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April 29, 1961 - Image 3

Resource type:
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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-04-29

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THlE MICHIGAN DAILY

Military Blocka
Conro Leaders

ode Forces
To Parle'y

i ,

LEGAL FAILUREf
Indian States Abandon
Trial by Jury Concep t
NEW DELHI W)-Trial by jury, one of the most sacred concepts
of British and American law, 'is being abandoned in India as a
failure.
Only two of the 16 Indian states still use juries. These two are
now considering turning legal decisions over to judges alone.
Trial by jury always has, been limited in India to some areas
and particular types of cases. Even within these restrictions, the re-
suits have not always. been satisfactory. Some legal experts com-
plained that juries too often produced miscarriages of justice.
'No Evidence'
"I have known juries finding prisoners guilty in the face .of
no evidence," Mohandas K. Gandhi, 4the father of Indian independ-
gence, wrote in 1931. "We must not
"rslavishly copy all that is English."
Court nears The jury system originated in
England as protection from deci-
sions by .judges who might be
under the thumb of the king. The
A ffidavits same consideration applied in 19th
century Indiawhen judges were
JERUSALEM (P)-Thirty - five regarded as part of the British
additional pieces of evidence administration.
against Adolf Eichmann were in- The constitutionnof Independ-
agaist dol Eicman wee ~ ent India guafantees to citizens
troduced yesterday by Israeli At- "procedures established by law."
torney General Gideon- Hausner. Unlike the American Constitution,
Among these were affidavits .it does not specify that everyone
taken from Gestapo officers still is entitled to trial by jury. There
alive in West Germany and Aus- have been few public complaints
tria. Defense counsel Dr. Robert when trial by jury was eliminated
Servatius had contested the docu- by state. legislatures..
ments on the ground that the wit-' Not Fair
nesses should be heard before a In Uttar Pradesh, India's most
court either in Israel or Germany populous state, an investigating
so they could be. cross.examined. committee -was .told that jurors
The affidavits were made at were generally "open to approach"
Nuerberg in 194 for former SS and did not give a fair verdict. A
Nlite Guard) Lt. Col. Walter Hup- Bihar state committee found that
enkothen d.ox - MaJ.. Wilhelm "a nuiber of persons have made
Hoettl and former Capt. Eberhard it almost a profession to get them-
Von Thadden, onetime Jewish af- selves fchosen asJurors for the
fairs expert in the Nazi foreign theilthalgremunfation wandals
minist.some of them expect to get."
Hausner sought yesterday to Indian society is split by caste
show that Eichmann knew the and religious antagonisms which
precise meaning of the Nazi term can weigh more heavily in most
"final solution of the Jewish prob- men's minds than legal evidence.
lem," by introducing documents The educational level is extreme-
proving he was present at a con- ly 15w. States can ill afford the
ference ofhigh-level Nazi leaders money for jurors' fees. Thesesrea-
which worked out details of thesjurecs
solution. The document, Hausner sourie ctdagis.heueo
- - .. . -. Ljuries

MOISE TSHOMBE
... detained
TRIAL:
Court Hears
Prosecution
Documents
WASHINGTON (,P)-Federal in-
vestigators yesterday accused two
American Stock Exchange mem-
bers of doing "many millions of
dollars of harm" to thousands of
investors through massive market
manipulations.
Wholesale bribery efforts and
even a death threat against a cor-
poration executive were among
the scores of misdeeds charged to
the two brokers.
Lawyers for the Securities and
Exchange Commission said other
market-rigging cases in the agen-
cy's 26-year history "become al-
most trivial" by comparison.
The lawyers made this comment
in a 98-page brief summing up a
year-long investigation of the two
exchange members.
The SEC lawyers urged the
commission to expel both men'
from membership in the Ameri-
can - Exchange and revoke their
broker-dealer licenses.This would
be the maximum penalty which
the SEC could impose in this sort
of administrative action.
London StriKe
With Shortage
LONDON (P--A wildcat strike
of nearly half London's dock
workers threatened the capital last
night with food shortages and in-
flated prices.
Hundreds of tons of fruit and
vegetables lay unmoved in- the
holds of 61 ships, idled by a week-
long unofficial walkout.
Tomatoes were already short in
London's shops and selling at
twice last week's prices.
More than 13,000 men of a to-
tal dock force of 29,500 stayed off
the job yesterday. They are pro-
testing complaints that nonunion
men have been given employment
in the docks. The transport and
general workers' union, which
represents most of them, has con-
demned the strike but so far has
been unable to close it out.

