the committee's report on
the bill, which is due to come up
in the House the week of July 25.
Two other GOP committee
members called the proposal "the

World News Roundup

By The Associated Press
States yesterday recognized the
military regime in Argentina
which ousted President Arturo Il-
lia on June 28 on charges his gov-
ernment was not moving to solve
the country's problems.
The government of Lt. Gen.
Juan Carlos Ongania apparently
won its fight for U.S. recognition
by pledging a return to democ-
racy in Argentina, although it!
made no mention of an election

WASHINGTON-Two bank reg-
ulatory agencies--the Federal Re-
serve Board and the Federal De-
posit Insurance Corporation -
moved yesterday to cool the hot
interest rate war between com-
mercial banks and savings and
loan institutions.
They reduced from 5/2 to 5 per
cent the maximum interest rate
banks may pay on time deposits
of 90 days or more which have
more than one maturity date. The
rate was dropped to 4 per cent on
such deposits of less than 90 days.
* * *
armed Soviet helicopter flew over
West German territory near here
Thursday and held an American
helicopter at gunpoint for some
minutes after forcing it to land,
the U.S. Army disclosed yesterday.
The incident brought a strong
protest from Army headquarters,
at Heidelberg.

day's session, one week after the
start of the strike, as "another
day of futile rather than con-
structive discussions."
Met Separately
He said he had met with the
groups separately and also with
individual subcommittees "to try
and provide the basis for a useful
joint session."
"That has not been possible, so
I sent them both to caucus among
themselves," he said.
Reynolds said the talks are still
snagged on national issues which
must be resolved before the dis-
cussions can move to the 37 or so
local issues.
The national issues must be
solved first because they apply
equally to all the airlines, he said.
He added that, "We are no nearer
a settlement today than we were,
really, a week ago."
Reynolds said he expects to keep
the negotiators at work over the
weekend, if necessary.
New Problem
Joseph W. Ramsey, Machinists
vice-president, told reporters that
a possible new difficulty had aris-
en, outside the formal issues.
Asked whether this was some-
thing on the order of the union's
complaint against Northwest Air-
lines' action restricting privileges
of employes at Tokyo, Ramsey
said this was possible, but the
union was checking out the facts.
Reynolds said of this possible
new difficulty: "I think it will be
ironed out."
William J. Curtin, chief nego-
tiator for the five airlines-East-
ern, National, Northwest, Trans
World and United - commented
during a noon recess.
"We still have an impasse-we
have made no progress."

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r'. ,


Mrs. Gandhi Decries
Chinese Belief in War

sent in TVPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Bldg be-
fore 2 p.m. of the day preceding
pubiceation and by 2 p m. Friday
for Saturday and Sunday. General
Notices may be published a maxi-
mum of two times on request;,lDay
Calendar items appear once only.
Student organization notices are not
accepted tor publication..

By The Associated Press

could have been referring was

Prime Minister Indira Gandhi Communist China. I"ay O laten
of India has accused Red China "Apparently certain powers do cinema Guild--The Yearling": Ar-j
of rejecting peaceful coexistence not desire peace," Mrs. Gandhi chitecture Aud., 7 and 9:15 p.m.
and promoting "tension in justifi- added. "They seek to promote ten-
cation of a dogmatic belief in the sion in justification of a dogmatic Dept, of Speech University Players
iiievitabioty f war co IV": Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre, 8l

Institute of Science and Technology
Lecture-Dik Ter Haar, Dept. of Theo-
retical Physics, Clarendon Laboratory,
University of Oxford, England, "The
Bloch Equation": 296 Physics-Astronomy
Bldg., 4 p.m.
Dept, of English Lecture-William P.
Viall, Western Michigan University,
"The Teacher of English in the Age
of Education": Aud. C, Angell Hall. 4
National Band Conductors Confer-
ence Concert-Allen Chase, trombon-
'st, Detroit Symphony Orchestra, Reci-
tal Hall, School of Music, 4 p.m.
National Band Conductors Confer-
ence Concert-National Music Camp
High School Band, George C. Wilson,
conductor: William D. Revelli, guest
conductor: Hill Aud., 8:30 p.m.
Lecture-Prof. John Burton, Univer-
sity of London, informal seminar on
"Conflict Studies and Peace Research
in Britain," Mon., July 18, 3:15 p.m.,
Room 1057, Mental Health Research In-
stitute. Sponsored by Center for Re-
search on Conflict Resolution, Mental
Health Research Institute.
Genteral Notices
Ioetry Reading: James Dickey, poet
and critic, will present a "Reading of
His opetry" in Aud. A, Angell Hall, at
4 p.m., on Tues., July 19. All interested
persons are invited to attend.
Lecture: William P. Viall, School of

