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May 09, 1963 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1963-05-09

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Err)AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS THms UNIEST FMCLIAINs
aWbe?. Opinions Are Fre STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG., AwN ARBoR., Micir., P aoNE NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
THURSDAY, MAY 9, 1963 NIGHT EDITOR: ELLEMN SILVERMAN

ITALIAN ELECTIONS:
Results E scape Ex planation

STUDENTS FOOT THE BILL:
Lack of Money H ampers
A thietic Plant Expansion

Migrnt Worker Plgh

'HE PLIGHT of the migrant workers is one
*which Michigan must face in the near fu-
ture-like it or not. Michigan, as a terminus
point for one of the streams of migrants pick-
Ing fruits and vegetables across the country,
-must consider' the consequiences which hordes
of people living in temporary housing on Mich-
igan property bring.
Michigan's fruit cr'op requires a large num-
ber of pickers for a relatively short period of
time. In order to harvest the crop at its best,
-large numbers of workers must work in one
area for a concentrated amount of time. Once
one crop is finished, the migrants move on
further up the peninsula to pick the next ripe
crop.
Each grower can either hire a crew himself
through a representative in the southern-us-
ually Texas--areas where the migrants make
their summer home or -deal through a crew
leader. The leader is most frequently a migrant
made good who hires a crew, provides for its
transportation along a route specified by the
crop harvests and charges the growers for pro-
viding thie labor.
ALTHOUGH OF THE SAME origin as the mi-
grants, the crew leader often feels no com-
mon ties with them. Too often he exploits both
migrants and growers. Many growers are not
cognizant of this fact or prefer to ignore it.
S OUTH AFRICA s increasng it oppression
of the majority of its residents as the apart-
heid-minided white minority piles one restrictive
law upon another.
The latest law, designed to crush any dis-
sent against its rigid segregation policies, is the
General Law Amendmient Act. This innocuous-
by-named statute adds new categories of trea-
son and deprives its suspected violators of any
civil rights. A South African cannot testify
before a United Nations committee. He can be
tried for his life without preliminary examina-
tion. His mail can bie freely opened by the post
office. If a political prisoner, he can be kept
Incommunicado for three months.
By themselves, these laws make South Africa
one of the most fearsome places in the world
to live. Combined with existing statutes, these
new laws mean that the non-white South Afri-
can lives at the command of his white over-
THE NON-WHiTE must live in special reser-
vations, carry a pass at all times and may
be arbitrarily banished from public life. Whites,
too, are subject to most of this harsh legisla-
tion but race-kinship mitigates its biting edge.
For the Negro there gis no hope. He is doomed
to a shanty hovel and the intense fears of his
white neighbors. The mixed-blood coloreds far
a little better but they too are heavily restricted.
Furthermore, the Negroes have no permanent
stake in South Africa. The government plans
totally to separate them into subject, backward
states. While the Negroes will have a semblance
of tribal self-government, they will in reality
be controlled by whites in Johannesburg. They
will have no righets at all in the white area
where it is most likely they will be forced to
work.
So the racist South African regime adds more
restrictive legislation. Yet it may be sealing its
own doom for it leaves no room for accommo-
dation between the races. Thirty per cent of the
n5eople cannot subjugate the other 70 per cent
forever especially when the rest of Africa is
opposed.
PHILIP SUTIN
Acting National Concerns Edltor
WONDERPUL. BUT RARE is the teacher who
considers how a student answers a question
rather than if he gives the intended answers.
Many times a student answers an examina-
tion question with clear insight. Unfortunately,
he may not be clairvoyant enough to interpret
the question exactly the way the professor did.
Some narrow-minded teachers grade a student
who misinterprets a question's intent the same
way they grade a student who does not even

attempt to answer the question: no credit.
These teachers are stifling original thinking
by not deeming it worthwhile enough to con-
sider. However, some of the more liberal grad-
ers grant partial credit for a wrong but per-
ceptive answer.
A well-prepared student who interprets a
question wrong but gives a complete, compre-.
hensive answer to his own interpretation
should receive full credit. On second thought,
maybe he should receive extra credit for

