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February 12, 1963 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-02-12

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Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Preval"
:ditorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This inns be noted in all reprints.

Civil Defense Requires Examination

)AY, FEBRUARY 12, 1963


Soc jlo-Academic Fraternity:
C Phi: Kappa Tau Succeed?

[HE DEVOTED alumni and undergraduates'
reviving the University's Tau chapter of
hi Kapp'a Tau promise to instill fresh blood
nd fresh ideas into a tired fraternity system
his spring.
The Phi Taus are trying to reconcile the ap-
arent paradoxes of a social fraternity and an
cademically-oriented organization. Whether
hey, or anyone else, can succeed, remains to
e seen. But starting afresh as they are, they
ave an advantage over established chapters
hich must adapt to an academic role; Phi
'aus can jump into one.
But if the fraternity system is as outmoded as
s critics claim, why bother reviving it? Why
ot let it die out, as it has at Williams?
[HE TAUS have an answer. In informal edu-
cation, they believe a fraternity can offer
hat independent housing does not: close per-
nal relations with stimulating people, wheth-
r faculty members, foreign students, or visit-
ig guests.
While they recognize that formal class work
a personal matter, Phi Taus feel that a small
roup offers better study conditions than resi-
ence halls, and hope to make sure the tenor
f the house remains proper for study," accord-
ig to Jeffrey Fortune, Phi Tau spokesman and
resident of Strauss House.
The Phi Taus hold that participation in extra-
urricular activities, both within the house and
n the campus, which they will expect of
heir members, will stimulate studies.
But perhaps the most important reason for
etaining fraternities is. what the Phi Taus
onsider "the need for a small and identifiable
coup, the need not to withdraw from Uni-
ersity life." These needs, while not universal,
re widespread enough to justify a healthy
ellas here. Too often the serious student ig-
ores his social education, and misses the ex-
eriences associated with "collegiate."
3ECOGNIZING THE potential of fraternities,
the Phi Taus hope to avoid fraternial faults.
'hey want a "cosmopolitan group" encompass-
ig different religious and racial backgrounds;
he planners themselves are such a group. They
o not want to "mold" pledges into social or po-
tical uniformity, and will eliminate traditional
ledging for this spring to effect this. After issu-
ig bids, the present membership will act as
ledges, equal to new members, and all will
'ork together to rebuild the house.
Spring rush will present a problem in that
he chapter house is rented out until June

and the Phi Taus will have to rush from the
Union. But with some ingenuity they can and
are overcoming the problem. The rushees they
seek are men "confident in themselves, and
anxious to accept the challenge and leadership
opportunities" of building a new institution.
They feel that, as the University raises its
academic standards, this type of man appears
more frequently, and will demand the sens-
ible fraternity they envision,
THERE IS THE danger that once organized,
the Phi Taus will lose sight of their ideals,
and, competing as they must with more tradi-
tional fraternities, will begin to compete on the
latters' terms rather than compelling the lat-
ter to compete on Phi Tau terms. Some may
even question the Phi Taus' sincerity.
But the present leaders seem to be sincere
enough to withstand surrender to success. As
quadrangle leaders many of them have stuck
their necks out, opposing the quadrangle hier-
archy on such matters as officer qualifications
and on quadrangle involvement in the last
Student Government Council election.
They have no tradition-bound upperclassmen
to contend with, either. And hopefully, the
men they select this rush as fraternity broth-
ers will prove of the same calibre.
IF THE PHI TAUS succeed, reverberations
within the entire fraternity system appear
inevitable. John Feldkamp, fraternity adviser,
feels, "There are fellows in the fraternity
system like them, but. no similar plan yet in
effect. These are the men who can put that
plan into effect, and when they do there will
be a very definite impact on the rest of the
They should get the best men, because of the
gap between many fraternities and the type
of men coming to the University; a gap that
many have only approached filling. These men
will offer a competitive value to other houses,
who will have to answer for programs they
don't offer. But the Phi Taus have not lost
such fraternity concepts as fellowship and
some selectivity, and should fit into our present
If the Phi Taus fulfill their promise, the
entire University will benefit. They will offer
another type of life for those suited to it, and
may bring new leadership to the whole fra-
ternity system, leadership which could co-
operate more with independent groups. Their
present rush deserves close attention.

