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February 06, 1963 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-02-06

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Seventy-Third Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSIrY OF MICHIGAN
. - UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
here Opinions AFre 'STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG., ANN ARBOR, MICH., PHONE NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"!,
torials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. Th must be noted in all reprints.

INDIA, THREE MONTHS AFTER:
Non-Alignment Largely Unchanged

Y, FEBRUARY 6, 1963

NIGHT EDITOR: BARBARA LAZARUS

Financing the University:
Two New Views

Open Admissions.
INCE WORLD vAR II the composition of
the collegiate population has undergone a
dical change. Prior to the war, low cost qual-
y education was available to all students
pplying to the University and scholarly high
hool graduates from all over the nation
Xnd an open door at "the Harvard of the
rest."
The post-war period saw the number of
>llege applicants boom. Under the influence
f the Cold War economy, emphasis was placed
o the graduation of more scientists and engi-
eers. Where once a high school diploma was
ie key to success, the college degree became
necessity. Even though the University more
an doubled its size, it could not keep up with
e rush. The resulting situation saw the Uni-
rsity close its'doors to many.
The state Legislature soon became aware
the squeeze and began to pressure the Uni-
rsity to provide more space for local stu-
nts. The University responded by slowly cut-
rg the percentage of students entering from
her states.
The increased number of less qualified stu-
ints caused many prominent members of the
culty to transfer to large. eastern universities
here the student body was more cosmopolitan.
a mani professors, the academic profession
more than an educational assembly line;
lution of student quality was often viewed as
e ,first step in the conversion of the Univer-
by into a higher level high school.
In addition, increased faculty salaries and
e rising cost of scientific and technical edu-
,tion forced the University to increase tuition
eadily. This increase combined with the dilu-
n of student quality has slowly led to the
stitutionalization of high cost, low quality
iucation.
'HE DEGRADATION of the University is
saddening to many scholars. It has reached
point where some members of the Legislature
uld dictate the composition of the student
dy in order to ensure education of their con-
ituents. This is resulting in a student body
lower quality and is creating a situation
4ereby the actions of the University are gov-
ned by a fear of the Legislature.
The results are all too evident. Acting out
fear, the University no longer preserves aca-
mic freedom. The University's speaker policy
rbids any spoken opposition to any existing
w', thereby enthroning any present injustice
the unexamined vaults of an unenlightened
stitution. In effect, the long list of recent
mpromise has changed the nature of the
liversity. It has become an educational fac-
ry, whose parochial character is repugnant
a scholar.
'HE UNIVERSITY must undertake a new de-
parture in order to re-establish academic ex-
hlence. The essential features of any new plan
uld be an increase in the quality of the
ident body and provisions whereby Michigan
ildren will have the opportunity to receive
education from the state.
One possible plan is as follows: All Michigan
idents who qualify for admission would at-
ad the University free. Out-of-state students
nuld pay tuition comparable to that charged
large eastern universities. Admission would
t be based on area of residence. This would
ult in a university with over half the students
>m other states. The Legislature would provide
nds only for capital outlay and for extension
vices at the University.
Prominent professors would return to the at-
sphere of academic excellence pervading Ann
bor. Michigan residents who are qualified
1 have the opportunity of attending a really
> rate university at no cost.
IHE PROBLEMS of finance are not as dif-
ficult as they first appear. At present the
kiversity receives more than two-thirds of its
>ney from sources other than the Legisla-
'e. The increase in tuition from the in-
ased number of out-of-state students com-
ied with the greater subsidation that is asso-
ted with the most cosmopolitan universities
uld fill the gap created by the necessary
s of funds from the Legislature. Special at-
ition would have to be paid to the scholarship
ds of out-of-state students. However, the

:rease of state loan programs, such as the
w York program, and of federal support,
h as NDEA loans, should help fill the mone-
y gap.
mplementation of the plan would be slow,
ved to the growth of a network of smaller
o-year and four-year colleges throughout the
te. The money the Legislature would save
>proximately $36 million a year) combined
Ih smaller gains (for instance, Regents schol-
hips would no longer be necessary for Michi-
i students) would now go to support the
wth of this state-wide network of schools
provide for the education of the increased
nber of Michigan students. This plan would
in keeping with the University's present
ns for the development of Delta College.
n effect, the educational needs of the post-