As a result, migrants are paid through the
crew leader who pockets a much higher per-
centage of the take than would be deemed nor-
mal in any other business situation.
Some growers pay the migrants directly to
offset this evil but much more needs to be
done. States ought to take it upon themselves
to legislate again~st these evils. So far only New
Jersey has made any sort of effort. Michigan
should follow suit.
Because migrants are not residents of the
states in which they work, they are often un-
able to receive local, state or federal assistance
in times of emergency. Similarly, the migrant
children usually do not go to school steadily,
if at all.
THE SITUATION of the migrant both on and
off the road is despicable. Poor housing,
substandard sanitation facilities and separation
from the local community result in an isolated
community of migrants. The local areas, which
fee no responsibility for the welfare of the
migrants, and the grower, who often feels
even less responsibility, have yet to accept their
proper role.
Just as the large production corporations
deal with labor unions to the mutual benefit
of both, migrants must be helped to gain an
opportunity to improve themselves. The com-
munities in which the migrants work and the
growers for whom they work must share in
the effort.
In the end the results benefit all three--
althoughi up to this point none of the groups
has realized this. If the living standards of the
mnigrants are sufficiently raised they will, ob-
viously, benefit. This, in turn, will stimulate
the growth of thie economies in which they are
placed as well as remove a blight which exists.
pRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY'S new Na-
tional Service Corps legislation provides for
workers to set up migrant camps in the South-
ern states. Here, federal workers under the
corps legislation would begin to educate mi-.
grants in both academic subjects and the basic
elements of life. Among other things, these
camps would teach child care, family budgeting
and laws pertaining to migrants which now are
not enforced due to the migrants' Ignorance
of them.
Recommendations from many sources have
been to allow the workers to travel with the
migrants on their yearly trek. But this is not
possible since the migrants live; on a grower's
thrfderal worker access to his land.l dny
Michligan grower's, when surveyed by a fed-
eral commission studying the National Service
Corps and the migrants, indicated that they
would be willing to allow workers on their land.
Whether or not this means that they will be
pleased when workers teach migrants about
minimum wage laws, which Michigan does not
have in the agricultural field, or child labor
laws, which are often neglected, is another
matter.-
MICHIGAN PRODUCERS have shown, how-
ever, that they are willing to help improve
the condition of the migrant-even at a little
added cost to them. This is essential to the
fight against the dire poverty in which these
people live. It is essential if; the blight of sub-
standard living is to be removed from the
American scene.
It is commendable that Michigan growers
have joined in a beginning attempt to improve
the conditions of other men. All that can be
hoped now is that they stay firm in their ini-
tial convictions and sincerely work with the
federal workers.
More growers should soon follow the lead
that Michigan growers have set.
--ELLEN SILVERMAN
The student must not be allowed to get away
with dodging a question he cannot answer by
giving an irrelevant answer. But it seems that
teachers might consider if the student's inter-
pretation was reasonable. Too often when the
student approaches the teacher explaining why
he thought and answered as he did, the grader
will say, "Well, this is what I wanted" and dis-
miss the student.
The fact that only one student in a class of
50 has misinterpreted the question should not

be a factor in determining whether the stu-
dent's interpretation was reasonable. It is feas-
ible that original thinkers comprise a small
percentage of the population.
OBVIOUSLY, many students major in fields
in which they are doing well. When they do
not earn good grades in a subject, they are
discouraged from specializing in it. Some crea-
tive thinkers who would be exceptional workers
in certain fields are being driven from them
because they are not earning the good grades
they deserve. Other teachers, open-minded
enough to consider the student's point of view,
are attracting qualified people by showing that
they appreciate them. .
When a student enters a field, it is more im-
portant that he know and understand his ma-