Feud Arises
Over Order
On Advisors
Tshombe Leaves
Unity Conference
COQUILHATVILLE, The Congo
WA)-A military blockade enforced
with machine guns was thrown up
here yesterday to keep feuding
Congo leaders from leavingeuntil
they settle their quarrels.
In the center of the rising storm
is President Moise Tshombe of
Katanga province, who stalked out
of Coquilhatville's unity confer-
ence because the central govern-
ment bowed to a United Nations
demand to clear all foreign ad-
visers out of the Congo.
No Promise
Late yesterday, Tshombe went
to town from the airport; where he
had been detained two days. He
was accompanied by President
Laurent Eketebi of Equator prov-
ince and Col Ndjoko, an aide to
Congolese President Joseph Kasa-
vubu. He said, however, he had
made no promise to return to the
conference table.
Tshombe had been on a hunger
strike at the airport since Wed-
nesday when soldiers prevented
him from returning to Elisabeth-
ville, his capital.
His anger rose higher yesterday
when Kasavubu turned over five
of his top Belgian advisers to the
United Nations.
Adviser Given over
The five, who included Alex-
ander Balina, his personal adviser,
had accompanied him to this cap-
ital-of Equator province 375 miles
up the Congo River from Leopold-
ville.
Under escort of UN Ethiopian
troops, they were flown to Leo-
poldville for interrogation by UN
officials and almost certain ex-
pulsion from the Congo.
The situation became more
tense hourly in Coquilhatville as
the Kasavubu government seemed
ready to. take drastic steps to pre-
vent a new rupture in Congolese
politics.
Maj. Gen. Joseph Mobutu, com-
mander of the central govern-
ment's army flew into Coquilhat-
ville, his personal political strong-
hold, with planeloads of parachute
troopers.
It was not clear whether Mobutu
himself issued the surprising or-
der to prohibit any of the 280
assembled Congolese political lead-
ers and their advisers from leav-
ing. It was issued before he arrived.
By The Associated Press
STANLEYVILLE, The Congo-
The statue of Belgian King Leo-
pold II in the heart of Stanleyville
has come down, and Patrice Lum-
umba will take his place in a cere-
mony on May Day.
SEOUL--Kissing or embracing
in, public would mean a fine or
police detention under a bill be-
fore the South Korean National
Assembly.,
Sponsors said the proposed law
is designed "to protect traditional
Korean customs from decaying
further by introduction of alien
customs detrimental to public
morals."
* * *

CASABLANCA, Morocco - The
Soviet Union has the largest ex-
hibit at Casablanca's 17th inter-
national Fair.
The United States is represent-
ed by an information bureau.
Twenty-three nations are taking
part, the largest number yet. Com-
munist China sent an exhibit last
year but is not represented this
year..
* * *
SINGAPORE - Big guns of
American and British warships
poured live fire in Balambangam
Island off British North Borneo
yesterday in a SEATO military
exercise called Pony Express.

Cape Crowd
To Witness
'man Shoot'
CAPE CANAVERAL (_) - "The
man shoot" is expected from this
spaceport Tuesday and the near-
by resort area is bracing for the
biggest crowd ever to witness a
launching.
Everybody is talking about it-
except spokesmen for the Nation-
al Aeronautics and Space Admin-
istration. They insist: "We have
never announced a date."
But newsmen are pouring into
the town of Cocoa Beach, where-
motel balconies overlook the maze
of launching pads at the cape, and
getting set up for the attempt to
rocket an astronaut 115 miles into
space and back. -
They believe Tuesday is the
day, but they are aware that
postponements may come, be-
cause NASA officials will want
everything to be perfect before the
first man's life is risked.
The main question is: who will
be America's first spaceman?" ,
Ask the question of a group of
three persons and you get three
different answers, one for each of
the astronauts training for the ini-
tial suborbital flight.
They are Marine Lt. Col. John
H. Glenn, Jr.; Air Force Capt.
Virgil I. Grissom, and Navy Cmdr.
Alan B. Shepard, Jr.

