' IEAT PEBATrSI(Cp CvtJe)
Kennedy's Catholicism Cost Su port
e I MPACT *@. Inc lofRed!
t to1 2-C3 ,
By CYNTHIA NEU
President John F. Kennedy's Roman Catholicism, clearly the
major issue of the 1960 Presidential race, cost him 1.5 million votes.
Among other findings of the Survey Research - Center, released
1) The religious issue also accounted for the large number of
voters switching to Kennedy just prior to the election, the highest
proportion of "late deciders" since the Center began its national
election studies in 1948.
2) The study did not pinpoint the relationship between the
popular and electoral vote, but it was perhaps conceivable that
Kennedy's religion helped-him win in the electoral college.
3) Religion was the major issue in the South, where whites
generally felt both parties were "against" them, favoring integration.
4) Kennedy "won" the television debates which were a central
source of information for the voting public.
The four-man team which coordinated the study, in Washington
for a national press conference to announce its findings, includes
Professors Angus Campbell, Center director, Philip E. Converse on
leave from the sociology department and Donald E. Stokes of the
political science department, study directors of the Center, and Prof.
Warren E. Miller of the political science department, a program
"The survey this year showed a final vote division with one per
cent of the actual vote," Prof. Converse said here Monday.
One out of every nine ballots cast in the 1960 election reflected
a change from normal voting patterns and 36 per cent of the elec-
torate did not make up their minds until the campaign started,
largely due to the conflict between religious and partisan loyalties.
Of the 61 per cent of voters who cast ballots for former Presi-
dent Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1956, 17 per cent voted for Kennedy
and 44 per cent for former Vice-President Richard M. Nixon. Ken-
nedy received 33 per cent of Adlai E. Stevenson's 39 per cent vote
in 1956 and Nixon received six per cent.
Among those switching from Eisenhower to Kennedy, close to
60 per cent were Catholic and among Democrats who changed to
Nixon, 95 per cent were non-Catholic. However, nearly half of Ken-
nedy's gains among Catholics who had voted for Eisenhower were
normal Democrats reentering the party fold.
"We haven't seen the end on the problem of a Catholic in the
White House," Prof. Campbell said Monday, "but if Kennedy runs
again in 1964 it will be less important than it was in the last
"If there are no major developments which turn on the Presi-
dent's religion, such as a problem in relations with the Vatican,
religion will not be a greater problem if a Catholic runs for the
presidency in 1964," Prof. Converse added.
Came from Behind
The study, largest ever made of a presidential election, showed
that in 1960, as in 1948, the Democratic candidate came from behind
to win by a narrow margin in the closing weeks of the campaign
and cited the television debates as a central factor in swinging late
deciders to a Democratic vote.
Kennedy "won" the debates in the voters' minds, Prof. Con.
verse explained. "Aside from religion, he had a greater appeal to
the people, and his youthfulness, energy, style and poise made a
Interviewees described Kennedy as "quick on the trigger" con-
trasted with the impression that Nixon was "ill at ease" and "looked
The "Ike appeal" did not rub off onto Nixon, Prof. Converse said.
He explained that this was not surprising and had happened before,
See KENNEDY'S, page 2
TELEVISION DEBATES-Data on the reaction of three segments
of the 1960 electorate to the programs was collected during inter-
views for the Survey Research Center study. Questions centered
on reactions to personality issue stands taken by candidates.
See Page 4
Seventy Years of Editorial Freedom
Fair and warmer today,
partly cloudy Thursday.
VL. L IJX, No. 138
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, APRIL 19, 1961
'UN Censure U.S.
Zorin Assails Anti-Castro Invasion;
Stevenson Accuses Cuba of Deceit
UNITED NATIONS (AP)-The Soviet Union last night formally
demanded that the United Nations condemn the United States as an
aggressor in connection with the invasion of Cuba by anti-Castro
The Soviet resolution was laid before the UN political commit-
tee by Soviet Deputy Foreign Minister Valerian A. Zorin after a new
attack on the United States.
Adlai E. Stevenson, chief United States delegate, had just fin-
ished accusing Cuban Prime Minister Fidel Castro of using half-truths
In Riot Case
SAN FRANCISCO (M)-A jury of
10 women and two men was chos-
en with unexpected dispatch yes-
terday for the city hall riot trial
of Robert J. Meisenbach.