PUBLIC interest in civil defense
programs waxes and wanes
with each new crisis in world
events, but underneath the ups and
downs of popular concern, na-
tional, state, local and even Uni-
versity shelter programs are de-
veloping slowly but surely.
For example, 22 buildings with
a total capacity of 10,659 shelter
spaces have recently been licensed
as Ann Arbor public shelters. This
is part of the city's policy to uti-
lize the facilities it now has to
protect the public in time of dis-
aster, rather than constructanew
shelters. Eventually, the local of-
fice of civil defense hopes to pro-
vide space for everyone in Ann
THE SHELTERS will be stocked
with supplies, arriving at a gov-
ernment warehouse in Livonia.
City personnel will transport the
supplies to Ann Arbor and store
them in donated Masonic Temple
space until they are distributed to
the shelter areas, soon to be
marked with appropriate signs
from the federal government.
In addition, the city has received
over $60,000 from Washington for
construction of the emergency op-
erating center in the basement of
the new City Hall, to be completed
by April 1. It is reported that addi-
tional funds are to be received as
construction continues.
More progress will soon come in
the area of school civil defense
drills, with the cooperation of par-
ent - teacher organizations. The
purpose of these drills will be to
find a safe place for each child
within a 15-minute walking dis-
tance of the school.
Finally, the local civil defense
office is working with the Ann
Arbor Chamber of Commerce, the
University and the Main Street
Merchants Association on a warn-
ing system for Ann Arbor.
similar precautions, although it is
being highly secretive about it.
The University Press Service had
planned to make public a detailed
explanation of the University's
civil defense policies which was
recently formulated. Although sub-
mitted to Executive Vice-President
Marvin L. Niehuss, this report was
never released.
Nor has there been any an-
nouncement of the appointment
of a University civil defense direc-
tor. Director of University Rela-
tions Michael K. Radock had an-
nounced such an appointment
would definitely be made.
The fact that this civil defense
work has been going on in such a
city ,as Ann Arbor is more than a
'little surprising. In addition to the
howls of protets against nuclear
shelters often heard from student
political groups, work by a large
number of social scientists on this
same problem has been going on
in and around the University.
MANY OF those who are aware
of the problems of civil defense
are employed by Survey Research
Center or the Center for Conflict
Resolution. The have brought a
new attitude toward civil defense,
far superior to the one adopted by
many others interested in the sub-
The older attitude was one which
saw civil defense as a peculiar
American phenomenon, a mock
sideshow in the arena of Western
politics. The new approach has
brought a more serious attitude
toward nuclear shelters, one which
sees civil defense as a potentially
dangerous program.
Why then, do we have an ex-
panding civil defense program in
Ann Arbor? Why is there no com-
munication between these social
scientists and the civil defense pol-
icies of the very University which
employs many of them?
The reason, in large part, is
that the anti-civil defense move-

ment has been entirely an intel-
lectual movement. There has been
no attempt to change the minds of
the vast majority of Americans
who still believe that civil defense
is a good thing.
* * *
BY EXAMINING two of the new
approaches to civil defense, it can
be seen that some basic assump-
tions made by most Americans are

being ignored. The social scien-
tists prevent themselves from in-
fluencing the very locales in which
they do their work.
Many of them attempt to deal
with civil defense analytically. A
good example of a person who
takes the analytical approach is
William Livant of the Mental
Health Research Institute.
Livant sees about him a world
going mad, a world filled with
Herman Kahns, busily calculating
death and destruction in a hypo-
thetical third world war. He re-
sents those who devote their time
to analyzing the possible ways in
which a nuclear war can be fought
and how the chances for America's
survival vary in each case.
Livant recently cited such a
study in a speech to a large group
of psychology students. A man in
California, a newspaper clipping
said, had predicted the political
makeup of the United States, in
terms of Democrats, Republicans,
liberals and conservatives, after a
nuclear war has been fought.
This ludicrous analysis, Livant
said, belongs to the class of state-
ments, predictions and studies
which become true by mere repeti-
* * *
THE CONCEPT of a self-fulfill-
ing prophecy is nothing new; most
of us have known about it without
realizing it. For example, when a
newspaper takes a poll and pre-
dicts from the results that a cer-
tain candidate will win an elec-
tion, the prediction itself increases
the candidate's chances of being
elected. Even if the newspaper
poll is totally unscientific, the pre-
diction is likely to increase the
candidate's popularity and there-
fore his chances in the election.
ANOTHER TYPE of self-fulfill-
ing prophecy occurred with in-
famous frequency' on the New
York Stock Exchange in the 1920's.
A wealthy group of stockholders
would purchase a great number
of shares in any given corpora-
tion, in "hope" that the price of
stock would later increase.
When others saw these pur-
chases being made, they inferred
that the corporation was about
to make new advances which
would increase its profits, and

