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April 19, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-04-19

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Who Makes Attack Possible?

-. Seventy-First Year
als printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual-opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The authors of
the following article are Venezue-
lan students, currently enrolled in
the University.)
Daily Guest Writers
W ITH A COMPLETE disregard
for national freedom and
sovereignity, an outside force has
waged a large-scale land, sea and
air invasion of Cuba. There is a
current American opinion which
asserts that this invasion is being
organized and backed by Cubans
who live outside of Cuba-specifi-
cally in the United States and

But as a result of hasty depar-
tures from their homeland and the
fact that Cuban law forbids citi-
zens from leaving the island with
national currency, most of the
"refugees" reached their new
havens in dire financial straits.
Thus, ,the question immediately
arises: who is providing the coun-
ter-revolutionaries with their ob-
vious financial backing?
It is also common knowledge
that the Cubans living In the U.S.
(60 thousand in number or one
per cent of the total Cuban popu-
lation) are not united. They all
share an unwavering intent to
overthrow Fidel Castro and pos-

APRIL 19, 1961


University Secrecy
Blocks Co 1uunication

EVENTS late last week raised anew the'
roblem of secrecy in the University. In
cases, an elaborate explanation was of-
to justify "the suppression of informa-
nneither case did this justification offset
ct that the public wasn't kept informed.
FIRST EVENmT was the Senate fbrum,
nvened to hear the President's Commis-;
n Year Around Operation. The commis-
eaded by Prof. William Haber, had held
meetings but had until that time re-
almost nothing to indicate the direction
ature of its planning. The Senate meet-
as called 'so that the commission could
the faculty up to date'on its proceedings,
6t its reaction to the plans being consid-
ars meeting, as all Senate meetings, was
to, the public. Direct coverage by The
as usual, was not allowed. Later in the'
ig, members of the commission agreed on.
fusely worded communique summarizing
eetng-and making it seem like a Sat-
luncheon. The Daily dutifully printed
gue iiformnation supplied.
that all members of the commission were
ed . to Daily coverage of the meeting-
the opposite was true of some. But in
Geo of a long standing tradition based on
aially long standing argument, the view-
of this minority could gain no acceptance.
traditional reaction runs something as
,: -
owledge that their comments might be
hed could restrain faculty members from
ing in a frank and fruitful debate, par-
i1y if/ Regental policy or administrative
ice is-at issue. Admission of Daily report-
uld leave the door open to misrepresenta-
af the facts, distortion of the tone of the
ng, sensationalism, or other such mani-
Ions ,df journalistic irresponsibility. Fur-
ore, the faculy has the right of anony-
any time it chooses, the right to speak
Lit fear of reprisal.
lict In this whole argument is the feeling
6a. Senate meeting is a private affair of
Iculty, and what goes on is nobody else's
CONSEQUENCES of this practice and
ttitude are clear. Most immediately, all
its and many of the faculty members
selves are left almost totally uninformed
Le Senate's true feelings on a natter
ing and affecting the whole academic
unity. Even if students are subsequently
ht into the confidence of the commission,
SOMETIMES difficult to understand the
erals' viewpoint toward the United States
i policy during the past year. These lib-
claimu that the Administration should not
admitted political refugees from Cuba and
that we should have a hands-off atti-
oii the current crisis there.
,is an unrealistic procedure to follow. It
ertainy justifiable torallow the yictims of
ime equally as despotic as the Batista
trship to enter this country. If the United
a had refused admittance to these refu-
this action would undoubtedly be inter-
: as a tacit sanctioning of Castro's clique.
, United States mst not stand pat on
ffairs in Cuba. We cannot tolerate a Com-
st country 90 miles from our shore. The
d States can influence the overthrow of
o without finding it necessary to bring
an equally tyrannical leader like Batista;
, help relieve the suffering of the workers
Lba without sacrificing the middle classes
altar of expendibility
would be a sad state of affairs for this
ry to adopt a defensive orientation of
T towar Cuba rather than a positive one.
e United States is so weak that it must
o the mouthings of a Cuban demagogue,
it is in bad shape indeed, and the liberals
share the blame for this condition.
the United States to exercise official or
icial tolerance of Castro, through denial