Meisenbach, 23, University of
California senior, was arrested last
May 13 during student demon-
strations against House Un-Amer-
ican Activities Committee hear-
He is charged with assault with
a deadly weapon-beating Patrol-
man Ralph E. Schaumleffel on
the head with the officer's night
All the jurors declared they had
not seen "Operation Abolition," a
controversial film report of the
disturbance sponsored by the
All said they had read or heard
little about either the violence
which resulted in the arrest of 63
other student demonstrators or
about 4controversy over "Opera-
tion Abolition." Riot charges
against the 63 others were dis-
Walter J. Giubbini, Assistant
District Attorney, challenged sev-
en of 28 prospective jurors called.
Jack Berman and Charles Garry,
defense attorneys, dismissed six
on peremptory challenge and three
others were excused for cause.
Giubbini promptly struck off
John J. Crowley, Federal Internal
Revenue officer, after Crowley de-
clared he-did not favor the House
Committee on Un-American Ac-
,. Crowley said he had seen "Oper-
ation Abolition." "I definitely was
not impressed because it was doc-
tored up," he declared. "I am not
a witch hunter. I don't believe the
ends justify the means."
The first juror scratched by
Berman and Garry was Oliver C.
Applegate, Jr., retired oil adver-
During his examination, Apple-
gate declared, "I am in accord.
with governmental investigation of
Communist activities, on princi-
In the "Operation Abolition"
sound track, committee chairman
Francis E.. Walter (D-Pa) de-
clared the city hall violence show-
ed how a few Communist agitators
could use students as dupes.
Meisenbach and other student
spokesmen have insisted they pro-
tested the house committee hear-
ing on reasoned conviction, with-
out Communist inspiration.
and deceit in an effort to prove
that the United States was behind
the invading forces.
The Soviet resolution called for
a cessation of all assistance to the
invading forces and urged all UN
members to give the necessary aid
to Castro to repel such attackers.
Earlier-Stevenson had dramati-
cally drawn the attention of the
political committee to President
John F. Kennedy's warning that
the United States would act to
prevent Soviet military interven-
tion in Cuba.
Stevenson said the Castro gov-
ernment had not presented a sin-
gle piece of evidence to back its
See Earlier Story, Page 3
By DAVID MARCUS
Interfraternity Council officers
are now preparing an anti-bias
Proceeding with unanimous
consent of the IFC executive com-
mittee, the decision was reached
after a talk by James Seder, '61,
chairman of the Student Govern-
ment Council Committee on Mem-
He explained that "If the prob-
lem is not solved, it will at some-
time be solved arbitrarily."
IFC President Robert Peterson,
'62, commented, "There is a lot
of feeling that IFC has no opinion.
This statement will show the cam-
pus how we feel and bring an
increased awareness to the na-
tionals of the pressure that locals
are feeling on the Michigan cam-
Seder said, "The California leg-
islature has passed a law requir-
ing elimination of bias clauses by
1964; the trend in the Supreme
Court is against discrimination
of any kind in public institutions."
He also cited the possibility that
action by the Governor's office,
the state attorney-general, or the
state Legislature could be the
means by which the problem could
be taken out of local control if
public opinion strongly urges such
"These pressures face the cam-
pus; these things don't hold up
well for groups that in 10 or 15
years still have bias clauses.
"They will not be able to settle
the problem in such a personal
manner. Things have to change.
"Elimination of bias clauses does
not mean you must take whoever
comes through rush; but you can-
not arbitrarily decide you do not
want a person because of race,
color, or creed."
Seder traced the growth of anti-
bias feeling at the University:
It grew until in 1949 when the
Student Legislature renamed and
reorganized as SGC, passed a res-
olution calling for the elimina-
tion of bias clauses. It was vetoed
by then President Alexander Ruth-
charges that Monday's invasion
had been launched from Florida..
He repeated his previous denials.
Zorin said the United States de-
nials were ridiculous.
Stevenson had introduced his
speech by reading the full text of
Kennedy's reply to a note in which
Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev
demanded an end of the fighting
in Cuba and pledged "all necessary
assistance" to Castro.
