THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Markert Views Non-Genetic Heredit
By PHILIP SUTIN
The synthesis of proteins is a'
joint enterprise of the genes and
cytoplasm of cells, Prof. Clement;
Markert of John Hopkins Univer-
sity said yesterday.7
This view is at variance with the1
original belief that heredity is due
solely to the genetic component
of a cell, since it would have the
cytoplasm (cell-body material)
modify the structure of the protein
which initially was a gene product.
Genes synthtesize enzymes which
lead to the formation of amino
acids and proteins. Each gene con-
trols a specific enzyme and pro-
tein. In the development of the
cell, various genes are repressed or
activated, he explained..
Responsible for Coloration
The development of melanin, a
pigment resporisible for coloration,
is an example of such gene control.
The genes of the pigment-bearing
cells produce an enzyme, tyrosi-
nose, which facilitates the synthe-
sis of the coloration.
However, the cells can be
changed so that they never ac-,
quire the ability to ntake the
chemicals needed to synthesize
pigment, Markert said.
The cells where melanin is
formed, the' melanocytes in the
skin and the pigment cells in the
retina, may be altered to prevent
the formation of proteinous fibers
upon which the melinin is norm-
Cells are Factor
Other cells in the tissue are an-
other factor in the synthesizing of
specific proteins. Prof. Markert
noted the work of David Peck of
John Hopkins University who took
sensory retina tissue of a chick's
eye and cultured the cells separ-
ately. Each developed into a pig-
ment cell. "This infers that the
environment may activate genes,"
"The role of other substances in
the metazoan cell is to regulate
the gene function," he added.
He noted the change in chromo-
somes and histomes of the sperms
of snails. During spermogenesis
the lycine of adult cells is replaced
by arginine which is followed by
protoamine. After fertilization
with the female egg, argine reap-
pears and by the gastula stage of
the embryo' the lycine found in
adult snails appears.
"This chemical change, the sim-
plification of the chromosome, is
to facilitate its subsequent spe-
cialization," he said.
Contrary to present theory, Prof.
Markert said, the non-DNA (a:
complex chemical in the cell nu-
clei) parts of chromosomes may
also have an effect on the origin of
specific proteins and therefore the
cell functions. This is illustrated
by the puffing out of non-DNA
parts on fruit fly chromosomes.
During the development of the
cell these puffs grow in a way
characteristic of the cell, indi-
cating that these areas have an
influence on protein synthesis.
It is possible to alter the puffing
of the chromosome by putting the
nucleus of one embryo cell into
the cytoplasm of another embry-
onic cell, he noted.
Margert also cited the results of
recent transplants of the nucleus
of a cell of one species of frog to
the cytoplasm of a cell of a differ-
ent species. Once transplanted
there are chromosome changes
within 12 to 14 cell divisions of the
"The longer the nucleus is in
the foreign cytoplasm, the more
changed the chromosomes will
become," he added.
If transplanted back to the tis-
sue of the original species, the
chromosome will regain its old
characteristics within _50 cell divi-
sions of the embryo.
'U' To Open
The fourth floor of the Cath-
erine Street faculty parking lot
will be opened to students in the
next few weeks, William Warnock,
161BAd, chairman of the Driving
Regulations Administrative Board,
said yesterday. I
Only final arrangements for
administering the new student
parking are needed for the change
to become effective.
The committee, which is meet-
ing weekly, is also discussing pos-
sible new student parking struc-
"The maJor problem in this area
Is financial," Warnock said. Park-
ing structures cost $2,006 per car
to build.. There is presently only
$80,000 availeble.from student fees.
PROF. CLEMENT MARKERT;,
.. non-genetic heredity
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