they therefore also bought large
quantities of stock.
With everyone purchasing shares
in the corporation, the price of
stock was, of course, bound to go
up, and the original stockholders
sold for a huge profit.
* * *
STUDIES OF nuclear destruc-
tion, Livant argues, have the same
effect as newspaper predictions
and stock exchange purchases.
Whether or not the original analy-
sis is objectively true, its psycho-
logical effect on others makes it
become true.
As people continually hear state-
ments about how few megadeaths,
as Livant calls them, will occur in
a third world war, they will begin
to accept the hypothesis that the
war can, and in some cases, should
be fought.
* * *
CIVIL DEFENSE, it is argued,
falls into the same category. By
building more and more shelters,
one makes a nuclear war seem
more plausible, less destructive
and therefore more likely to occur.
By not having a shelter pro-
gram, one leaves the United States
open to attack, true; but at least
one does not make war a prob-
able occurrence.
The chances that the Soviet
Union will disregard our deterent
capacity remain extremely small.
scientists often take to the prob-
lems of civil defense is the empiri-
cal approach. By analyzing the
results of key reports and experi-
ments in social psychology, the
members of this school come to
the conclusion that civil defense
would have a deleterious effect on
a peacetime society and would
make war more probable.
The most important hypothesis
of this school of thought is that
once the shelter program reaches
a certain point in its development,
it will not stop. Instead, it will
continue spiraling into a larger
and larger program.
At the conference on the im-
plications of a national civil de-
fense program held last year by
the Peace Research Institute, the
eight conferees agreed that "it
would be extremely difficult to

limit the program to any prede-
termined minimum."
These eight delegates said that
one of the chief reasons for such
an escalation is civil defense's
"uniquely potent psychological and
social appeal to survival instincts."
It was also agreed that once
civil defense was offered to a sub-
stantial part of the population, it
would eventually have to be of-
fered to all. A constant increase
in the accuracy and destructive-
ness of nuclear weapons would
also tend to escalate the shelter
Once ,this basic hypothesis is
accepted-that a shelter program
in the United States will grow
and grow-the remaining infer-
ences logically follow. The picture
described is alarming.
* * *
FIRST OF ALL, existing stresses
in the American community would
be greatly amplified. It is highly
probable that shelters would be
useless unless the number of oc-
cupants could be limited. This
would lead to the planned exclu-
sion of neighbors, friends and
strangers. The spirit of commun-
ity in the United States would
become strained...
The eight social scientists par-
ticipating in the conference also
suggested that ethnic groups
would compete for space in and
access to public shelter areas. In
addition, farm areas would begin
to realize that city dwellers would
pose a threat to their food sup-
Second, the report resulting from
the conference suggested that a
thorough civil defense program
would deeply affect what democ-
racy now exists in the United
States. There are two major rea-
sons for this.
* * *
ONE REASON is thatthe shel
ter program would require the
training of a large corps of Ameri-
cans, technically equipped to deal
with all sorts of situations that
can arise during a nuclear at-
Unquestioning obedience to
practice drills and other instruc-
tions would be demanded of the
public. Would not such prepara-
tions eventually restrict the pri-
vacy of the individual, a privacy
now carefully guarded by search
and seizure laws?-
In talkingof such dangers, the
report notes the cases of New York
City high school students who re-
fused to participate in shelter
drills and have-thereore-been re-
fused college recommendations.
Ins a shelter-centered society, re-
fusal to cooperate with defense
drills might bring on more serious
" * «
THE SECOND reason shelters
would endanger democracy is that
there would be a gap between the
protection necessary to survive a
nuclear war and the amount of
protection the shelters would ac-
tually offer.
This gap would result from a
lag between knowledge of the ef-
fects of new weapons and the
corresponding civil defense pro-
cedures which would protect
against attack.
Such a lag between the threat
and the protection would natur-
ally tend to increase a citizen's
anti - governmental sentiments.
When the =government announces
that a large number of the public
shelters have become obsolete,
against whom else but the gov-
ernment is the public to take out
its frustrations and anxieties, al-
ready greatly augmented by the
fear of mutilation and death? A
desire for quicker decisions-deci-
sions which could not possibly be
subjected to the checks and bal-
ances system of American democ-
racy-would pave the way to dic-
* « *
government would be willing to

on the possible obsolescencenf
public shelters. A public officials
temptation, however, not to re-,
lease a set of particularly disillu-
sibning safety statistics would be
Third, a uniformity of public
thinking would result from the
creation of shelter-centered soci-

