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April 17, 1963 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-04-17

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Sevmty-Third Yearr
Truth Wml Prevaul"'
Editorials printed ;n The Michigan Daily express the individuai opinions of staff writers
orthe editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Newspapers Misuse
Racial Identifications



The 'Campus Community:
Outmoded Ethic

ONE OF THE University's most cherished
myths is the concept of community. Com-
munity is supposed to be a kind of intellectual
cement holding together the diverse activities
of the University. Supposedly the common goal
of maintaining an open, academic forum unites
students, faculty and administrators. Com-
munity means that all these groups, recognize
their common interest in creating and main-,
taining an institution where the scholar can
There are several important consequences to
the theory of community. First, the overriding
interest of an institution based on academic
values transcends differences of status, dis-
cipline and point of view. The professor of law
and the theoretical physicist may have little
in common as far as the techniques of their
respective fields. Yet taken as members of
an intellectual community, they have a com-
mon interest in the welfare of the whole com-
munity. They must, under this concept, con-
sider problems facing the institution in a
broader light than their own disciplines. This
in turn creates a broader understanding of the
functioning of the University as a whole.
OBVIOUSLY, this description does not fit the
University. First, students are excluded
from any community which may exist. Stu-
dents do not participate in decision-making or
even in discussions of the University's prob-
'Recently, Student Government Council re-
quested that students be placed on eight major
faculty committees. Such participation would
allow students to work with faculty in areas
ranging from student affairs to academic free-
dom. But in effect, the proposal is jdead.Re-
portedly, many faculty members objected to
student participation.
Instead, the Student Relations Committee
proposed that students set up a committee
structure paralleling the committees in which
they asked to participate. Certainly this denies

any concept of unity between students and
faculty. It also points out that the faculty
is unwilling to transcend the barrier between
faculty and students and acknowledge that
the concerns of the institution are the concerns
of both groups.
The faculty itself is also fragmented. The
schools and colleges have grown larger and
arger. There, are only five units with fewer
than 40 faculty members. One department of
the literary college has more than 90 faculty
members. The growth in size makes it increas-
ingly difficult to expect that informal as well
as formal discussions of isues will cut across
disciplinary lines.
Some faculty members feel that discussion
of issues can be adequately carried out solely
among the faculty members of the schools,
colleges and/or departments. The small group
meetings of these units would be more con-
ducive to active discussion and debate than
the mammoth meetings of the faculty senate.
But, at the same time, such discussions, limited
to individuals in one discipline, do not force
the faculty to see discussions in any context
outside the individual units.
In short, it is spurious to describe the faculty
as a community. It is also very difficult to
see any real effort being made to create a
faculty community.
S TILL ANOTHER FACTOR making the con-
cept of community untenable is the com-
plexity of administering the University. Ad-
ministration has become a discipline in itself.
Especially in highly technical areas such as
finance and the University's external relations
to the Legislature and other universities, one
has to devote full time to participate mean-
In effect, this means that there are certain
areas of policy-making in which the faculty
can involve itself only peripherally.
Any faculty member or student who devotes
himself to an intensive study of these issues
in hopes of being able to formulate anything
except the most general of policies will have
to abandon his discipline. In other words, he
will become an administrator.
THE ETHIC of a community, except in a
gross physical sense, simply does not exist
at the University. It was not designed for large
public institutions like the University. The
ethic requires more than remolding to be ap-
First, the assumption that a community
exists must be swept away. Very obviously it
does not in terms of students, faculty and ad-
ministrators working together. Even in terms
of cohesion within the individual groups, it
is- exteremely difficult to cite concrete ex-
amples of cohesion.
Second, it is necessary to take a critical look
at traditional concepts of a university. Some
synthesis has to be made of the tremendous
variety of activities that the tUniversity em-
braces. In many cases it is very well to
utilize the idea of teaching and research as
complimentary functions. But what about the
man who does only research, who is employed
by the University but may never stand in front
of a class?
T HE ETHIC must also take into account the
vast and ever-growing problems of admin-
istration. It must take into account secondary
functions-like aiding local industry-that have
become important functions in themselves.
The ethic of community is inadequate to
apply to the institution as it exists. In giving
up community, it does not imply acceptance
of a passive attitude toward the University.
Many of the desirable ends of community can
be salvaged. But nothing can be accomplished
by assuming the existence of a community
where the ties are so clearly tenuous.