[mission to refugees from him or by fail-
o work for his downfall, is just as Inde-
ble as supporting the government of Ba-
Editorial Staff
City Editor Editorial Director
fETHi McELDOWNEY ....... Associate City Editor
H DONER...................Frsonnel Director
[AS KABAKER....................Magazine Editor
iD APPLEBAJM .. Associate Editorial Director
AS WITECKI................Sports Editor
AEL GILLMAN......... .Associate Sports Editor

the secrecy of the Senate session destroys any
hope for communication on a basis of partner-
ship among students, faculty and administra-
tion. As a result the "community of scholars"
-so idyllically sketched in University announce-
ments is carved into three little universes, and
"no trespassing" signs spring up everywhere.
Moreover, the arguments advanced in defense
of a closed Senate are specious. The Daily is
far more likely to err in.reporting and inter-
preting the facts when they are recited over the
telephone than when they are gathered first
hand. The nuances and tone of the, discussion,
when no reporter is present, are things about
which it is impossible to even speculate.
And somehow the idea that the faculty must
have a private retreat in which to voice its
criticism of administrative and Regental poli-
cies seems inconsistent with those high quali-
ties of intellectual integrity and moral courage.
which are rghtly espoused from the lectern. If
there is criticism to, make, should it not be
frank and open, so that it may be better eval-
uated with greatr fairness to all? Doesn't
keeping criticism under wraps actually heighten
the resentment of the criticized and the fear
of reprisal of the critic? Isn't dissent commu-
nicated through the press and open forum more
honest, more courageous and ultimately more
effective than dissent communicated through
the grapevine?
THE SECOND secrecy-shrouded event was the
latest development in the effot to effect
a c1ange in women's regulations which would
soften the present prohibition on visiting in
men's apartments. The efforts have been un-
derway for six months, and were reported for
the first time only this Sunday.
Last fall the Office of Student Affairs de-
cided to correct the plainly outdated and ob-
viously unheeded policy currently on the books.
A committee consisting of the chairmen of=
Women's Judiciary and Joint Judiciary, Asso-
clate Dean of Men John Bingley, and Dean of
Women Deborah Bacon studied the situation
and recommended to Vice-President for Stu-
dent Affairs James Lewis that all women be-
yond first-semester freshmen be allowed in
apartments during regular calling hours.
Mr. Lewis took the recommendations under
advisement and subsequently referred it to the
Subcommittee on Student Discipline headed
by Prof. John Reed. This group suggested sev-
eral revisions of an unknown nature and F'ri-
day returned the proposal to Mr. Lewis, who
now must meet with the original committee to
iron out group differences.
The Daily was informed early of the action
being taken on women's regulations and has
been kept well-appraised as the situation has
unfolded, but was asked not to print the news.
The decision to publish was made when it be-
came clear that the original ethical commit-
ment of the Daily-to refrain from releasing
information given in confidence-had been per-
verted into an instrument for suppression of a
legitimate 'news-story. The Daily thus shares
some responsibility for the distressingly secre-
tive atmosphere surrounding the action on this
important matter. But what is truly amazing is
the belief of the Office of Student Affairs that
such secrecy is right and proper, and for pre--
cisely those reasons that seem to require the
frankest possible public discussion.
THE AREA under consideration, so the argu-
ment runs, is a particularly sensitive one.
Clearly the regulation as it now stands is hope-
lessly outdated and unenforceable. Violations
are frequent, but the regulation lumps into one
class all types of violators. By modernizing
the regulation, it will be possible to discriminate
between those who are merely ignoring a bad
rule and those actually doing wrong. But be-
cause such an updating might be misinterpret-
ed by some part of the community, it is im-
portant no word of the revision leak out until
it can be put in its final form.
This argument is a peculiar mixture of ar-
rogance and timidity. It assumes that the
committee has the judgment and sophistication
-not to mention the right-to define wrong-
doing and thus sit as final arbiter on the mor-
ality of several thousand University women. At
the same time it illustrates the University's fear

of being caught in public with its conservatism
The University should take a little more
pride in, and exert a great deal more effort
toward, becoming a leader of - public opinion.
And it is insulting to the concept of individual
responsibility and dignity for any handful of
persons, however well qualified, to secretly un-
dertake such a project without the fullest pos-
sible public discussion on the philosophy of
women's regulations and their place in the edu-
cational scheme. Waiting until a new rule is
drawn, up to make it public allows no oppor-
tunity for such discussion, and affords the per-'
sons affected no chance to influence the final
form of the regulation.
T AM NOT PREPARED to claim that all secre-
a cy is avoidable and unnecessary, although I