ety. Social scientists are already
aware of the individual's tendency
to transform insecurity that comes
with bewilderment and confusion
into a rigid and total commitment.
Those Americans who are present-
ly confused by issues concerning
civil defense might overwhelmin:-
ly commit themselves to the policy
for psychological rather than poli-
tical reasons.
* * .
non is equally well-known to be-
havioralists: the individual's de-
sire to make present ideas and
questions consistent with actions
of the past. The American would
always avoid the question of whe-
ther or not civil defense is a wise
policy, because this question would
present him with the possibility
that billions of dollars and great
effort had been spent in vain.
These two approaches to civil
defense are quite sound within
themselves, but suffer because
they are not nearly broad enough
in dealing with the issues involved
in shelter programs.
The questions which must be
answered by anyone discussing the
civil defense problem and which
these two approaches answer in-
adequately is: In what cases
should the United Mtates fight
a nuclear war?
LIVANT AND many others, of
course, would answer that a nuc-
lear war should never be fought,
that the horrors of nuclear de-
struction are too great to warrant
fighting a total war.
There are two reasons why this
answer is inadequate. First, ;ita
assumes that the Soviet Union is
not recklessly bent on world dom-
ination and that Communism is
not a dangerous dogma.
Second, it assumes that ,it is
impossible to invent a system to
protect the lives and happiness of
the great majority of American
The most important thing about
these assumptions is not whether
they are correct or incorrect. The
important thing is that many
people in the United States today
think that they are incorrect and
base their thinking on the oppo-
site assumptions: that the Com-
munlt state is hell and that it is
possile to invent a shelter sys-
tem to protect the great majority
of Americans.
* * *
FOR THESE people, a nuclear
war is a far better alternative
than world Communism and they
therefore think all the Herman
Kmhns and all the nuclear shelter
programs are absolutely essential.
it is useless to tell these people
that they are dealing with self-
fulfilling prophecies and are
therefore making nuclear war
much more likely. It is equally
useless to say that a strong civil
defense program will eventually
lead to a dangerous shelter-cen-
tered society.
The only way to combat civil
defense is to prove conclusively
that the assumptions on which
the program is based are wrong,
or highly unlikely to be true. It is
therefore necessary to discuss the
nature of the Soviet Union and
Communism with those who favor
shelter programs. And it is also
necessary to engage in very scien-
tific studies of nuclear destruction
to see whether or not it really is
possible to protect the lives .and
happiness of a great many Amer-
icans in a nuclear war.
IN ATTACKING civil defense,
one must be realistic. The great
majority of Americans believe
that Communism is evil, bent on
world domination, and that most
of the United States can survive
a nuclear war. And since these
beliefs are the seeds of civil de-
sense, one must prove them In-
correct to ,stop civil defense.
Moredver, they must be proved
incorrect not to a small group of
intellectuals and specialists, but
to the large mass of Americans
who favor shelter programs.

If ivi deens- rall isill ad-
vised, then this ought to be
proved. If one shies away from
the fight by merely saying that
the study of shelter. areas is in-
admissible, or that it would create
a dangerous society, one will
never be able to stop the snow-
balling civil defense movement.

State Should Go to Dogs

WELL, THOSE "reactionary, stuffy, stingy"
old outstate legislators have tossed their
city counterparts a hot potato. The special
House Committee on Greyhound Racing has
come up with a proposal which, if adopted,
will be a major economic and political break-
through for the state of Michigan.
The committee, under the chairmanship of
Rep. Frederic J. Marshall (R-Allen), has called
for legalized dog racing in Michigan, with a
certain part of the revenue earmarked for
higher education, specifically student scholar-
The proposal marks the first recognition of
an untapped source of revenue-gambling, and
hopefully it is only the first step toward the
day when Michigan will enjoy the benefits of
wide-open gambling, patterned after the state
of Nevada.
Dog racing for outstate Michigan would
come as a salvation. It-can do for the rural and
economically depressed' areas (such as the
Upper Peninsula) what it has done for such
states as Florida, Colorado and Massachusetts:
it can put them on their feet again.
THE COMMITTEE has studied the effects of
dog racing in these and other states and'
reports without reservation that the advent of
dog racing attracted tourists, expanded the
labor market, revitalized the economy, and even
attracted industry to the areas where it was
located. Clearly it is a remedy which a few
troubled areas in Michigan would do well to
But the legislators should not make their
scope too narrow. What is true of dog racing
is true of all forms of gambling. Legalized in
Michigan, and properly policed, gambling could
transform the state into a new position-a po-
EAST QUADRANGLE Council academic
committee plans to award lapel pins this
spring to those students in East Quad who
have achieved a 4.0 record for the previous
semester. On the surface, this recognition
would seem to be a good thing, but on closer
inspection it has some undesirable effects.
In the men's residences, recognition for stu-
dents with perfect records implies that a grind
makes a good quaddie. The result is that anti-
grinds, otherwise known as noise-makers, will
hb antagnnizM by the award. The result: more