66-YEAR-OLD domestic, Es-
ther M. James, successfully
sues New York Democratic Con-
gressinan Adam Clayton Powell
for libel.
The Detroit News publishes an
Associated Press dispatch which
takes careful pains to identify the
pair as Negroes. "Newsweek" re-
fers to "A Harlem widow who sued
fellow-Negro Powell." "Time" and
"U.S. News and World Report"
have like references.
Similarly, any achievement earn-
ed by a Negro or by an organiza-
tion whose membership is predom-
inantly Negro is duly reported in
the press with appropriate racial
The Anti-Defamation League of
B'Nai Brith reports that "racial
identification is still very much
with us." The ADL Bulletin's
March issue reprints a memoran-
dum by Adolph Ochs, former pub-
lisher of the New York Times,
from 1913. Ochs instructed his
staff to use religious designation
(his memo was prompted by a
series of incidents when Jewish
identifications were included in
news stories) only when "from
the context (of the article) it is
necessary to call attention to the
man's religion; in other words, un-
less the facts have some relation
to his being a Jew or to his Jew-
* *
OCHS CITED two cases where
reference to religion was com-
pletely irrelevant and should be
blue-penciled out. If a man is con-
victed of a crime, there is no
reason to call him a "Jewish crim-
inal" and if he makes some im-
portant medical or scientific dis-
covery, it is equally unnecessary
to laud him as an "eminent Jewish
The Times has continued to fol-
low Och's policy more or less
strictly through the years. The
Times' account of the current libel
suit, written by one of the news-
paper's own reporters, "gave the
full details of the proceedings, but
avoided any racial identifications.
es The Associated Press, the main
G feeder of national and internation-
al news for thousands of news-
n such papers, has a slightly different and
'filiated less desirable policy.
bureau chief in New York, de-
3 brief scribes the wire service's practice
o cause in the bulletin of the New York
tutions. State Society of Newspaper Edi-
money tors. Arthur refers to the defini-
cts and tion in the AP Reference Book:
e made. "The practice is to name a per-
pending son's .race whenever such identifi-
Aipment cation is pertinent to the story
amount It is important to remember that
m the in some sections racial identifica-
set. tions affect story values."
ot im- Note the last sentence. Arthur
dom of explains that on many papers, es-
s more pecially in the South, a name is
owever, assumed to be white unless identi-
ous de- fied otherwise.
tion of In the South, a man's race is
ent in- often a determinant of the news-
be dif- play an article about him will re-
,re, un- ceive. Crimes by Negroes (especially
he sins against whites) are given long and
t have detailed reports, prominently dis-
itutions played in the newspaper.
Even in the North, the races of