Stevenson accused both Cuban
Foreign Minister Raul Roa and
Soviet bloc representatives of try-
ing to smear the United States
with inuendos and epithets, such
as pirates, exploiters and imperial-
Calls for Settlement
He called for a settlement of the
Cuban problem by the Cuban
Kennedy's note made it clear
that the United States would do
nothing to hinder the anti-Castro
UN diplomats listened intently
as Stevenson read the note. Some
already had seen the text. One iron
curtain diplomat, Silviu Brucan of
Romania, commented: "I am not
impressed. I don't think the reply
is to the point."
A member of the Ghana dele-
gation said he and many other
delegates were depressed by the
turn of events in the Cuban crisis.
"We don't believe all the claims
made by the Russians and Cu-
bans," he said, "but we had hoped
for a more conciliatory tone from
Quiet at MSU
New elections for president of
Michigan State University's All-
University Student Government
ended without incident last night.
Sharon Coady, the managing
editor of the Michigan State News
said the original elections were
declared illegal last Thursday be-
cause several students were caught
Seek Two New Seats
On Board in Control
By MICHAEL OLINICK
The Senate Advisory Committee
yesterday proposed increased fa-
culty control over the Board in
Control of Intercollegiate Ath-
The increased control would be
effected by the addition of two
faculty members to the 15-man
committee which presently has
seven professors appointed by Uni-
versity President Harlan Hatcher
on recommendations submitted by
The proposed legislation-which
the Regents will consider for
adoption in their bylaws-gives
the faculty a "clear" majority on
"The senate's Committee on
Athletic Policy decided, after a
study of the mechanisms of fa-
culty control in the Big Ten con-
ference, that it would be desirable
to increase our control," commit-
tee chairman Prof. Wilbur Mc-
Keachic of the psychology depart-
ment said last night. His com-
mittee recommended the action to
The proposed change would re-
duce faculty appointments from
four years to three, and provide
for a limit of two terms.
The Board is charged by the
Regents to "make, adopt and en-
force the necessary rules and regu-
lations governing all questions per-
taining to the eligibility of players,
inter - collegiate relations and
membership in associations ofa
universities and colleges organ-,
ized for the regulation of ath-
SGC To Vote
Student Government Council to-
night will vote on appointment
of three student members to the
steering committee on the forth-
coming Conference on the Uni-
The three student members, who
were interviewed by council mem-
bers last night, will meet with
three faculty and three adminis-
tration delegates to formulate
plans for the conference.
In addition it will consider as a
committee of the whole former
SGC President John Feldkamp's,
'61, motion for reorganization of
the Council's administrative wing.
Roger Seasonwein, '61, will in-
troduce a motion for a reshowing
of the film "Operation Abolition"
in three weeks with a discussion
following including a pro-con de-
bate on whether the film ac-
curately portrays the student re-
action to the House Un-American
Activity hearings in San Francisco
dhad volunteered to speak against
Hanson said he had made an
administrative decision to show
the film anyway because, as he saw
it, the entire presentation broke
down into two objective parts: the
combination of the film and tapes,
and the pro-con debate.
Roger Seasonwein, '61, raised
three objections to the showing.
ie said he was most disappointed
that there was no pro-con discus-
sion following the film.
Seasonwein also said the record,
"Sounds of Protest," which ac-
companied the showing of the
movie instead of the tapes was not
the best possible "alternative pres-
He objected that there ought to
have been an opportunity for dis-
cussion from the floor. "Many
people had questions and I am sure
with a good moderator an orderly
discussion could have been held,"
Hanson said earlier that he had
never planned an open discussion
of the film. "It seems to me it
would have been chaotic, and
would not have allowed time for
the second showing the film," he
SGC Movie Showing
Violates Earlier Ruling
By JUDITH OPPENHEIM
Last night's showing of "Operation Abolition" by the Student
Government Council Cinema Guild Board was technically in violation
of a previous SGC decision regarding the presentation.
The ruling stipulates that the SGC showing of the controversial
film of the student demonstrations during the hearings of the House
Un-American Activities Committee in San Francisco last spring be
followed by a playing of the tapes of the actual committee hearings.
and then a 45 minute pro-con discussion of the film.