sition of wealth, of financial solvency and of
world reknown.
Not only would it be patronized for its ca-
sinos, but the presence of the gambling estab-
lishments would attract patronage for the resort
towns, the ski areas, the parks and forests, and
the thousands of inland lakes.
Michigan's gambling potential, with its popu-
lous neighbors of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wis-
consin and Canada, far outstrips that which
has been realized in Nevada. It can draw upon
a greater number of people; it is far better lo-
cated in relation to the rest of the states; it
has many natural and manufactured attrac-
tions, aside from gambling, which would en-
hance its position.
NEEDLESS TO SAY, the gambling would have
to, bestrictly controlled-under a nro-non-'
sense gambling commission. The revenue would
have to be permanently earmarked for the
areas which need it most-higher education
and mental health, for example. And of course
it would have to be on a strictly local option
basis, to assure those communities which do
not wish it that they needn't be bothered by
Such an attempt to legalize gambling could
and will receive terrific opposition, principally
from sincere religious and reformer groups. But
their well-meant opposition is hackneyed and
it now must be ignored. Too long they have
opposed gambling on a legal basis and over-
looked it on an illegal level.
Gambling in Michigan is a reality right now.
It goes on in someone's barn, or out in the
garage. It goes on behind the night club or
in a lonely warehouse. It is more-or-less con-
trolled by the underworld.
And the revenue from this gambling goes
untaxed. Countless thousands. of dollars are
gambled yearly in Michigan without a penny
going to the state. How senseless it is to con-
tinue ignoring the existence of the contraband
gamblers. How unrealistic, especially in the
light of the state's financial woes.
Far more sensible it would be to legalize
the gambling activities, police them stiffly and
tax them heavily. This would salve the state
coffers and snuff out the activities of the black
market gamblers.
rTO THE ARGUMENT that "men will gamble
hard earned money while their families go
unfed," one can only reply "they will anyway."
A gambling man will gamble regardless of its
legality. It would be better to legalize his
gambling so that the state can derive sufficient

Com posers Present
Avant-Garde Music
UNDER THE AUSPICES of the Dramatic Arts Center, the first two
concerts of ONCE 1963 were held this past weekend. Now in its
third year, the festival has attracted international attention as a
forum for the most current avant-garde and experimental music,
particularly that of a group of Ann Arbor composers whose brain-,
child is the festival.
Guest performers were members of the Hartt Chamber Players
of Hartford, Connecticut and the Camerata Quartet of New York.
Augmented by local performers, the visitors performed the difficult
works with clarity and enthusiasm, not evading the rigorous musical
responsibilities demanded by the composers of highly abstract works.
GORDON MUMMA'S "A Quarter of Fourpiece" for flute, oboe,
French horn, and doublebass was heard. The work, another instance
of Mumma's extraordinary versatility, uses rhythmically unstructured
musical events within strictly-controlled time blocks.
Robert Ashley's "Fives" for pianos, percussion, and strings is
a large, carefully-conceived work based on the structuring of musical
parameters in orders of five. The performance under Edwin London
seemed too restrained for the scope of the work.
Philip Krumm's "May 1962," programmed as a theatre event,
had persons rushing around the stage area engaging in improbable,
unconcertlike activities. The piece is actually a realization of a
highly abstract conceptualization of relationships between artistic
events sometimes termed a "formation."
The first concert closed with Donald Scavarda's "Filmscore for
Two Pianists," a twenty minute film conceived as simultaneously
visual music and symbolic information, from which pianists Ashley and
Mumma performed a masterful realization which emphasized this
inherent duality of the work.
* *. * ,*
ROGER REYNOLDS received an excellent performance of his
"Mosaic" for flute and piano by Karen Hill and Robert James in
the second concert. While not endowed with any particular innovations,
it is a refined and polished work.
Michael Von Biel, a young German composer currently in Ann
Arbor, achieves new and frightening sounds from violin and two
pianos in his "Book for Three," an intense work.
George Cacioppo's new ensemble piece, "Two Worlds," ended the
program. The work, a notable integration of well-chosen aural effects
into a neat structural fabric, is a further development of Cacioppo's
distinctive style.
-Bernard Falter





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