individuals are often a determin-
ant of the kind of article that is
written. An early edition of a
metropolitan daily several years
ago carried the lead story of an
industrial accident in which ,one
man was killed. The reporter had
failed to indicate in his call to the
rewrite desk that the man was a
Negro. When the editor discovered
the fact, he chastised the ;reporter
and cut the story from later edi-
tions. The death of a Negro is not
as newswbrthy as the death of a
white man.
THE DAILY is not innocent of
undue labelling of news figures as
Negroes. The Associated Press wire
dispatches about James Meredith
and his attempts to register at the
University of Mississippi that ap-
peared in The Daily almost always
carried parenthetically the fact
that he was a Negro. While the
point that Meredith is a Negro is
extremely relevant to happening
at Mississippi, there was hardly a
literate American who didn't know
it and it become unnecessary to
say this every single day.
* # #
WHEN IS it proper to note the
raceor religion of the subject of
a news article?
Ochs' memo offers a good cri-
terion: when it is relevant to the
subject of the article. This seems
to be a pretty good guideline, if
applied with some rationality and
objectivity. In crime stories, the
crime is the news not the race of
the man accused. It is clear that
where race or religion is the factor
that accounts for the news, it
should be mentioned: \race riots,
certain civil rights actions, descrip-
tions of religious holiday obser-
Some editors rationalize that
since they mention race in articles
which spotlight the achievements
of certain individuals and groups,
it is all right to mention it in ar-
ticles about less desirable events.
It is overt discrimination in either
case, the former-type applauding
the Negro, the latter type slurring -
THOSE sWHOacampaign against
bigotry} ask that each, individual'
be treated as such: an individual
with his own talents and limita-
tions and not as part of group to
which false, attributes are as-
signed. This means that you do
not promote someone because he
is a Jew or that you hold him back
because of the fact.
The news articles which read
"In the flat, police seized James
Johnson, 53, Negro," or "Prof.
Loving is the first Negro to be
appointed a full professor in the
145 year history of the University
of Michigan" are both damnable
because they work to build up or
harden race consciousness among
the nation's readers.- Before the
problem of discrimination in the
United States can be licked, we
must eliminate the tendency 'to
affix automatically in a person's
mind the concept of "Joe Smith"
and the concept of "Negro."
It is time we treated people as
people both publicly and privately
and not exaggerate or deflate their
accomplishments and sins because
of the color of their skins or their
private religious beliefs.


Old Sins Cause New Headach


A BUREAUCRACY'S implimentation of any
principle can be at best clumsy, and
changes and policy liberalizations come slowly
and painfully. This is because the language
used by these bodies is completely arbitrary.
For instance, the abstraction of academic
achievement is measured by its concrete, al-
though not by any means precise reflection--
grade point average.
Recognizing these two rather dreary charac-
teristics of bureaucracies, it seems that the
University has shown signs of progress towards
the eventual elimination of the burdensome.
women's housing regulations.
Spurred on by continuing student demands
for apartment premission, and encouraged by
the success of the first co-operative, the Adelia
Cheever House, the authorities have established
the Oxford Housing Project, offering gradual
orientation towards apartment freedom.
.ACCORDING TO Peter A. Ostafin, special
* assistant to the vice-president for student'
affairs, Oxford is a "living development de-
signed for women who are willing to share in
the work necessary to keep the development
functioning in order to reduce their own ex,-
penses," it is an "opportunity . . . to develop
a high degree of personal responsibility." How-
ever tentative, this is a step in the right
Ostafin himself is in charge of planning pro-
jects for the University. He is a friendly man,
eager to accommodate students whenever pos-
sible. It is men and projects like this that
give nourishment to the flickering hope that,
in competent hands, bureaucratic administra-
tion need not be oppressive.

THE GOOD-OLD, free-spending
days are over at the National
Institutes of Health. Congress is
cracking down on loose NIH prac-
tices and NIH is tightening up.
Some researchers are complaining.
"Our university is swarming
with agents from the National
Institutes of Health. An attitude
of mutual trust, respect and con-
fidence has been replaced by one
of suspicion and policing," an
eastern medical school dean quot-
ed in the Wall Street Journal de-
More substantive complaints
center on costly accounting
changes NIH requires for a closer
tab on funds. Research funds and
educational expense funds must
now be separated. For many
smaller institutions, this a costly
will not have as much freedom to
change the direction of projects
financed by NIH. The institutes
now insist that researchers follow
the grant prospectus and that an-
nual progress reports be filed.
These changes are designed to
correct abuses - some justified,
some not - in use of NIH funds.
Congress has been particularly cri-
tical of the Institutes for its loose
financial procedures. The, House
Government Operations Subcom-
mittee studied its grant policies
last year and, still skeptical about
NIH operations, will study its con-
tract policies soon.
A major abuse has been using
grant funds to pay educational
expenses not related directly to the
project financed. The institutes
alone among federal research-
sponsoring agencies has permitted
this draining of funds because it
believed teaching and reseatch are
closely related.
Further, excess funds not used
by the project are spent on trips
to foreign meetings and on the
purchase of equipment by the in-
stitution where the research is be-
ing carried out.
CONGRESSIONAL investigators
found last year that Public Ser-
vice Research, Inc. had used NIH
money to buy office furnishings
such as carpets and curtains and
pay salaries of officials not work-
ing on the project. The firm also
overcharged NIH $14,500 for ad-
ministrative expenses.
Many of NIH's problems arise
from its rapid growth. Its appro-
priations have grown 100-fold
since 1946 and its support has
spread across a wide range of the
health research field from biologi-
cal research to mental health.
* * *
notoriously looser than other ma-
jor federal research-sponsoring
agencies. Other units have long re-
quired the separate accounting
and close following of the pro-
spectus that NIH now seeks. These
agenctie regularly audtit their

