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June 22, 1966 - Image 2

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1966-06-22

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Seventy-Sixth Year
Where Opinions Are Free, 420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBORMICH. NEWS PHONE: 764-0552
Truth Will Prevail'ARBOR,
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the inidividual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
University Irresponsibility
And the Class Rankings


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IF THERE EVER was a classic example
of University administrative bungling,
this was it. But this time it was not just
a student's grades, or a "hold credit"
for a library fine that was paid three
semesters ago. This time the University
is fooling around with the lives of sev-
eral thousand students.
Yesterday it was learned that the Uni-
versity is releasing class rankings for all
male students in two weeks. Letters will
be sent out to each student's home ad-
dress today informing them of this move.
They then have until July 8 to write back
to the University, if they want their class
rankings withheld from their draft
The reason that students have only two
weeks to make this crucial decision is that
the Selective Service never bothered to
tell the University (and, presumably, oth-
er schools) what its policy was on the
class rankings, and the University, until
very recently, never bothered to ask.
IT APPEARS that the University began
to worry about the class ranking policy
a few weeks ago. Finding that they were
unsure of the policy of the Selective
Service, the University set up a meeting
with Col. Arthur B. Holmes, Michigan Se-
lective Service director, to clarify the sit-
uation. They were informed by Col.
Holmes that the Michigan Selective Serv-
ice was reviewing all student deferments
at the end of July, and, therefore, it need-
ed the class rankings well before that
But two weeks grace is hardly enough
time for many students to reply to the
University. Home addresses change, stu-
dents go off to Europe and elsewhere,
and any number of other factors confuse
the situation during the summer.
The University was aware long before
the end of the winter semester that the
Selective Service would require class
rankings in the near future (although it
probably was not aware that they would
be needed so soon), and could have asked
Editorial Staff
CLARENCE FANTO ................. ....Co-Editor
CHARLOTTE WOLTER.................. Co-Editor
BUD WILKINSON................Sports Editor
BETSY COHN................Supplement Manager
NIGHT EDITORS: Meredith Elker, Michael Heifer,
Shirley Rosick, Susan Schnepp, Martha Wolfgang.
Business Staff
SUSAN PERLSTADT .............. Business Manager
LEONARD PRATT.............Circulation Manager
JEANNE ROSINSKI.............Advertising Manager
RANDY RISSMAN .............. Supplement Manager
Subscription rate: $4.50 semester bybcarrier ($5 by
mail); $8 two semesters by carrier ($9 by mail).
The Daily is a member of the Associated Press and
Collegiate Press Service.
Second class postage paid at Ann Arbor. Mich.
Published daily Tuesday through Saturday morning.

for the student's permission to release
rankings before they all left campus.
IF THE UNIVERSITY can be forgiven
for this oversight-being deeply involv-
ed with other more pressing problems as
administrators often are- it cannot be
forgiven for complying with the Selec-
tive Service's request in the first place.
This University puts unusual pressure
on its students. Its educational program
is much more demanding than that of
most other schools in this country, and,
in addition, students are further burden-
ed by the trimester system. The demands
of the individual courses, however, seem
to be the same as they were under the
regular semester system--another source
of tension for the student.
Combine this with the draft and the
pressures and doubts that it engenders,
and it looks like a student at Michigan
doesn't have much of a chance. Of course,
most of them continue to study with
relative diligence and ignore the draft
until they have to renew their student
deferments. But things could be easier if
the administration were at least on their
lease of class rankings. The University
feels that it must release them because
many students did not take the draft
exam, knowing that their class rankings
were high enough to ensure that they
would keep their student deferments.
In addition, there is the possibility that
the method of determining student defer-
ments will be changed by next year
(which may have been behind the deci-
sion of Wayne State to discontinue giving
out class rankings) so that class rank-
ings will no longer be required.
But all this does not help the student
now whose record will soon come under
the keen scrutiny of some unknown offi-
cial in his local draft board unless he
acts quickly. And, while admitting that
the blame for this boondoggle does be-
long in greater part with the Michigan
Selective Service, the University certain-
ly did its share to make the situation
O, PITY THE POOR Michigan stu-
dent, sitting at home, pouring over a
letter that arrived the day before from
the University to cordially inform him
about the classranking situation, trying
to decide whether his C plus average or
no average at all will look better to his
local draft board.
Pity, too, the student who arrives home
from Europe sometime in late August to
find that he has been drafted.
Thanks a lot.