French
PARIS (M)-The French com-
mander at Constantine, who by his
own admission wavered away from
loyalty to F r e n c h President
Charles de Gaulle and joined the
Algeria generals' rebellion, was
taken to solitary confinement in
Sante Prison last night.
Gen. Maurice Michel Gourard,
like the also imprisoned rebellion
chief, Gen. Maurice Challe, could
be sentenced to death by firing
squad or guillotine by a nine-man
special court.
Informants gave this version
of his participation:'
Gourard admitted he had been
in revolt against the government
for 48 hours. When the generals
first staged their insurrection,
however, he refused to join them
and ordered his area commanders
to remain loyal.
Switch Sides
He switched over last Sunday,
however, when one of the rebel-
lion leaders, Gen. Andre' Zeller,
called on him in Constantine and
talked with him for three hours.
Gourard then declared he was act-
ing to "ensure the unity of the
army."
The jailing of Gourard came as
the de Gaulle government contin-
ued a tough military and civilian
purge in Algeria and a sweeping
roundup in France of suspected
activist sympathizers with the
abortive putsch.

TIGHTEN CONTROL:

Seize Rebel Genera

CHARLES DE GAULLE
. . captures foes
In Algeria elite military units
were dissolved, high officers ar-
rested, homes raided, arms seized,
and policemen; detained. Prison
terms were threatened for any-
one helping the revolt leaders to
escape.
In France, the interior ministry
announced 130 arrests outside Par-
is. The total including Paris was
reported to be about 600.
The, police activity, however,
failed to prevent Algerian terror-
ists from renewing their work

suspended during the in
tion.
Liquidate Remains

Parallel sweeps in France
-
served notice de Gaulle wa
termined to liquidate-to u
term-any remnants of the
tive putsch mounted by no
prisoned Gen. Maurice Cha
Parallel to about 600 arre
France, Algerian authorities
ed 400 persons. Sanctions
taken against some 200 of
including five generals ant
colonels and officials said t)
would grow longer. The o:
were flown to France secret
trial. Some 5,000 paratroc
three crack units were being
among other outfits.
Most of the one million
pean settlers in Algeria wei
gry, sullen and resentful.
defiant rightists tracts
spread. But there was no orgz
voice raised against the
measures ordered by de C
Although they were clearly it
trol, officials feared the sulle
ropean mood could lead to :
ed acts of blind rage.
Despite the widespread
measures, Gen. Andre Zelle
mond Jouhaud and Raoul
could not be found. An o
spokesman said yesterday h
sumed the three fuE
were still in Algeria.

said, shows that final solution
meant 'death and Eichmann knew
it.
Hausner told the court that by
the end of June Israel will have
proved its charges against Eich-
mann. Then it will be up to de-
fense counsel Servatius to prove
Eichmarin's contention that he
acted only under orders,
Sees ttempts
At Infiltration
PHOENIX, Ariz. MP-The appli-
cation of the Russian Orthodox
Church for membership in the
World Council of Churches is part
of a Communist move to infil-
trate church organizations, a
Protestant leader said yesterday.
Carl McIntire, president of the
International Council of Christian
Churches, said "While the Reds.
are doing their dastardly deeds in
Cuba, the United States leaders
of the World Council of Churches
open their arms to welcome these
wolves in sheep's clothing.",

Conflicting Opinion1
Among Indian students on cam-
pus conflicting opinions were
voiced.
Several thought that a group of
people are likely to be more fair
in their decision than a single per-
son acting as judge. Datta Khar-
bas, Grad, said, "I think I am for
juries. From what I know of the
Indian jury system, the people
selected for jury duty are what
you would call middle-class; sec-
ondary school ,teachers, govern-
ment officials, etc.
Another student said, "I would
say that there are both advan-
tages and disadvantages. The jury
system has been a mixed blessing.
It is satisfactory for some parts
of the country but in other parts
it does not adequately take care
of the situation. However, I don't
believe that caste feelings play any
large part in influencing the
jury."
Hyder Shah, Grad, said, "It is
a very ticklish, subject. They have
modified the jury system and
while such modification would be
beneficial in the future, at pres-
ent it is uncalled for.