The discussion was omitted from last night's presentation because
no one could be found to speak in favor of the film, although Per
Hanson, '62, SGC executive vice-president, said Thomas Hayden, '61,
MARVIN L. NIEHUSS
...no increase yet
"The University would no
more abandon the (Nichols)
Arboretum than it would cut off
its left arm.
"That's lovers' lane out
So said Ann Arbor Mayor
Cecil 0. Creal yesterday in cor-
recting his slip of the tongue at
Monday's City Council meeting,
when he was outlining the du-
ties of the new University Rela-
"I was actually referring to
the Botanical Gardens," he said.
The gardens are being moved
from Packard Street to Pitts-
Creal said that the committee
was being established in keep-
ing with city policy to maintain
effective connections with the
various governmental organiza-
tions in and around Ann Arbor.
Not To Ask
Expect No Request,
By ROBERT FARRELL
The University administration at
present has no plans to recom-
mend a raise in tuition to the
Regents, even if the Senate-ap-
proved higher education appropri-
ation is passed by the House.
However, Vice-President and
Dean of Faculties Marvin L. Nie-
huss said, "we haven't worked out
how we would operate within this
The'Regents requested an oper-
ating budget of $43.9 million from
the state. This was pared to $37.1
million in the Governor's budget
recommendations to 'the Legisla-
ture, a drop of $6.6 million.
The Senate passed a budget of
only $35.4 million for the Univer-
sity, $2 millon below the governor's
request and $8.6 million below the
Niehuss expressed hope that
there would still be some changes
made by the House in the appro-
priation bill, but observers agree
that there is only slight chance
for any major changes there.
The Senate-approved budget is
only one-half of one per cent
above last year's, while the Re-
gent's request was for an increase
of some 25 per cent.
About $3.2 million of the origi-
nally requested increase was in-
tended to allow for faculty salary
increases, promotions and related
contributions to retirement funds.
Niehuss said that if the present
proposals passed the House "the
University clearly would not be
able to make wage and salary ad-
justments that are needed," al-
though the specific consequences
are not yet clear.
The University has raised tuition
six times in the last 12 years to
supplement state funds. It has
never done so in two consecutive
years. Four of the hikes have been
approved by the Regents in the
fall, two in the spring.
Last year's five-to-one ratio be.
tween the raises in out-of-state
and in-state fees was the greatest
such ratio during this period.
This ratio has consistently risen
Last year's increases of $30 for
in-state students, and $150 for
out-of-state was followed by a
change in the numbers of state
residents and non-residents regis-
tering. Since last spring, in-state
enrollment is up about 1,100, while
out-of-state students' numbers are
down some 600.
410 ._~F' I
CAUTIOUS ON PEACE CORPS:
African Students Blame Congo Strife on
By GERALD STORCH
The Congolese spirit of inde-
pendence from colonialism will
spread but its violence will not,.
five University students from Af-
rica agreed last night.
Debating "Is the Congo Crisis
Contagious?", the panel discus-
sion focused on the causes for
the uprising in the Congo.
The effects it would have on
the rest of Africa and --possible
ways, including the Peace Corps,
to relieve the threats of riots and
confusion, were the main topics
To smooth the "inevitable" proc-
ess of independence and the down-
fall of colonialism, the panel
United States would not be able
to recapture the confidence of Af-
ricans for many years."
The idea came at the right time
-just when Africa needed help
the most. But it also came at the
wrong time-just when Africans
wanted to get rid of colonialists,
Other panel members liked the
concept of a Peace Corps, but
'were concerned about its actual
implementation and said it need-
ed much more study before being
put into operation.
The immediate need is for help
from the United Nations in elim-
inating the last vestiges of colon-
manipulate the government from
behind the scenes, he said.
State Rep. Gilbert Bursley (R-
Ann Arbor), moderator of the
panel, predicted that the UN would
have to remain in the Congo for
a while longer.
Rep. Bursley, who once was a
United States Information Agen-
cy officer there, said that as the
Congo's problems are gradually
lessened, the UN military forces
should gradually withdraw,
The five panel members laid the
blame for the violence and diffi-
culties in the Congo squarely on