Regional Setup .
THE STATE of Michigan is in trouble with
its universities; it can't afford them.
The financial squeeze will grow tighter in
the next two years as the number of college
applicants rises sharply. The demand for a
college education grows each day and the legis-
lators as well as their constituents want to
guarantee the opportunity to get one in the
same way as the high school diploma is now
guaranteed.
Michigan might be able to accomodate most
of its qualified high school graduates in insti-
tutions of higher education if it concentrated
resources on providing basic undergraduate
training. But the people of the state are proud
that they have created a great university in
Ann Arbor and want to maintain a top quality
institution with heavy graduate enrollment
and facilities for needed research.
It seems clearer each day that the choice
simply may be between general education for
all or quality education for a few.
MORE REASONABLE approaches to financing
higher education are possible. There is no
real reason why Michigan should maintain an
elite university when other states do not. An
ideal solution would be to let more of the
states participate in the financing of the single
great university, letting Michigan concentrate
more of its resources on guaranteeing basic
education to more youngsters.
Such a solution is offered by the ideal of a
regional university, financed by Michigan, Wis-
consin, Illinois, Indiana and Ohio. Each state
would contribute equally and have an equal
number of students in attendance-or appro-
priation and enrollment might be based on
population of the respective states.,
Illinois, Indiana and Ohio at present make
minimal attempts to provide top flight uni-
versities in their home states. Each finances a
large Big Ten campus which serves as the ma-
jor university of the state providing bacca-
laureate training to thousands of the state's
high school graduates. Wisconsin boasts the
university in Madison which ranks high in
comparison to other midwest institutions, but
that campus could not serve as the base for a
regional university because of its geographical
position and because without it the state of
Wisconsin would have no other state college
to absorb a great many native students: The
University of Michigan is fairly centrally lo-
cated and this state has other large state sup-
ported colleges which could hold the surplus
students.
A REGIONAL university would draw, let us
say, and average of $10 million from each
of the states sponsoring it, yielding an appro-
priation of $50 million, 40 percent greater than
the present grant of the state legislature to
the University. Enrollment could be set at 4,000
students from each of the five states and an
additional 5,000 from other areas of the
country.
This would result in a university slightly
smaller than the present one in Ann Arbor with
a public appropriation several million dollars
higher than the administration has ever re-
quested from Lansing.
The university thus created could be a truly
great one. There would be enough money to
hire the finest faculty and provide all needed
facilities. The student body would be outstand-
ing as it would include the very best students
from the midwest with a provision for 5,000
non-area students to attract top students from
the East as well as large numbers of interna-
tional students.
THE STATE of Michigan spends about $36
million a year on the University. If the ap-
propriation were cut back to $10 million, the
state would have an additional $26 million a
year to apply to building up the nine other
state supported colleges or to founding new
ones. Enrollment ofMichigan residents at Ann
Arbor would drop 12,000 but an extra $25
million could finance 20,000 at the rate the
state now pays to educate Michigan State
University students.
There would be administrative problems in
setting up such a regional university. Ob-
viously it would have to come gradually in a

series of steps allowing Michigan to taper off
its appropriation to the University while de-
signing slots on other campuses for the extra
instate students. The othes states would also
need time to stretch their budgets to include
a $10 million outlay.
Another problem would be electing regents
to administer the regional university and
guaranteeing that each state would live up
to its particular end of the financial arrange-
ment.
For the state of Michigan, the advantages
are immediate and great. The major stumbling
block would be convincing the other four
states that they cared enough for quality
education and research to spend the extra

(EDITOR'S NOTE-This is the
first of a two-part analysis of the
Indian scene two and one-half
months after the big Chinese at-
tack of October 20th. Tomorrow's
article will concern domestic de-
velopments. The writer is teaching
English in Madras under a Fulbright
grant.)
Since these articles were written
nearly one month ago, there have
been several significant develop-
ments in India:
1) Though some haggling is still
going on, India and China have both
indicated broad acceptance of the
"Colombo" group's proposals for
temporary territorial arrangements
during a period of negotiation. In-
dia's willingness to negotiate, how-
ever little choice she may have in
the matter, remains the root cause
of the aimlessness overtaking the
body politic. What are people to
make of speeches like a recent one
by Union Home Minister Lai Baha-
dur Shastri? Lal Bahadur said:
"Those who think in terms of war
are not looking to their left and
right . .. (Yet) we have to act in-
telligently and increase our strength
to counter any further danger."
2) Reports here indicate the West-
ern powers might agree to provide
air cover for India's vulnerable
cities, a move which would tie her
defense inextricably to theirs. Since
India can't defend herself in the
air, the move is logical enough
militarily, but it would carry im-
mense political implications and
also presage renewed fears of Chi-
nese action after the spring thaw.
3) R. K. Nehru, secretary-general
of the External Affairs Ministry, re-
turned from Moscow with further
assurances of Soviet friendship, ad-
ditional economic aid and tolerance
for Western military aid.