Khrushchev Predicts
Cub an Landing
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the first article in a series of three on an ex-
clusive interview with Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev. The following dis-
patch was issued April 14.)
MR. KHRUSHCHEV SAID flatly, but not I thought with much pas-
sion, that we were preparing a landing in Cuba, a landing not
with American troops but with Cubans arned and supported by the
United States. He said that if this happened, the Soviet Union would
"oppose" the United States.
His attitude towards Cuba is based on the dogma that a worldwide
,revolutionary movement is destined to bring the old colonial countries
into the Communist orbit. Castro's revolution is inevitable and pre-
determined. It was not made by the Soviet Union but by the history
of Cuba, and the Soviet Union Is involved because Castro appealed
for economic help when the United States tried to strangle the
revolution with an embargo.
I hope I was not misled in understanding him to mean that he
would, oppose us by propaganda and diplomacy, and that he did not
have in mind military intervention. I would in fact go a bit further,
based not on what he said but on the general tone of his remarks, that
in his book it is normal for a great power to undermine an unfriendly
government within its own sphere of interest. He has been doing this
himself in Laos and Iran and his feeling about the American support
of subversion in Cuba is altogether different in quality from his feeling
about the encouragement of resistance in the satellite states of Europe.
Mr. Khrushchev thinks much more like Richelieu and Metternich than
like Woodrow Wilson.\
s s* * *
I HAD AN OVERALL impression that his primary interest is not
in the cold war about the small and underdeveloped countries. The
support of the revolutionary movement among these countries is for
him an interesting, hopeful, agreeable opportunity, but it is not a vital
interest in the sense that he would go to war about it. He is quite sure
that he will win this cold war without military force because he is
on the side of history, and because he has the military power to
deter us from a serious military intervention.
His primary concern is with the strong countries, especially with
the United States, Germany and China. I could not ask him direct
questions about China. But there is no doubt that in his calculations
of world power, China is a major factor. I felt that he thought of
China as a problem of the future, and that may be one of the reasons
why for him the immediate and passionate questions have to do with
Germany and disarmament.
Mr. Khrushchev spoke of revolutionary movements among small
nations-Laos, Cuba and Iran. But for him these three are merely
examples of what he regards as a worldwide and historic revolutionary
movement-akin to the change from feudalism to capitalism-which is
surely destined to bring the old colonial countries into the Communist
orbit. I could detect no doubt or reservation in his mind that this
will surely happen, that there is no alternative, that while he will help
this manifest destiny and while we will oppose it, the destiny would.
be realized no matter what either of us, did.
, , , ,
SPEAKING OF IRAN, which he did without my raising the sub-
ject, he said that Iran had a very weak Communist party but that
nevertheless the misery of the masses and the corruption of the govern-
ment was surely producing a revolution. "You will assert," he said,
"that the Shah has been overthrown by the Communists, and we shall
be very glad-to have it thought in the world that all the progressive
people in Iran recognize that we are the leaders of the progress of
Judging by the general tenor of what he said about Iran, it would
be fair to conclude that he is not contemplating military intervention
and occupation-"Iran is a poor country which is of no use to the
Soviet Union"-but that he will do all he can by propaganda and
inderect intervention to bring down the Shah.
In his mind, Iran is the most immediate example of the in-
evitable movement of history in which he believes so completely. He
would not admit that we can divert this historic movement by cham-
pioning liberal democratic reforms. Nothing that any of us can say
can change his mind, which is that of a true believer, except a demon-
stration in some country that we can promote deep democratic re-