MT~)1 -N-


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'Think Tanks : Science in National Policy


THE ROMANTIC ideal, express-
ed by an Englishman to a
Frenchman during the Napoleonic
Wars, that "Science knows no
national frontiers,"has vanished
in the twentieth century. The
methodical manner by which gov-
ernments mobilize scientific man-
power into the service of the state
not only tends to change the char-
acter of educational institutions
and create a new professional
elite-the research scientist-but
changes the concept of science
tific and technological education
becomes the imperatives o a stace,
which attempting bureaucratic
controls from the top along ideo-
logical lines, often runs counter
to the results of scientific method-
ology. Thus, Tirfim Lysenko's
genetics become favored by the
Communist party over Western
discoveries and are not relinquish-
ed until party-line biology runs a
collision course with a potato-
crop failure.
rection of scientific education,
strengthened by the reactionary
fears of a Soviet space coup, have
started the process of turning our
universities into what Clark Kerr
calls the "federal grant univer-
sity." The advocators of "pure"
versus "applied" research in-
fluence national science policy, in
cold monetary terms, to varying
degrees; but the trend is always

towards the federal government
getting what it wants.
Federal interest in and support
of scientific research goes back
to World War II, when scientists
were recruited from academic and
industrial institutions en masse
to create the technology for win-
ning the war. Out of the cold-war
strategy that followedcame that
unique arm of federal science
policy-the paramilitary.
Situated halfway between the
civilian universities and the mili-
tary development labs, these
"think tanks" combine functions
of both and play an important
part in influencing scientific and
military policy for the country.
GRANDDADDY of them all is
Rand Corporation, set up in Santa
Monica, California, in 1945, as a
nonprofit research affiliate of the
Air Force. Rand has grown stead-
ily in number of employes (over
700 Ph.D.s) and earnings ($20
million per year, ploughed back
into development).
Says Harvard sociologist David
Riesman, "Rand has succeeded
where the universities have failed.
They have learned how to mobi-
lize various disciplines, seemingly
unrelated, to move with a problem
from seedling of theory to applica-
tion." The recent development of
interdisciplinary programs at the
universities seems to take its cue
from this model.
Rand was originally chartered,
not by Congress but by agreement
between Douglas Aircraft Corp.
and the USAF, to furnish informa-

tion and "independent, objective
advice" in order to "assist in the
formulation and implementation
of Air Force plans, policies and
programs." With time, however,
Rand's "objective advice," while
developing aspects of radar, the
H-bomb and the ICBM, have run
counter to the strictly military
outlook the air force would like
it to keep.
WHILE RAND'S outlook tends
to remain within the cold-war
strategy promulgated by the State,
Defense and armed forces depart-
ments, their tactical innovations
have roused the ire of the Air
Force in the past. Most notable
was the 1957 report, issued by
then Rand head H. Rowan Gai-
ther, Jr., which profoundly in-
fluenced U.S. missile strategy.
An Albert Wohlstetter commit-
tee study had disclosed that U.S.
Strategic Air Command bases
were vulnerable to complete de-
struction if the Russians attacked
first. The discovery that U.S. stra-
tegy was in reality not "retalia-
tory" but "first strike" was taken
to mean that the Soviets might
even then be preparing for a
surprise attack!
The Gaither Report was instru-
mental in concentrating U.S. mili-
tary development of the ICBM as
an "invulnerable second-strike
force" designed to create "a deli-
cate balance of terror" so that
neither side would risk striking
first. The decision of Defense Sec-
retary McNamara to pare manned
bomber expenses in favor of the