By PHILIP SHERMAN
Daily Guest Writer
INDIAN NON-ALIGNMENT, it
turns out, isn't going to change
quite so much as some people
rather glibly expected.
It's being recast in terms of a
malevolent China, but for good
reasons this is the only major
change so far.
The planned armaments pro-
gram is actually the most radical
"foreign policy" decision.
India previously defended her
territorial integrity and indepen-
dent policy principally by con-
ciliating, talking and capitalizing
on the geometry of world relations.
Her army was of secondary im-
portance.
Now it will be built up so India
can maintain her major power
status and non-alignment on the
battlefield. She won't have to join
an alliance for safety's sake.
* * *
INDIA'S PRESENT diplomatic
stance is a rather simple out-
growth of past policies.
Prime Minister Jawaharlal Ne-
hru insisted all along that nation-
alism rather than Communism
made China a troublemaker. This
view still stands. It's China be-
hind India's sharp distinction be-
tween China and the Soviet Un-
ion, which is Communist too, but
also benevolent and seemingly in-
clined to peace.

The distinction is incidentally
carried into domestic policy. The
so-called "pro-China" wing of the
Indian Communist party has been
locked up under the Defence of
India Act while "pro-Russian"
Communists have been left free.
For a while, it looked as if
Russia would play a devil's role
too, but she changed her early
pro-Chinese tune to a more neu-
tral one, in the circumstances
eminently satisfactory to Indian
ears. She has kept up aid and
arms deliveries, and Nehru stoutly
maintains her promised MiG 19's
will soon arrive for use in train-
ing Indian pilots to later fly In-
dian built MiG's.
Continued Soviet benevolence
means more an Indian non-
alignment-friendship and aid
from, but not alliance with both
the world's main power blocs-
can remain viable and profitable.
SOVIET POLICY, however, is
affected by a number of factors
completely beyond India's control,
and Indian policy could collapse
because of these.
India's friendly posture toward,
the Soviets is an effort to do as
much as can be done to keep
things the way they are. It's why
Nehru has been a bit restrained in
his thanks towards the, West and
why he makes so much of Soviet
acquiescence to the Western arms
flow.

F
t '
-- c..' Zn.tWt
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
QaSrcRi cu

(The West is not unhappy about
this. As long as Russia doesnt
send the most modern weapons to
China, India's defensive tas is
easier. As long as Russia helps
India to develop, the West has
less to do.)
(Western acquiescence in In-
dian non-alignment, like Russia's,
is also partially dependent on out-
side factors. But, not conditioned
by obligations to Communist
China, the West's attitude is
markedly more stable.)
* * *
MANY EXPERTS argue it was
the Russians who forced China
into the weird "unilateral" cease-
fire which India has also observed.
They point to the circumstances
of the Chinese announcement and
Russia's good reasons for so doing
-a desire to relax international
tension to facilitate her internal
progress and an attempt to main-
tain carefully built-up credit in
the non-aligned, non-Communst
world. Both policies are viewed in
light of stated Sino-Soviet ideo-
logical differences, which incident-
ally gives Indian policy increasing
credibility.
Other possible reasons for the
cease-fire:
1) China decided she simply
couldn't afford further involve-
ment, especially with the Western
powers evidently prepared to back
India to the hilt.
2) China accomplished her ob-
jectives of dealing a prestige-fatal
set-back to India and ganing a
gambit in NEFA to trade for stra-
tegic territories she prizes in La-
dakh.
3) China found India's united
response totally unexpected and
equally disturbing. She expected
to hit a weak, divided country,
ripe for plucking.
* * *
WHATEVER the reasons, and
the above aren't completely satis-
factory, it is clear it was not the
Indian Army. The Chinese were
held off in Ladakh, it is true, but
in NEFA they grabbed (and re-
tain) the initiative.
India is taking advantage of the
lull to begin her five year build-
up to meet the Chinese with equal
force.
Right now, China says she's
willing to talk. Though definitely
not prepared to talk on China's
present terms, India has no choice
but tacitly to acquiesce in the lull
and seek what she can. The lead-
ership is willing to admit to an
"honorable settlement."
In the background of the pres-
ent dickering, which includes dis-
cussion of the six neutral nations'
so-far confidential propo.sals is
the opinion the fighting in the
north is finished for good. Per-
haps years of talk are ahead, but
that's all.
Time and Mao Tse-tung will
have the final say.
IN THE MEANTIME, India is
having another go with that tra-
ditional bete noire, Pakistan.
The United States and Great
Britain apparently dragooned the
powers into the present ministerial
level talks. Though Pakistan an-
nounced a border settlement with
China the day before the Rawal-
pindi talks began, the conference
proceded relatively well.
The ministers agreed to tone
down mutually-opposed propa-
ganda (and The Sunday Standaid
took this cue to cancel the second
of a two-part editorial series on
Kashmir: "In view of the decision
. to create an atmosphere of
friendliness between the two coun-
tries," the newspaper said, we are
withholding publication ..."
Pakistanis claimed a further
success because the talks were
confined to exchange of views on
Kashmir. This is the major mutual
problem, and the Pakistanis say
it must be settled before there
can be any marked improvement
in relations. The Indians main-
tain a Kashmir settlement, if any,
can come only after good feelings
have been built up through solu-