sess a common ambition for power.
Otherwise, there are no other
similar thoughts in their minds.i
There are 75 different anti-Castro
groups in Miami and Lousiana.
With anti-Castro sentiment so
deeply split, a second query rises:
who has formed the united and
coordinated force that is presently
attacking the sovereign soil of
* * *
THE MEN WHO established this
armed body are being trained in
several camps established by an
"unknown power" in the states
of Florida and Louisiana. Amer-
ica's most popular newspapers and
magazines talk about the train-
ing-camps in Florida-their exs-
tance can not be denied. These
same publications have also de-
voted much attention to the "Cu-
ban Revolutionary Council," an
unlawful Cuban government oper-
atrig in New York and formed y
the merger of two originally op-
posing factions. I
"Time" magazine, in its March
13 edition states:
"Despite bland official state-
ments the U.S. has no attitude
whatsoever toward the Revolu-
tionary Council, the fact is that
the U.S. helped bring the two
spatting groups to the negotiation.
table. Whatever aid -the exiles
might get from the U.S. is some-
thing elso no orie is talking about."
also raised the plea of help for
Cuban refugees. From the same
edition of "Time," this concept of
"help" becomes more clearly de-
"Despite reverses, the rebels still
have hopes of defeating Castro in
the hills. Some 500 armed men are
left In the Escambray . . The
primary need is for more and bet--
ter communications with the out-
side. Instructors are needed to
teach the rebels how to use ba-
zookas, recoiess rifles. Demoli-
tion experts are needed for special
jobs such as blowing up brdges."
Weresanti-Bastista, anti-Perez
Jimenez, anti-Trujillo, anti-Peron,
anti-Ordia or anti-Rojas Pinilla
forces allowed to train their troops
in America and use the U.S. as a
base to organize an attack against
the dictator of the day?
The State department has de-
cided to donate $1 million to the
Cuban refugees in Florida because
they could not support themselves,
but, supposedly, could finance
training camps and an armed
force. Did the State department
give a penny to impoverished Ven-
ezuelan, Dominican, Columbian or
.Argentinan refugees that were.
exiled3n the U.S. during the long
years of dictatorship in their
S* 0
AND THEN, there is the State
department's White Paper which
tells the world that Fidel double-
crossed the ideals of the revolu-
tion, that the people in Cuba are
starving and are being lead toward
Was there any White Paper is-
sued during the 1950's when there
were more than 10 dictators in
Latin America. -Were there any
medals or words of congratulation
given to the progressive tyrants'
of the time? Has there been any
White Paper against.-the present
dictators in Latin America or
against Spain's Franco, a man
who has killed more than one
million Spaniards during his. 25
year tyranny?
President Kennedy addressed
Latin American ambassadors in
a White House reception and
launched his new 10 year aid pro-
gram. He gave the ambassadors a.
slogan: "Progresso si, tirania no."
How can anyone talk about
"Tirania no" in front of Somoza's,
Strossner's' or Duvalier's ambas-
sadors? How can Latin Americans
be expected to trust the United
States under these conditions?

Academy Awards
SpOtlight A chievement
IE 1961 ACADEMY Awards were characterized by a number of good
and bad points which have become typical of the annual presenta-
tion: domination by a single studio-although not by a single film this
time, inexplicable neglect of some outstanding talents and deserved
recognition of others, an unending parade of brainless stars with
flat jokes and the once-a-year chance to see and hear some of the
great film-makers who never appear on the screen.
United Artists, the firm which distributes (but does not produce)
films of independent movie-makers, had a near-monopoly on feature
film awards. At the same time, the honors were split up among a
number of important pictures. This evenness was a welcome change

from some past years when single
spectacles like "Gigi," "Gone with
the Wind," or "Ben-Hur" received
almost all the honors by the sheer
volume of their publicity and size
of their budgets.
s *
decisions than those made by the
Academy come from smaller
groups, such as the New York
critics, each of which rewards a
few outstanding achievement in
fields which he is competent to
The Academy Awards for act'ing
-which this 'year went to Burt
Lancaster, Elizabeth Taylor, Peter
Ustinov, and Shirley Jones-are
usually the most meaningless,
partly because, as emcee Bob Hope
so rightly observed, "the Academy
decides which actor and actress
have the best press agents," but
also because screen performances
are almost entirely the work of
the director, who by camera place-
ment and movement, by reshoot-
Ing scenes, by juxtaposing and
contrasting shots in editing, fash-
ions the, pictureas he wants it.
This year was no exception, as
the choices of Ustinov, Miss Jones
and Lancaster were as much to
the credit of their directors (Stan-
ley Kubrick and Richard Brooks,
respectively) as to their own skill.
Miss Taylor was, of course, the
sentimental favorite on the basis
of a series of competent portrayals
over the past few years and a well-
publicized bout with near-fatal
There were, however, some other
dark horse favorites who didn't
make it, the most notable case
being the brilliant Alfred Hitch-
cock, who was finally in line for
an Oscar on his fifth nomination.
But Psycho was admittedly not
his best picture, and Hitch came
away empty-handed. Fred Zin-
nemann and his fine film "The
Sundowners" (likewise Deborah
Kerr, its. star) got no honors
being slightly sarcastic about the
whole overinflated business of
Academy Awards, but they do have
their 'virtues too. This annual af-
fair is the one time when great
technicians and film-makers have
their chance for public attention.
Editors like Daniel Mandell, or
directors like William Wyler, Rich-
ard Brooks and Wilder have a
brief moment in the spotlight af-
ter working anonymously for 80
per cent of the filmgoing public
in making pictures.
Moreover, artistic endeavor of
any sort should have some way
of expressing recognition for out-
standing achievement.
This is so whether in the form of
a list of ten best-selling books or
an Oscar to the leading musical
composer. ;y
The Academy Awards have stim-
ulated the creation of film festi-
vals and various prizes all over
Europe and Asia as well as other-
parts of this continent.I
While the selections for such
prizes and Oscars are often de--
batable, the serious attempt 'to
focus attention on the' best or
most significant work that is being
done in the cinematic art is'
praiseworthy. And it happens that
descendants of the original film
awards, such as Venice and Can-
nes, supplement the Academy by
occasionally spotting a low-budget
American sleeper, unnoticed by
American critics, which eventually
is given its deserved acclaim
-Steven Hill