ST. ANDREWS CHURCH and the !
EPISCOPAL STUDENT
FOUNDATION
306 North Division
Sundays-
8:00 A.M. Holy Communion.
9:00 A.M. Holy Communion followed by
breakfast ot theCanterbury House.
(Morning prayer on first Sunday of
month)
11:00 A.M. Morning prayer and sermon
7:00 P.M. Evening prayer.
(Holy Communion on first Sunday -of
month)
TUESDAYS--
9:15 A.M. Holy Communion.
WEDNESDAYS-
7:00 A.M. Hory Communion followed by
breakfast at the Canterbury House
(over in time for 8:00 classes)
FRIDAYS-
12:10 Holy Communion followed by lunch
at the Canterbury House.
WEEKDAYS-
5:15 Daily evening prayer.
FIRST UNITARIAN CHURCH
1917 Washtenaw at Berkshire
Church School will begin at 11:00.
Sermon: Rev. Erwin Gaede--"Freedom Is as
Freedom Does."
Congregationalmeeting will follow the church
service. Nurseries will function and older
children will see a movie during the con-'
gregational meeting.
Student Group: 7:00.
FIRST CHURCH OF CHRIST
SCIENTIST
1833 Washtenaw Ave.
11:00 a.m. Sunday Services.
8:00 p.m.Wednesday Services.
9:30 a.m. Sunday School (up to 20 years of -
age.)
11:00 a.m. Sunday School (for children 2 to
6 years of age).
A free reading room is maintained at 306 East
Liberty St. Hours are Monday through Sat-
urday, 10 a.m. to 5 p.m. except Sundays
and holidays. Monday evening 7:00 to 9:00
p.m.c

Ii
PRESBYTERIAN CAMPUS CENTER
OF THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN
CHURCH
1432 Washtenaw Avenue
NO 2-3580
Jack Borckart, Campus Pastor
Wm. S. Baker, Patricia Pickett, associate
pastors