Minuteman, and to cancel the
Skybolt missile, caused the Air
Force to threaten contract cuts to
Rand. Many Rand personnel re-
signed, including Herman Kahn
("On Thermonuclear War") to
found his own think tank on the
AIR FORCE involvement in
other think-tank projects is under
fire presently. A Congressional in-
vestigation of Aerospace Corp.
last year disclosed that it had
squandered "millions" of tax dol-
lars on new facilities, public re-
lations, high pay, and elaborate
entertainment. As a result, the
Air Force has now decided to let
System Development Corp., an
offspring of Rand, turn "com-
mercial," and the Defense Dept.
is conducting a general review of
nonprofits sponsored by all the
armed forces.
Charges of private industry
profiting from the development
of these tax-supported corpora-
tions have been a major criticism
provoke review of their functions.
Another aspect which might be
investigated is the degree to which
the intellectual elements working
on economic and strategic aspects
of national defense policy tend to
become isolated and self-perpetu-
ating in an unreal world.
developed strategy of downgrading
nuclear capability in Europe, Har-
vard's Henry Kissinger predicted
the breakup of the NATO alliance
three years ago:
"There is a fantastic intel-

lectual arrogance for all tradi-
tional forms and all those facets
of human beings and nations
which are not rational. As a
result there is a terrible lack of
knowledge of men as they are in
the real world. Rand looks upon
general war and foreign policy
from a point of view of cost
effectiveness and efficiency
"They would have Europeans
fit into this scheme, but Euro-
peans do not see themselves as
men on the Rand chessboard.
They know there is more to men
than systems analysis."
As a result of this crystallized
attitude, Rand has fostered little
critical discussion of the cold war
policy. Rather than researching
disarmament and entente with the
Soviet Union, they have presumed
an ever spiraling conflict between
the U.S. and USSR. The assump-
tion that "mutual invulnerability"
is the permanent solution to peace
gets a cold smack of reality in
such real-life confrontations as
the Cuban missile crisis.
THE INVENTION of terms like
"overkill, "megadeath" and "think-
ing about the unthinkable," bear
out the charge that the computer-
ized efficiencies which backs Mc-
Namara's operations have the as-
pects of game theory.
And because the system is neat
and is a rationale for the "ration-
ality of the irrational," the Rand
corporation has already construct-
ed a plan for the military arming
of outer space, which it insists
must be undertaken.



The 1968 Elections: Now Anyone Can Play

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TH E POLLS, plus the California
primary elections, have shown
that the President no longer com-
mands the great majority which
elected him in 1964. Though this
is the fact of the matter, there is
room for much difference of opin-
ion about why this has happened
and what it means.
Certainly the gross figures of
the polls do not reflect a simple
alignment of opinion "for" and
"against" our part in the Viet-
namese war. The current majority
disapproves of the President's
conduct of the war. But this sta-
tistical majority certainly includes
more people who want him to win
the war by hitting harder than it
does of those who want to reduce
the war and to negotiate it. In
this sense the President still has
a potential majority behind him.
His trouble is that there is the
greatest doubt whether the war
can be won by hitting harder. This
doubt is in the President's own
mind. Otherwise he would not
hesitate to hit harder.
means, so we are told, that the
Johnson consensus has disappear-
ed and that there is a polarization
of opinion toward the two ex-
tremes of the right and the left.
What. then, is causing such a
polarization of opinion? What is
causing the melting away of the
great central majority of opinion
on which the Johnson consensus
of 1964 was based?
It has been caused, I believe.
by the radical change which has
taken place between the Presi-
dent's position in the election
campaign of 1964 and the course
he has followed since he was in-
augurated in 1965. The cardinal
principle of the election campaign
was the promise and the pledge to
give first priority to the long-