By GLORIA BOWLES
Acting Magazine Editor
ACOUNTRY of contrasts and
contradictions, 'which produced
a Mussolini and a Michaelangelo
and goes on producing vino and
come up with a series of elections
rsuwhich escapes concrete
It has been almost three weeks
since the Italians campaigned
wildly in Rome, Florence, Venice
and the other large cities, and
more quietly in the outlying poor
agricultural villages. It will prob-
ably take as many weeks to, come
up with a meaningful anialysis of
the ambiguous tallies which saw
Premier Amintore Fanfani's Chris-
tian Democrats suffer considerable
losses.
At the same time, the Commun-
ists increased their strength, mov-
ing from 22.'7 per cent of the
total vote in 1958 to 25.8 per cent
in hiselectin a rlt whic
western democracies and could
spell difficulty for the Common
Market and the NATO alliance.
* * *
THE- LIBERALS, the Italian
"rightist" party supported by busi-
nessmen and landowners, showed
the largest electoral gains. The
liberals took 7.0 per cent of the
vote as compared to 3.5 in 1958.
The existence of only one party
on the right dates back to an anti-
fascist reaction which followed
Mussolini's regime.
Communist gains In the elec.-
tion were unexpected and have
been the subject of much analysis.
The Communist gain is closely
tied to the losses of other non-
Communist parties on the left
and to the general plight of left-
ist parties in a multi-party parlia-
mentary system.
Italy has five influential parties:
from right to left they are the
Liberals, the Christian Democrats,.
the Republicans, the Democratic
Socialists and Pietro Nenni's left-
wing Socialists.
hTHE SOCIALISTS emerged from
sion to follow the democratic, non-
revolutionary anti-private industry
path, and left the Moscow-oriented
Communists behind.
Immediately following World
War II, however, the Left-Wing
Socialists joined in an alliance
with the Communists. Intra-party
disagreements broke out and a
third leftist party, the Democratic
Socialists, was founded. Socialist
fragmentation has been a recur-
ring problem in Italy and aided
Mussolini's cause in 1922. However,
again persuaded of the advisability
of a break with the strict Marxist
line, the left-wing socialists re-
cently withdrew from the Com-
munist aliace. Te pat hope
it wold attact votes away from
Italy's third strongest party
(after the Christian Democrats
and the Communists), the Left
Wing Socialists, has been essen-
tial to the government coalition
which has kept Fanfani in power.
* * *
THE "APERTUJRA," or opening
to the left, effected by the Chris-
tian Democrats was up for a test
in this election Fanfani's goen
ment was composed of hs own
Catholic-oriented party, the Demo-
cratic Socialists and a party with
a more narrow base of support,
the Republicans. *
This center-left government was
a Fanfani brainchild, introduiced
at the Christian Democratic con-
gress in Naples at the end of
January, 1962. The coalition was
able to muster enough support in
the two-chamber Italian parlia-
men with onl the agreem ent sto
by the left-wing socialists.
Fanfani hoped the April elec-
tions would win him a vote of
confidence from the Italian people

on this opening to the left which
would give him a parliamentary
majority but exclude the Com-
munists.
But it was the Communists and
the right-wing liberals who showed
may igreat part be explained by
the increasing economic prosperity
and political activity of the busi-
nessmen, who are concerned about
the high degree of nationaliza-
tion in Italian industry.
ON FIRST VIEW, the Commun-
ist vote appears surprising. Italy
is the only European nation en-
has been giving sch support to
the Communists. But Italian pros-
perity is only relative: the nation
is far behind Germany, France
and England. Wealth is coming to
a few, particularly those in the
big cities. Rural districts still know
the most appalling poverty; the
residents of the South are its most
economic prosperity is not the
unfortunate victims.
Also, one must consider that
economic prosperity is not the
only measure of happiness. Italian
society is highly mobile; whole
families uproot themselves from
poor farms to go off to the pros-
perous big city. They may have
more money in their pockets but
they may also be harboring much

which makes a society modern, it
is not surprising that extremist
elements arise, particularly in the
northern industrial cities.
Results of this election, then, do
not necessarily signal a continuing
and persistent rise in the strength
SAnother powerfu political force
in Italy, the Roman Catholic
Church, outwardly gives its sup-
port to the Christian Democrats.
A Communist vote in a Catholic
nation seems to be another purely
Italian contradiction. Some ana-
lysts point to the improved re-
lations between the Vatican and
the Kremlin to explain Commun-
ist party gains. During the cam-
paign the Communists cited Pope
John XXIII's audience with Aleksi
Soviet Premier Nth S. Khrush-f
chev. They also praised the Pope's
peace encyclical and noted the
change in attitude since 1948,
when the church threatened to
excommunicate Communist fol-
lowers.
Vatican's current atempt, hatrap
prochement with the Kremlin has

had a greater effect on the clergy
than on its congregation.
* * *
THERE IS another factor In
the Fanfani defeat. The Christian
Democrats have been in power
since 1946, and disenchantment
dsire for archnge aore inevitable
facts of political life.
In the final analysis, one can
do little more than speculate and
also wait with regard to these
two day elections in Italy. Fan-
fani must make the first move,
deciding on either a coalition lean-
ing to the right and a commit-
ment to private industry or one
to the left and a commitment to
continued nationalization.
The summer will also see a
scnd move when Pietro Nenn'
in convention to decide on the
direction its alliances will take.
These ambiguous factors in the
Italian situation make concrete
conclusions about the election
trends difficult. Outsiders can only
theItalians repudiate or supot
ed the wider opening to the left.