The Daily Official ;Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
General Notices
Seniors: Colege of L.S. & A., and
Schools of Business Administration,
Education, Music, and'-Public Health-
Tentative lists of seniors for June
graduation have been posted on the
bulletin board in the first floor- lobby,
Admin. Bldg. Any changes therefrom
should be requested of the: Recorded
at Office'of Registration and Records
window Number A, 1513 Admin. Bldg.
Undergraduate Women Students now
on campus who do not have a housing
commitment for the fall semester 1961,
may apply for housing in- League
Houses and Residence HIalla at the

temporary Music ended last
night on a pleasing note of nor-
mality with performances by music
school, faculty members of works
by Stravinsky, Alvin Etler, Ingolf
Dahl and Ross Lee Finney, comn-
poser-in-residence at the Univer-
Stravinsky's "Serenade in A"
(1925), elegantly played 'by Ben-
ning Dexter, pianist, displayed the
engaging and lyrical side of Stra-
vinsky's musical personality - a
side which is not very well-known.
Alvin Elter's "Woodwind Quin-
tet No. 2" (1957) was given a
polished performance by Pros.
Nelson Hauenstein, flute; Florian
Mueller, obeo; Albert Luconi, clar-'
inet; Louis Stout, rench horn;
and. Lewis Cooper, bassoon.
To judge by this piece, Elter
deliberately makes his music pre-
dictable, with the advantage that
the music can then take surpris-
ing turns-a modest and generally
successful way of engaging the
tasy In E" (1957) is a serious
work, by no means calculated to'
have its effect on first hearing.
He obviously relishes the far-
midable challenge of writing such
a lengthy monologue. His music
neveix succumbs to the simple ,and
fatal defect of monotony.
Edel's performance was very
much in 'the' spirit of the com-
position - introspective and ex-
"A Quartet for Piano and'
Strings" (1957) by Ingolf Dahl,
played' with flair by Profs. Gus-
Lave Rosseels. violin;'' Robert
Courte,vio;lsOliver Ede, cllo;
and Wallace Berry, piano provide
a colorful end to the concert. The
most conspicuous feature of the.
work is its extensive exploration
of varieties of- string sounds.
The final concert, and indeed
the Festival as a .whole, demon- -
strated the normal and recogniz-
able aspect of contemporary music
rather than the radical and the
experimental. It is a side of en-
temporary music whose existence'
the public has had trouble be-
lieving in.
- David Sutherland,
to the
Invasion. ..
To the Editor:
known and admired through-
out the world. Challenged by the
Soviet Union, we have met the
challenge with a most miraculqu
invention. This invention is instant
revolution. We first unveiled it in
Guatemala, and now perfected, it
has appeared on the Cuban scene.
For the first time in history,
soldiers have been recruited from
nowhere, trained in the fourth
dimiension, equipped with landing
craft and jet planes from out of
thin air,-and delivered, packaged
and wrapped on the Cuban coast-'
The security of the United States
is threatened, for if the CIA-has
no knowledge of this affs&r, any-
thing could happen without our
knowing aboit it. The President of
the United States should declare a
state of natiofial emergency. Per
haps right now we are being in-

Preposterous? It certainly is.
-Robert I. Rhodes, 'W3E
Beholder's Eye ...
To the Editor:
IN A RECENT letter to the editor
concerning women's dress stan-
dards there appeared a statement
which read, "Bermudas and slacks
cannot effectively create a wom-
anly appearance." Evidently said
author has never been to the. Un-
dergraduate Library and observed
the' effect created by the extreme-
ly womanly appearance of the
Michigan women in slacks on the
concentration capabilities of the
average male student. One of the
hazards of studying at the Under-
graduate Library has traditionally
been that it is rather difficult to



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