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May 03, 1963 - Image 8

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-05-03

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

EIGHT

THE MICRIGAN DAILY

EIGHT THE MICHIGAN BATTY

r Wulff Y , A1A Y s, u

ENGLISH, FRENCH SHARES LAG:
NATO Split over Atomic Role, Defense Contributions, de Gaulle

(Continued from Page 3)
In NATO's 14-year history, even
Italy at one time spent some of its
defense budget in Somaliland, out-
side the NATO area.
A country-by-country survey of
NATO forces shows the following:
Belgium: Total armed forces:
110,000 men, including army 85,-
000; navy 5000; air force 20,000.
Total defense budget for 1962:
$321.43 million. Total defense ex-
penditures since NATO's forma-
tion in 1949: about $4.7 billion. All
committed to NATO.
Canada: Total armed forces:
135,000 men, including army 53,-
750; navy 21,480; air force 52,490.
Total defense budget: $1,6 billion.
Total since NATO's formation:
$21.7 billion.
Manpower committed to NATO's
European front is 14,000 men, in-
cluding a brigade group and four
air force fighter squadrons.
Denmark: Total armed forces:
43,000 men, including army 29,000;
navy 7000; air force 7000. Defense
budget for 1962: $179 million.
Total since NATO's formation:
about $1.7 billion. All committed
to NATO.
' France: Total armed forces: 1
million men, including army 804,-

000; navy 67,000; air force 137,000.
An increase of about 20,000 is
foreseen. Defense budget for 1962:
$2.4 billion. Total since NATO's
formation: about $38.7 billion.
Of the army, two divisions are
assigned to NATO in Germany
plus a small brigade in West Ber-
lin. Four divisions once earmarked
for NATO are now in France or
Algeria.
Of the navy, most of this is in
the Mediterranean fleet which has
been withdrawn from NATO com-
mand. The government plans to
move fleet headquarters from Tou-
lon in the Mediterranean to Brest
in the Atlantic and the effect of
this on NATO is not yet known.
The French First Tactical Air
Firce is under NATO command,
but the rest of the air force is not.
Aerial defense of French territory
has been withheld from NATO.
West Germany: Total armed
forces: 365,000 men, plus three
army divisions under preparation.
This total includes army 224,000-
to be augmented with two armored
infantry divisions and one ar-
mored division; navy 26,000; air
force 80,000. Total defense budget
for 1962: $2.8 billion. Total since
1953: about $23.9 billion. Before

joining NATO in 1955, West Ger-
many contributed to the defense
budgets of certain NATO countries
by paying occupation costs.
All of West Germany's forces
are committed to NATO.
Greece: Total armed forces:
159,000 men, including army 120,-
000; navy 17,000; air force 22,000.
Total budget for 1962: $176.4 mil-
lion.
Total Greek defense expendi-
tures since NATO's formation:
about $1.7 billion. All committed
to NATO.
Italy: Total armed forces: 466,-
000 men, including army 369,000;
navy 41,000; air force 56,000. Total
budget for 1962: $1.2 billion. Total
since NATO's formation: about
$13 billion. All committed to
NATO.
Luxembourg: Total armed
forces: 5500 men, all in army.
Budget for 1962: $7 million. Total
since NATO's formation: about
$104 million. All committed to
NATO.
Holland: Total armed forces:
142,000 men, including army 98,-
000; navy 23,000; air force 21,000.
Budget for 1962: $530 milion. Total
since NATO's formation, about $6
billion. Two army divisions cur-