AT CINEMA GUILD:
Its Holia wihJd

A MILLIONNAIRE j un k m an
arrives in Washington, D.C.,
to bribe a weak-willed congress-
man into assisting passage of a
bill. He brings with him a brilliant
and alcoholic lawyer, a shrimp-
sized yesman and a beautiful
blonde. Determined not to be em-
barrassed by his fiancee of eight
years, the hood hires a free lance
journalist to tutor and "teach her
the ropes."
Thus runs the perverted Pyg-

LETTERS -~
to the
EDITOR

To the Editor:
THE UNIVERSITY Socialist Club
estands with the Bloomington,
Socials Alliance in it erightunto
function as an Indiana University
recognized organization without
harrassment and intimidation.
Furthermore, the University So-
cialist Club urges that student and
faculty at the Univestyad t
the prts over Monroey County
Prosecutor Thomas Hoadley'sn at
tempt to try three members of
YSA under the unconstitutional
1951 Zndliana ansti-Communist Act.
We view his maneuverings as
and stife dissent ad to etabis
an atmosphere conducive to the
re-emergence of McCarthyism.
The Bloomington Defense Com-
mittee, which was formed Feb. 20
in response to Hoadley's assault
on civil liberties, is calling on
students everywhere to rally pro-
test against the Hoadley attack
and to send letters of support for
the YSA's rights. All faculty, stu-
dent organizations, other mem-
bers of the academic community
and concerned individuals are ask-
ed to do likewise. Letters should
be sent to the Bloomington De-
fense Committee, P.O. Box 625,
Bloomington, Indiana; Indiana
Daily Student, Indiana University,
Bloomington, Indiana; and Prose-
cutr Toma oaey, 11 ot
Walnut, Bloomington, Indiana-.
--The University Socialist Club

malion plot of "Born Yesterday":
the transformation from stupid
broad to perceptive young lady,
just another one in a long line of
Liza Doolittles. Only one factor
alters this: Judy Holliday.
As Billie, the ex-chorus girl,
Miss Holliday is as funny and
warmly wonderful as she can be.
She has created a character all
hers.
* *
HARRY BROCK,, the big time
junkman, is played with remark-
able skill by that cold, gruff,
Highway Patrolman Broderick
Crawford. Yelling, blustering and
generally o r de ri n g everyone
around, he is better, much better,
sading"Jouraist.Easiy t h e
weakest point in the mnovie, Hold-
en provides "Born Yesterday"
with a message. He is the man who
won't be corrupted.
All of - which leads us to the
main point: "Born Yesterday" is
far fromn the funniest movie ever
made. As a comedy it fails to be
amusing. As drama it fails to be
either convincing or interesting.
.As a vehicle for a great star It
is perfect. The now famous Gin
Rummy Game is as hilarious as
one can hope for as are mhost of
the scenes with Miss Holliday. The
rest of the movie isn't. Glaring
moral tags are inserted, trite
stereotypes of the Big Hood -
Dmb Broad are provide andl
made are rampant.
THIS ONLY serves to heighten
the remarkable fhct that the film
is considered a classic, a fact only
explicable when you have seen
the brilliant performance of Miss
Holliday.
She's great. What else can you
say? With a high pitched nasal
voice that belies the Bronx Cheer,
underlying everything she says,
Judy makes the idea of "the
dumb blonde who isn't" all hers.
Every line, every movement, every
piercing glance from those in-
nocent but questioning eyes helps
create the character of Billie that
has become legendary. So go
ahead and see it, get sentimental;
after all, as Billie says, "It's a free
country."
-Hugh Holland

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
fonrth of a series of articles analyz-
th niversity's athltic plat.mof
By WILLIS C. BULLARD, JR.
rfHE MAJOR PROBLEM in ath-
letic plant expansion is money.
During the early 1950's, the
Board in Control of Intercollegiate
Athletics was able to pay cash
(through football receipts) for the
men's varsity swimming pool, the
women's pool, baseball stands, an
addition to the football stadium
and a new press box, and an
athletic administration building.
At this time the athletic de-
partment budget was entirely self-
sufficient, Profits from football
paid for most of the operating
expenses and money was left over
to use for necessary plant ex-
pansion'.
Fotbl nt onl1y supported the
also some costs of the intramural
and physical education programs.
For example, the entire salaries
of all coaches were paid by the
athletic department. When some
coaches spend part of their time
teaching physical e duc ation
classes, the tab is picked up by
the athletic department and is not
pbart of the general fund budget of
the University.
*b * *
MAINTENANCE COSTS of some
buildings used for intramral or
physical education purposes are
paid by the athletic department.
The cost of these activities are
estimated to be almost $100,000 a
year.
Durinig the early 1950's, the
athletic budget was able to carry
this burden. But with the advent
'of generally rising costs and the
scholastic aid program, a situation
developed in which the athletic
department was barely in the
black each year.
Several years ago it became ap-
parent that a new field house and
a new hockey arena would be
Comittee*as formed bythe
board to investigate the type of
a structure that would be needed
for each use and posible ways to
finance them.
Tihe committee, chaired by Chi-
cago alumnus Frank Mackey cam~e
up with the idea of a multi-
purpose building, like the Assembly
Hall in Champaign, Ill, or Cobo
Hall in Detroit. /
At THE November, 1961 meeting
of the board, $25,QOO was appro-
priated for expenses involved in
planning the details of the multi-
purpose building. Other prelimin-
ary steps were taken such as es-