Tolucation, W %estern Michiga nUniver- for contemporary modern upholstered
sity, will lecture on: "Thie Teacher living room furniture, Royalty basis
of English in the Age of Education" in and public acknowledgement on every-
And. C, Angell Hall, at 4 p.m. on Mon., thing created.
July 18. All interested persons are in- City of Milwaukee-Safety educator
vited to attend, for planning safety ed. programs re-
__td___ttndlated to traffic, home and public safety.
August Teacher's Certificate Candi- One year exper, in public relations,
dates: All of the requirements for the journalism, safety, or related public
teacher's certificate must be completed information. Grad with related major.
by Aug. 5. These requirements include State of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah-
th teacher's oath, the health state- Deputy Manager in the Safety Council.
ment, the social security number, and Grad in safety engrg./safety ed., sociol-
the Bureau of Appointments material. ogy, poll.sci., or rel. field. Psychologist,
The oath should be taken as soon as planning and executing programs in
possible in Room 1431 UES. The office mental health ed. and community rel.
is open from 8-12 and 1-5, Monday Grad PhD in psych. and 3 years in
through Friday, clinical psych, or as administrator or
consultant in psych. or related field.
Doctoral Examination for Arthur Cof - Datex Div. of Giannini Controls Corp.,
man wolfe, Political Science; thesis: Monrovia, Calif:-Marketing and sales
"The Direct Primary in American Poli- mgrs. in other areas of U.S. Exper.
tics," Mon., July 18, Room 3034 ISR, and no exper. Senior engineers and
at 0 ~ m.ChirmnD. E. Stokes. ' designers, 5-10 yrs. exper. Under 5
at 10 am. Chairman, yrs. exper. for sales, administrative,
Doctoral Examination for Gerd production planner draftsmen.

Satya jitRay's

Art and Film Discussion

111 1



In a speech at a Kremlin ban- and the use of aggressive force in
quet last night given by Pre- the settlement of problems."
mier Alexei N. Kosygin, Mrs. Gan- pressure on North
dhi did not mention Red China
by name, but she left no doubt it In another negotiation develop-
was the Chinese she had in mind. ment, a West European govern-
She omitted any *reference to ment official said at the United
Viet Nam, tending to confirm ear- Nations yesterday that Eastern
tier reports that she had failed to Europeans in Communist countries
convince the Russians they should told him they were putting pres-
join in a call for a Geneva con- sure on North Viet Nam to nego-
ference on Vietnamese peace. tiate for peace with the U.S. He
feLVetnaeseasaid they asked that Western Eu-
- Leaves Today ropeans put similar pressure onj

p.m. _

Events Monday
Bureau of Industrial Relations Sem-
inar-"How to Train Job Instructors":
Michigan Union, 8:30 a~m.
National Band ConductorswConfer-
ence Concert - University Woodwind
Quintet: Recital Hall, School of Mu-
sic, 9 a.m.
National Band Conductors Confer-
ence Concert-Mel Broiles, trumpet,
Metropolitan Opera Orchestra: Recital
Hall, School of Music, 10:40 a.m.
National Band Conductors Confer-
ence Concert-University Summer Ses-
sion Band: Rehearsal Hall, Schooi of
Music, 1:30 p.m.
Audio-Visual Education Center Film
Preview-"Incident on Wilson Street I
and II": Multipurpose Room, Under-
graduate Library, 1:30 p.m.

Mrs. Gandhi leaves for home to-
day after a four-day visit, to be,
followed into Moscow an hour la-
ter by Prime Minister Harold Wil-
son of Britain.
He too has little apparent
chance of convincing the Rus-
sians the Geneva conference
should be reconvened. The Rus-
sans and the British were co-
chairmen of the 1954 conference
that ended the war in Indochina.
In her Kremlin speech, Mrs.
Gandhi said India will continue to
practice nonalignment and peace-
ful coexistence.
"However, we deeply regret that
a major Asian power should have
forgotten the pledge it signed at
Bandung and has, by rejecting
peaceful coexistence, sought to
weaken if not overthrow non-
alignment," she declared.
Communist China
The only major Asian power at

the U.S.
The informant, who asked not to
be identified, visited Warsaw,
Prague and Bucharest a few weeks
ago-before the U.S. on June 29
first bombed Hanoi and Haiphong
area oil depots.


PHONE 482-2056
OPEN 7:00

Muehllehner, Physics; thesis: "The 208
PB(D, T)207 PB Reaction with 15 to 25
MEV Deuterons," Mon., July 18, Room
629 Physics-Astronomy Bldg., at 1 p.m.
Chairman, W. C. Parkinson.
Doctoral Examination for Clinton Da-
vid Tompkins, History; thesis: "Sena-
tor Arthur H. Vandenberg, 1884-1945,"
Mon., July 18, Room 3609 Haven Hall,
at 8:30 a n. Chairman, Sidney Fine.
Tobi-Jens Furniture Originals, Wilkes-
Barre, Pa.-Desire talented designers
Triple-Threat Hero!
Three-In-One Lover!
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For further Information please call
764-7460, General Division, Bureau of
Appointments. 3200 SAB.
212 SAB-
Bunt Foods and Industries, Toledo,
Ohio--Looking for students to work in
food processing plant, Apply now, start
work first of August. Good wages and
overtime paid, Details at SPS, 212 SAB,
Lower Level.

Saturday, July 16

. otdazz/.e
ale a$
V r

331 Thompson


8:00 P.M.



4Ak aI 11




i's time!)

America's Funniest family in their
Shown at 8:45 &12:00

S7:00 ad 9:15'
1 I
1 t
1 I
One of the most touching and poignant
of American films.

I fir:




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