BA'tH-

1

NEW ATTENTION:
Negro Leaders Cite Job Bias

U

r JI r

Sermons: 9:00 a.m. - Rev. Malcolm 'Brown
preaching: BUT I AM ONLY A LAYMAN.
10:30 a.m. & 11:50 a.m.-Dr. Henry Kul-
zenga: "The Classless Society."
CAMPUS CENTER
Sunday, April 30
10:30 a.m. Seminar in French, Room. THE
CHRISTIAN MAN-We Are Not Self -Suf-
ficient. Rev. Jack Borckardt.
11:30 a:m. Student Coffee Hour in Franch
Room
3:00 p.m. Church Related Vocations Confer-
ence. Conducted by': Rev. Jack Borckardt,
Rev. David Van Winkle, Dr. Henry Kuizen-
ga. All are welcome to attend to learn about
vocations connected with the Church. Held
in French Room.{
4:30Ep.m.KEY CONCEPTS OF THE NEW
TESTAMENT. 217 S. Observatory. Pats
Pickett.
6:30 p.m. Presbyterian Student Fellowship,
Forum. Held in French. Room. Vespers. f
Tuesday, May 2
9:00 p.m. "Coffee & Conversation with Pat."
217 S. Observatory.
Thursday, May 4
4:15 p.m. THE MESSAGE OF THE NEW TES-
TAMENT. NO CLASS -- TODAY
Friday, May 5,
6:15 p.m. Grad Group Dinner. Speaker: Dr.
Henry Kuizenga. Topic: "A Presbyterian
Looks at Federal Aid to Parochial Schools."
FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH
State and William Streets
Dr. Fred E. Lucks, Minister.
Rev. Edgar Edwards, Student Minister.
Guild House at 524 Thompson.
Services 9:30, 10.20 and 11:00 a.m.
Services 9:30; 10:20 and 11:00 a.m. "MyJ
Name Is Anonymous," Dr. Fred Luchs1
preaching.
Bible Lecture, 10:20: The Book of Acts, Dr.
Preston Slosson,
Church School: Crib through 12th grade; 9:30-
10:40 and 10:55-12:00.
Student Guild, 524 Thompson: Sunday evening
fellowship at 7:00.
GRACE BIBLE CHURCHj
Corner State and Huron Streets
William C. Bennett, Pastor'
10:00 Sunday School.
8:45 and 11:00: Morning Worship, "The Sec-
ond Things of Life."
5:45: Youth Groups.
7:00 Evening Services.
7:00 Evening Service "Believer! You Will Be
Judged."
Wednesday, 7:30: Prayer Meeting.
UNIVERSITY REFORMED CHURCH
YMCA Building, 350 S. 5th
Morning Service, 10:00 a.m.
Guest Minister, the Rev. James Schut, secretary
of the Michigan Expansion Committee of
the Reformed Church of America.
Holy Communion will be served during the
morning service and after the evening serv-
ice.
Reception of new members during morning
service.

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH AND
BAPTIST CAMPUS CENTER
502 East Huron
Rev. J6mes H. Middleton, Minister
Rev. Hugh D. Pickett, Assistant Minister
SUNDAY--
9:45 A.M. Church School Discussion
the Old Testament with Professor Edg
Willis.
11 A.M. Worship Service: "The Encourag
ment of Little Things." The Re
James H. Middleton preaching.
6:45 P.M. Play 'reading & discussionc
"No Exit" byrJean-Paul Sartre.
WEDNESDAY-
12 Noon to 1 P.M. Luncheon and discussk
by Baltmann.
FIRST METHODIST CHURCH ANI
WESLEY FOUNDATION
State and Huron Streets Tel. NO 8-681
Dr. Hoover Rupert, Minister
Rev. Gene Ransom, Campus Minister
9:00 and 11:15 a.m. Morning Worship. Cor
ditions of Discipleship (3) "'is It All in Yo
Mind?" Sermon by Dr. Rupert.
10:15 Seminar: "$kept*s Corner." "Do
Man's. Fred Will Limit God?" Pine Room.
5:30 Fellowship Supper. Pine Room.
7:00 Worship and Program: Radio play, "Bu
lap Bags," and discussion.
Wednesdays
7:00 a.m. Holy Communion, Chapel, followe
by breakfast in the Pine Room. (Over
time for 8:00 classes.)
Fridays
5:30 p.m. Wesley Graduate Student Fellow
ship dinner followed by program. Pin
Room.
UNIVERSITY LUTHERAN CHAPEL
1511 Washtenew Avenue
(The Lutheran Church-Missouri Synod)
Alfred T. Scheips, Pastor
Arthur Dauer, Vicar
Sunday at 9:45 and at 11:15:3'Worship Ser
ices, with Holy Communion. Sermon by th
pastor, "Apostles of the Rank and File."
Sunday at 9:45 and at 11:15: Bible Stu
Groups.
Sunday at 6:00: Gamma Delta, Lutheran St
dent Club. Supper-Program, with election
officers for next year.
BETHLEHEM EVANGELICAL
REFORMED
United Church of Christ
423 South Fourth Avenue
Rev. Ernest Klaudt, Pastor
Orville H. Schroer, Parish Minister
9:30 & 11:00 A.M. Worship Service, Re
Ernest R. Klaudt.
1:30 P.M. Informal Chat with Owen Lati
more, 524 Thompson.
LUTHERAN STUDENT CENTER
AND CHAPEL
National Lutheran Council
Hill Street and South Forest Avenue
Henry 0. Yoder, Pastor
Phone NO 8-7622
SUNDAY--
9:00 and 11:00 a.m. Worship Services
7:00 p.m. Bach Cantata No. 146-Cha
el Ch:ir,3Soloists & Orchestra
8:30 p.m. Communion
THURSDAY-
9:00 p.m. Vesper Service
MEMORIAL CHRISTIAN CHURCH
(Disciples of Christ)
Hill and Tappan Streets
Rev. Russell M. Fuller, Minister
9:30 A.M. Seminar, Rev. J. Edgar Edward
"Biblicnl Thought ,524 Thommon.