tablishing contact with the Uni-
versity Planning Committee and
the Campus Planning and Devel-
opment Commnittee of the Senate
Advisory Committee on University
Affairs.
definite hplans t build a mt i-
purpose building was still money.
With all the board's regular in-
come being used for operating ex-
penditures, there seemed but three
monetary sources: the University,
alumni, and students.-
The board did not ask the Uni-
versity for money since it would
have been highly improbable that
the University would be able or
willing to grant this request. The
general fund budget was very tight
due to a low approl'riation from
the Legislature.
'* * *
THE ADVANTAGE of request-
ing money from alumni was that
alumni could best afford large
contributions. But there was a
fear on the part of many board
members of the consequences of
soliciting money from the alumni.
It was believed that such an action
would encourage unwanted alumni
influence in athletic policy-mak-
ing. Also, there was fear of pos-
sible alumni recruiting violations
which would damage athletics
This left one source, the stu-
dents. There were two major ways
to get money from the students.
One was to increase the amount
of money given to the board from
student tuition. The other was to
charge students admission to
athletic coiatests.
The board decided on the first
method. At the May, 1962 Re-
gents' meeting, members of the
Plant Expansion Committee asked
for an increaser in thtue fes gie
tion. The Regents rejected this
method of raising funds with Re-
gents Frederick C. Matthaei and
Paul Goebel dissenting.
* * *
ONE REASON why the Regents
teboard's ps fracthe multi
purpose building were not specific
enough, especially in the area of
costs. There was also a feeling
that the University could not af-
ford to give the board a larger
share of the tuition than it was
getting.
However, the Regents did' say
that it was within the authority of
the board to charge students ad-
mission to athletic contests.. This
source of revenue was not adopted
at the time but last fall a start
was made by charging students $1
each for costs involved in printing
and distributing football tickets.

TODAY AND TOMORROW:

By WALTER LIPPMANN
THE EVENTS IN Haiti illustrate
how great has been the change
during the past 30 years in our
relations with. the Latin countries
to the south of us. The Republic
of Haiti has rarely been anything
but a bloody tyranny, and in 1915
the United States landed the
Marines and governed the country
for the next 19 years. Now once
again Haiti is seething with
violence.
But now, while in an extreme
emergency we might have to go in
once more to protect lives, we are
bound by treaties with the. other

ItI ' - -

it

American republics to avoid in-
tervention and -to work through
the Organizatibn of American
States.
The reason we signed the treat-
ies which forbid us to intervene
now is that all the American re-
publics insisted upon It. They felt
strongly that if the United States
did not renounce unilateral inter-
vention, their dignity as fully sov-
ereign states was degrac~ed. We
signed the treaties, and now we
are learning in Cuba and in Haiti
that it is not easy for 20 divergent
republics to form a single, deci-
sive and effective international
policy.
When we realized that our re-
peated interventions in Haiti and
elsewhere aroused the anger and
resentment of the other American
republics, we moved to join with
them in creating the multilateral
system which now exists.
* * *
THE SYSTEM does not work
very well, and at bottom this is,
I think, because there is missing
the third leg of the stool, which is
European presence and participa-
tion in this hemisphere. The scan-
did students of -hemispheric af-
fair tel us that the Alliance for
American feeling. If we ask our-
selves why, the answer is, I think.
that we are much too powerful
and too rich to have a trusting
relationship with countries that
are so weak and so poor. We
should not leave the Latin-Ameri-
can countries in the position
where, if they cannot get help
but to turn toRussia.oatrntv
If this is correct, then the right
course is to encourage other
friendly countries to take not only
an economic, but also a cultural
and political part in the affairs
of the Western Hemisphere. Our
solitary pre - eminence t 0 d a y
should be reduced and diluted by
the presence -of the European
Economic Community, by Britain
and Scandinavia and, of- course,
by Spain and Portugal.
* * *
WE SHALL NOT, I think, be
able to make orderly progress in
this hemisphere as long as the
fallacy of the north-south axis
prevails. We should remind our-
selves of the geography of the

creativity.
I IS NOT TO SA
wrong answer shoul

d receive consideration.

~g £irI~
7~ ,.,.

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