rently assigned to NATO, with all
committed to NATO.
Norway: Total armed forces:
37,000 men, including army 20,000;
navy 7000; air force 10,000. Budget
for 1962: $176 million. Total since
NATO's formation: about $1.8 bil-
lion. All committed to NATO.
Portugal: Total armed forces:
80,000 men, including army 58,000;
navy 9000; marines 500; air force
12,500. Budget for 1962: about $219
million. Total since NATO's for-
mation: about $1,306 million. Of
the army, one division is at NATO
disposal, and 30,000 men are cur-
rently reported in Angola.
Turkey: Total armed forces:
500,000 men, including army 22
divisions; navy 119 various craft
including nine destroyers and 10
submarines; air force three squad-
rons. Budget for 1962: about $191
million. Total since NATO's for-
mation: about $1.2 million. All
committed to NATO.
Britain: Total armed forces:
454,000 men, including army 200,-
000; navy 96,000; air force 158,000.
Reported about to be raised to
total of 480,000. Budget for 1962:
$4.6 billion. Total since NATO's
formation: about $57.9 billion.
Britain has 53,000 troops in Ger-
many. Seven brigades committed
to NATO in Germany and one bri-
gade in West Berlin. Other troops
are in the Far East, Mediterran-
ean, Middle East and Africa. Stra-
tegic reserve is in Britain.
United States: Total armed
forces: 2.6 million men, including
army 967,000; navy 635,000; air
force 825,000; marines 190,000.
The estimated calendar year
budget for 1962 is $48,506 million.
Total defense budget since NATO
formation: $571.3 billion.
Augmented Force
The United States has its Sev-
enth Army, about 200,000 men in
five divisions and three armored
brigades assigned to NATO and
stationed in Germany. This force
has recently been agumented and
now may be up to 300,000 men.
The United States has at least
250 fighter-bombers capable of
carrying nuclear weapons station-
ed in Germany. The United States
also has its strategic bombers and
its Sixth Fleet in the European
area. These are not now under
NATO command but are available
in case of hostilities.

The United States also has air
force and army units in Italy,
Greece and Turkey.
Iceland, the 15th NATO mem-
ber, has no armed forces.
NATO strength on the central
European front now is estimated
at 22 and a third divisions, count-
ing the one-third of a division
contributed by Canada..
The others come from: Britain
(3); United States (5 plus three
armored brigades); France (2);
Germany (8 plus one under for-
mation); Belgium (2), and Hol-
land (2).
These are backed up by 3,000
aircraft in the Second and Fourth
Allied Tactical Air Force Com-
mands. The second, under Britisn
command, includes craft from Bri-
tain, Holland, Belgium and Ger-
many. The fourth, under Ameri-
can command, includes craft from
the U.S., Canada, France and Ger-
many.
The northern front includes
three divisions-one each from
Norway, Denmark and Germany,
with tactical air support from
Norway and Denmark.
The southern and southeastern

Turkey, nine from Greece anc4
seven from Italy, backed up by
Turkish, Greek and Italian tacti-
cal aircraft plus American forces
in Italy and Greece.
The NATO Atlantic Naval Com-
mand has no forces permanently
assigned to it in peacetime, but
eight NATO maritime powers have
earmarked certain forces for this
command in case of war.
There is also a channel com -
mand of units from Britain,
France, Holland and Belgium, and
a Mediterranean Communications
Command at Malta.
r

/ eyondprice.
OPEN LETTER TO U.S.
from Mexican novelist
ON SALE TODAY
SPECTRUM LEFT
Fishbowl Marshalls

A

4

COMMON MARKET:
German Farms, Block Unity

i

Associated Press News Analysis
BONN - West Germany's farm
problem, long a domestic head-
ache, now is causing trouble in the
European Common Market.
It is a major reason the six-na-
tion group lacks a unified farm
policy.
The problem is caused by pro-
duction conditions in German ag-
riculture-too many farmers on
too little land for high prices.
They would be wiped out but for
government protection.
Political strength insures that
this protection will continue. This
13 per cent of the population over-
whelmingly supports Chancellor.
Konrad Adenauer's Christian
Democratic Party.
Common Level
The Common Market is sup-
posed to compromise various na-
tional interests and effect a com-
mon price level for farm products.
Everything turns on grains. They
are 20 per cent higher in Germany
than the average for the other five
member nations. Wheat sells a-
round $3.15 a ,bushel, barley only
agreement on a single price level
a little less. These prices would
have to be brought down to get
for the Common Market.
Agriculture Minister Werner
Schwartz championed the: federa-
tion's position at this month's
meeting of the Common Market
foreign ministers. The result was
postponement in the move to ar-
rive at a uniflki farm policy, sup-
posed to go into effect this year.
Junker Influence
This country's farm problem
dates back to the 1880s. The farm-
ers, led by the politically influen-
tial Prussian Junkers cried for and
got protection against the inflow
of cheap grains from overseas. The
United States was the principal
source.
High duties or import quotas,
or some combination of the two,
have existed ever since. Subsidies
have been added.
The German public foots the