ATLANTA t)-Southern Negro
leaders, successful in many school
integration moves, are now turn-
ing their attention more and more
to Job opportunities..
They report some progress. A
survey by the Associated Press,
turned up widely varying patterns
from state to state, and conflict-
ing reports from Negro spokes-
men, state officials and labor
leaders. Efforts to end discrimina-
tion in employment appear great-
est in the border states rather
than in the deep Sduth.
One obstacle to the Negro drive
is that except for jots involving
federal contracts, there are almost
no laws on which to base com-
prehensive litigation in this field.
Push Trade Schools
Another difficult factor, a
spokesman for the Southern re-
gional council noted, is that Ne-
gro leaders fear that if job op-
portunities were fully equal there
would not be enough qualified Ne-
groes to fill them. For this reason,
he said, there has been a push
for Negro trade schools.

He pointed out that few south-:
ern Negroes have jobs alongside--
or where they would give orders to,
white persons, and that the white
collar and skilled crafts fields gen-
erally are closed to Negroes. Util-
ity company and government jobs,
including many federal offices, al-
so were described as virtually,
white-only.
In the professions, Negroes were
reported barred from most state
and local organizations, and from
practicing other than with Negro
clientele.
The most conflicting reports
center around what unions have
done to implement national AFL-
CIO opposition to segregation.
While labdr 'spokesmen in Geor-
gia and Virginia, for example, say
discrimination is not a problem,
Negro leaders reported unions
either were indifferent or were ac-
tually preserving segregated work-
ing conditions.
No Public Steps
Alabama unionsseem to be tak-
ing a normal course of integra-
tion, but unions in Arkansas, Loui-

siana, Mississippi and the Louis-
ville, Ky., area have taken no pub-
lic tsteps to end discrimination.
Spokesmen said Negroes often
are denied opportunities for train-
ing or apprenticeship, and then
are not hired for lack of training
or experience.
With scattered exceptions, the
survey indicated, there have been
no repiisals against Negroes seek-
ing to end job discrimination.
Many campaigns for a break-
through in employment are on a
local level. Emphasis generally is
placed on talks and negotiations
with government and business of-
ficials to get Negroes better than
menial jobs.
The most headway is reported
in areas where they can bring eco-
nomic or political pressure.

ANN ARBOR FRIENDS MEETING
(QUAKERS)
1415 Hill Street
NO 2-9890
Meeting for Worship, 10:00 and 11:30 a.m.
Adult Forum: 10:00 a.m.
Young Friends, 7:00 p.m.
MEMORIAL BAPTIST CHURCH
411 Fountain St.
Rev. Wm. F. Nicholas, pastor
Sunday School 9:45 a.m.
Morning Worship 11:00 a.m.
Training Union 6:30 p.m.
Evening Worship 7:30 p.m.
Prayer Meeting Wed., 7:30 p.m.
Cooperating with the Southern Baptist
Convention.
THE, EVANGELICAL UNITED
BRETHREN CHURCH
Corner of Miller and Newport
John G. Swank, Pastor
Telephone NOrmandy 3-4061
Church School 10:00 A.M.
A~nr;-^ ~lnc , ,11-f A A

ICUBAN-AMERICAN FIESTA

Buffet Supper
Dancing

Professional Combo
Entertainment

B"NAI B'RITH HILLEL FOUNDATION

CHRISTIAN REFORMED CHURCH
1131 Church St.

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11 r; lr"c nf- nvai-.ar, nnwn rl rt ik i

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