when he started the bombing of
North Viet Nam, has destroyed the
consensus and has caused the
polarization toward the right and
the left which makes us all so
very anxious.
THERE IS NO easy solution
available to the President or to us.
The President has misconceived
and misjudged the war, and the
consequences, whether he leans
now to the hawks or to the doves,
will be bloody, embarrassing and
sterile. While the war goes on, the
mood of the country grows
angrier, and the hope of dealing
with our truly gigantic problems
by reason, goodwill and consensus
is vanishing.
The President's predicament is
such that one can no longer take
for granted what everyone took
for granted six months ago-that
the election of 1968 is already
settled. The grinding impact of
the war and of the enforced
standstill in our internal affairs
could in the course of two years be
so destructive to the Democratic
Party that the Republican nomi-
nee would be very attractive in-
IT HAPPENS that while our po-
sition abroad is deteriorating,
the President no longer has a
stable body of advisers on whom
he can count. In the field of
foreign policy there is no longer
what we may call Presidential
thinking because the expert staff
which is indispensable to Presi-
dential thinking has been dis-
The departure of McGeorge
Bundy has not been followed by
the appointment of a successor.
There has instead been a virtual
dissolution of the White House
staff which under President Ken-
nedy and President Johnson has

the higher echelons of the State
Department, there is no prospect
that the State Department will
become capable of acting as a
genuine adviser to the President.
UNTIL RECENTLY, as a matter
of fact until the departure of Mr.
Bundy and the dissolution of his
staff, the President maintained a
certain essential balance in his
foreign policy. He knew that if he
were to conduct the kind of war
in Viet Nam that he had decided
to conduct, he ought not at the
same time to engage in an irrecon-
SCENE IN A Lansing parking lot:
Representative A: What seems
to be the problem? You look lost
out here.
Rep. B: It's just that I can't
for the life of me remember which
auto company is letting me use
one of its cars this month.
Rep. A: Say, that is a problem,
why don't you hire a chauffeur
like I do?
Rep. B: Oh, I could afford it,
but it might not set too well with
the voters in my district. These
days the least little thing seems to
upset them.
Rep. A: I know what you mean,

cilable quarrel in Europe, a quarrel
which would not only alienate
France, but which would put West
Germany in an impossible situa-
tion and embitter still further the
Soviet Union. But today the State+
Department faction which wants
to pursue the quarrel is making
our European policy.
If the quarrel is pursued, if we'
do not make it our business to
settle it, we shall disorganize the
Western alliance and shall find
ourselves as isolated in Europe as
we are already isolated in Asia.
If now we make the catastrophic
mistake of forcing the Germans to
quarrel with the French, the West-
ern alliance will be destroyed.
ALTHOUGH Secretary Rusk is
a globalist when its comes to com-
mitting us to fight and spend all
over the globe, he is so preoccupied
with Southeast Asia that he has
neglected Europe, Africa and Latin
Vever a 'Dul
them by cutting down on appro-
priations. Like, the University of
Michigan didn't need $62 million
Rep. A: No, they were going to
use a million of it to try and
teach people how to learn or some-
thing, I never did get that
straight, but someone told me it
was a waste of money.
Rep. B: Someone told me a lot
of the appropriation would go to
study old people, supposed to be a
big waste of time. After all, you
can't make them young again.
REP. A: AND AS for money for
salaries, that University doesn't
need more than 58 million. The
faculty salaries they are already

America. The United States is a
world power, and the President
who conducts its foreign policy
must be enabled by his advisers to
see all his decisions in the context
of the power relationships all over
the globe.
This has not been done in re-
cent times. The deterioration of
our foreign relations is closely
related to the fact that when and
as we decide to intervene abroad
-be it to save democracy, be it
to fight communism, be it to bring
peace to mankind, whether it is
in Viet Nam, in Santa Domingo,
in the Congo-we do not act as a
great power among great powers
which consults with them and
seeks not only their help but heeds
their advice. We have been acting
on our own, without consultation,
unilaterally. That is the root of
the trouble.
(c), 1966, The Washington Post Co.
the students are on dope. It was
different in my day, then they
said one out of four was taking
drugs, but they must have been
wrong then because I never knew
anyone who even knew what dope
looked like.
Rep. B: Now one out of three-
it's a shame-must be due to all
the tension they put on kids these
days. They have to resort to arti-
ficial pleasures to get enjoyment
out of life. That kind of thing
sure isn't for me. All I have to do
is sit down at a bar and drink a
few Manhattans while the tele-
vision is on and I feel great again.
REP. A: I COULD use a good
drink. What do you say we go to


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