tion of some of the many minor
issues.
* * *
THE WESTERN powers want
the warring daughters of the
Raj to come together for a simple
reason: they're tired of aiding
India while she arms against Paki-
stan and Pakistan while she arms
against India. Besidestdirecting
Western aid, in effect, toward
more substantive purposes, an ag-
reement would facilitate a strong-
er sub-continental defense.
Kashmir is the principal issue,
as it has been since 1947. Besides
the emotion it creates on both
sides, the Berlin problem almost
pales to insignificance.
In India, the border question is
Mao-come-lately. It's almost as
easy to get into an argument
about Kashmir as about Krishna
Menon. ("Kashmir is part of In-
dia. Period. Paragraph.")
India says she would like a
rapproachment with Pakistan, but
won't give up Kashmir as the
price of Western aid. However,,
the only settlement Pakistan
would accept would necessarily
cost India something. Pakistan
isn't interested in bailing India
out. She's still more worried about
fancied Indian territorial ambi-
tions than China.
India maintains Pakistan is us-
ing the Chinese cr~iito"black-

while the southern ones seem to
have picked Britain.
The United States denies it ti
exerting pressure, says aid will
come irrespective of any settle-
ment on Kashmir or anything
else. And despite a U. S. Informa-
tion Service release that ern at
best be described as stupid, she
has proposed no terms. (The USIS
document, apparently the result
of a. Washington press briefing,
mentioned a plan proposed "in
some circles" to give Pakistan ac-
cess to an independent ale of
Kashmir. It mentioned Pakisans
"legal" ties with Kashmir; a prime
Indian contention is the absolue
lack of legality in "Pak's argu-
ment.)
BUT if it is not exerting "pres-
sure," American officials, notably
Assistant Secretary of State for
Far Eastern ' Affairs W. Averill
Harriman, have openly stressed
the desirability of a settlement.
They are now arguing more with
reference to the immediate need
for some rapprochment caused by
the Chinese attack than to other,
notably longer-term, reasons.
The situation is probably simi-
lar to many instances in the past
when U. S. officials have said to
India in effect:
"Look, we're giving you this
aid, no strings attached. But we
do have these suggestionskabut
how to use it, and we'd like you
to examine them. We'll give you
the aid in any case, if we can,
but if you do these things you'll
certainly make our job easier in
justifying the aid to Congress and
the American public."
These aren't strictly strings.
But, arising from American do-
mestic realities, they necessarily
carry much weight.
A Kashmir settlement and eas-
ed relations with Pakistan would
undoubtedly "make the job easier."
* * *
THIS PLAY is being reinforced
by the uncertainty over the actual
amount of Western aid. Canadian
Prime Minister John Diefenbaker
recently divulged further "emer-
gency" aid would total about $120
million, divided evenly between
U. S. and the Commonwealth.
Although U. S. officials say any
more military aid will notsmerely
be deducted from economic help,
the long-term picture remains un-
clear. India has reportedly re-
quested a cool $1 billion, not un-
reasonable given the Job to be
done.
There's no question the West
could afford this. But ability to
pay has never been the West's
problem. It's willingness to pay.
President John . Kennedy
wants to cut taxes, so in order t
placate Congressional conserva-
tives, he's putting a lid on ex-
penditures. The balance of py-
ments problem is still very much
alive, and in today's beady-eyed
Washington it'll be tough to jus-
tify new foreign commitments.
This sharpens the cutting edge
of U. S. "suggestions" to India
and the result so far has been
misunderstanding.
It's an old story, but it may be
only the preface and not the con-
clusion of a new book.
LIPPMANN:
Tax
Emphasis
By WALTER LIPPMANN
TAX REDUCTION first became
a big public issue after the
break in the stock market last
May. At that time, the indicators
which economists use to make
their predictions were pointing
downward.
To avert the threatened reces-
sion, a quick tax cut was much