bill. Consumers pay 35 per cent of
income for food, against 19 per
cent in the United States. As tax-
payers they bear the burden of a
subsidy program that cost 2.4 bil-
lion marks, $600 million, last year.
Accept Hardship
The two world wars helped
people accept these conditions.
Cut off by blockades, the country
had to produce all its own food.
Shortages showed what failure
could mean. The farm federation
exploits the memory of these hard
years. The country grows 75 per
cent of its food needs, but farmers
are failing to hold their own.
The number of farmershas fall-
en in 12 years from 3.9 million to
2.3 million. The number of farms
decreased 364,000. More than a
million acres dropped out of pro-
duction. Meanwhile farm produc-
tivity increased 150 per cent, large-
ly due to new machinery.
Scattered holdings - left over
from the Middle Ages-were con-
solidated and the average farm
size increased, from 17 acres in
1949 to 20.5 today.
No Dent
None of this was enough to dent
Germany's competitive disadvan-
tage in world agriculture, since
progress was made elsewhere too.
Nor did it enable the farmers to
keep up their income in compari-
son with commerce and industry.
The number of workers outside
farming rose 50 per cent while the
number in agriculture fell 40 per
cent. This at least meant that the
farmers leaving the land had no
difficulty finding jobs. The average
worker last year earned $1,494 and
the average farmer $925.
The farm federation thinks the
average farm family must have at
least 37 acres to make out. It be-
lieves this must be accomplished
through government help and
without further major changes in
the farm population.
The present government agrees.
"We don't want to become a purely

industrial nation," Adenauer said
recently.
Any further trend in this direc-
tion could strengthen the Social
Democratic Party's chances to
win control of the government in
1965. Workers tend to support this
party just as farmers tend to sup-
port Adenauer's Christian Demo-
crats.
"The farmers feel they have
been allowed to drop behind the
others," a farm federation spokes-
man says. "They are demanding
only fair treatment, since the
country needs them for its own
preservation in time of crisis.
"The Common Market was cre-
ated to raise the incomes of all.
We aren't prepared to see it lower
ours."

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DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

(Continued from Page 2)
Skippy Ice Cream Corp., Buffalo, N.Y.
--Summer positions for college men as
ice cream vendors. Must be 21 & have
an operators license.
La Belle's Drive Inns, Caseville, Mich.
-Positions for waitress & grill men, car
service & cooks. Applications at Sum-
mer Placement.
Outdoorsmen-If you are 'going to
work in a camp in Maine this summer,
here is a chance for a pre-season work
project. Room & board only, but a
chance to work in the woods of Maine,
on the Northwestern border.
American Student Information Serv-
ice & the International Student Travel
Center will accept applications until
May 10. Both services guarantee you a
job in Europe. Applications available at
Summer Placement.
Attention: Jobs are still coming into
our office, so it's not too late to apply
for summer work. However, there is
only a month left before jobs begin,
so the sooner you apply, the better.
* * *
For further information, please come
to Summer Placement.

Part-Time
Employment
The following part-time jobs are
available. Applications for these jobs
can be made in the Part-time Placement
Office, 2200 Student Activities Bldg.
during the following hours: Mon. thru
Fri. 8 a.m. til 12 noon and 1:30 til 5
p.m.
Employers desirous of hiring students
for part-time or full-time temporary
work, should contact Bob Cope, Part-
time Interviewer at NO 3-1511, Ext. 3553.
MALE
-Several miscellaneous jobs available.
1-Experienced camera repairman.
Flexible hours.
FEMALE
1-Technical-typist who has had ex-
perience on a typewriter with an
interchangeable keyboard. 20 to 30
hours per week.
1-Registered Nurse to draw blood from
patients. Must have experience.
Half-time position, 7:45 to 12 noon,
starting as soon as possible work-
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