talked about. But while the Presi-
dent was interested, he found
that, last summer, Congress would
not vote a tax cut before it ad-
journed. At about the same time,
the statistical indicators began to
be less gloomy. As it turned out,
though business is not booming, it
has been not too bad, and the
threat of a recession this winter
has evaporated.
The effects of this experience
are to be seen in the President's
message on the State of the Union.
Whereas, last summer, he decided
against a quick tax cut because
Congress would not vote it, now
he is making tax reduction and
tax reform the paramount busi-
ness before Congress. The signifi-
cant fact about all this is that,
though the pressing reasons ad-
vanced last summer for a tax cut
do not at present exist, the Presi-
dent has committed himself more
deeply than ever to tax reduction
and tax reform.
* * *
THIS EVOLUTION in the phil-
osophy of the tax proposals is
highly significant and also, it
seems to me, constructive and
sound. The problem that has to
be solved is not how to prime the
pump when the business cycle
turns downward, but how to cure
what has come to be a chronic
sluggishness in the American
'innnmv whiich lnrives t h A

To the Editor:
MY RESIGNATION as East
Quadrangle representative to
the IQC Rules and Regulations
Committee was instigated by the
committee's vote to keep its legis-
lation recommendations on the
distribution of literature secret
until IQC could pass on those
recommendations.
In the first place, the rules
committee, as a legislative com-
mittee of a nominally democratic
organization, is wholly without
statutory authority to make its
proceedings secret. Second, the
vote for secrecy was not passed by
the "majority of the members"
required for committee action.
Third, one of the members of the
simple majority that passed the
secrecy rule may not have been,
as was asserted, a member legally
elected by his quadrangle coun-
cil. Fourth, the secrecy rule was
devised at the end of the meeting
after the minority indicated it
would offer a presentation to op-
pose the committee's majority rec-
ommendations. Neither I nor an-
other member would likely have
participated at all on the com-
mittee if we had known before-
hand that the committee's pro-
posals would be kept secret from
constituents and that we would
be denied an opportunity effec-
tively to mobilize opinion to oppose
the unwise recommendations.
* * *
IQC AND its Rules committee
i _.ral _"v _ _tnnr , c A o

The vote to enforce secrecy on
the committee's legislation is es-
pecially ludicrous when one re-
calls that this committee was
created in response to demands
that arbitrary and discriminatory
censorship of political literature
be prevented in the future and
that free interchange of political
ideas and criticisms be established
in the quadrangles. Also ludicrous
-in light of the committee's pur-
pose-is the content of its recom-
mendations. Nowhere does its leg-
islation recognize that the right to
voice criticisms of IQC and quad-
rangle governments does not de-
pend on the suffrance of the or-
ganization being criticized. In-
stead, the committee legislation
would vest these organizations
with complete control over all
literature distributions without re-
quiring that political literature
coming within this sweeping juris-
diction be treated without dis-
crimination motivated to keep
quadrangle constituents from see-
ing criticisms of their governing
organizations.
It is sad that an organization
such as .IQC, which could do so
much good, is controlled by a
tight, self-perpetuating oligarchy
that has no commitment to dem-
ocratic values and which (probably
correctly) has so little confidence
in its own actions that it will not
permit criticism of them.

I did not. When he complained
that I should have then made out
the check for five dollars and five
cents so that he could keep his
change, I asked if he had enough
change to return $4.95 and to
cover the day's business, which he
did. He then snapped, "You know
this is just a service we provide
for students. We don't have to do
it."
This comment startled me. May-
be I am just a foolish idealist. But
I always thought the Michigan
Union existed to serve Michigan
students. Is the comment by this
hautily condescending cashier rep-
resentative of the Union's atti-
tude? This is a question all Michi-
gan students might do well to
ponder. What does the Michigan
Union do for University student::?
It is true they do bring a few
well known speakers to campus.
They do have a few social events
throughout the year and carry
out some services for international
students. But is our Union the
focal point of student activity as
other unions are on very many
other campuses throughout the
country?
Could those services now pro-
vided by the Michigan Union be
taken care of just as well, if not
better, by other student groups?
Are Union affairs as well pub-
licized as those of other organiza-
tions on campus? What sort of in-
fluence does the Union have on
th nnnami cni n inini

-i

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