NIH's counterpart in the physical
sciences. For the Office of Re-
search Administration, the changes,
have no significance although the
individual researcherhfindsghim-
self doing a' little more paper-
However, the office and Univer-
sity Senate Committee on Re-
search have been watching the
situation and would take action if
the changes threaten the research-
er's autonomy. The Office of Re-
search Administration is closer to
the situation than the faculty
committee as it has wide contacts
in Washington and last year help-
ed successfully lobby for a change
in, the tight indirect cost require-
.* * *
THE primarily health science-
oriented institutions will bear the
brunt of the new changes. The
end of laxness means closer NIH
scrutiny and expensive account-
ing expenses must be separated
ing changes. Research and teach-
ing expenses must, be separated

and at a small institutior
as a non-university af
medical school this will b
cult ,to do.
The changes, despite NIH
ing sessions, is expected t
confusion for these insti'
Definitions of time and
spent on the financed proje
other duties will have to be
New requirements for sp
money on trips and equ
will have to be drawn. Thea
permissible deviation fro
prospectus will have to be
The NIH changes do n
pinge on the academic free
the research as some of it
hysterical critics imply. H
past laxity has caused seric
ficiencies in the administrx
NIH grants at the recipie
stitutions and reforms will1
fiCult and costly. It is a ra
fortunate instance where t
of the federal governmen
been visited upon the insti
it is supposed to serve.

UJA Performs Great Work

Treaties and Honorable Men

iHEY MARCHED in New York, Washington
and Chicago last weekend in support of a
nuclear test ban treaty. They will petition
the President and Congress and the United
Nations to draft and to implement a treaty.
The cessation of nuclear testing for military
purposes is highly desirable, but the treaty
may become just another piece of paper.
Editorial Staff
Editorial Director City Editor
CAROLINE DOW.. ..........Personnel Director
JUDITH BLEIER............. Associate City Editor
FRED RUSSELL KRAMER .. Assoc. Editorial Director
CYNTHIA NEU .................Con-Magazine Editor
HARRY PERLSTADT ...........GCo-Magazine Editor
TOM WEBBER .............. ... Sports Editor
DAVE ANDREWS ............ Associate Sports Editor
JAN WINKLEMAN A.. .........ArAsateanorts Editor

That other piece of paper is the Kellogg-
Briand Pact of 1927 which outlawed war. Over
45 nations finally signed the pact. Yet within
a few years Japan was in Manchuria, Italy in
Ethiopia and Germany in Poland. War was no
longer called war, it went under, the name of
"incident," "intervention to restore order,"
"protecting nationals in foreign countries" and
"police action." But a war by any other name
is just as deadly.
The sought-after nuclear test ban treaty
will end nuclear testing for military purposes
underground, in the air and in space. The
treaty would be a formal written agreement,
presumably more effective than the verbal
moratorium on nuclear testing which existed
for several years.
The treaty will be signed by many, but what
is the price of the signature of Mao Tse-tung
or Charles de Gaulle? The treaty with its
detection-inspection provision would bring im-

To the Editor:
WISH to reply to the false
accusations made by a Mr. Si-
mon Klein in a recent edition of
The Daily, concerning the role
of the United Jewish Appeal. Dur-
ing this 25th anniversary cam-
paign of the United Jewish Appeal,
ge can look back with deep satis-
faction at the 3,000,000 Jewish
lives we have saved the healing
and hope we have provided. And
we can look forward with con-
fidence to continuing this great
humanitarian work in the years
As individuals the over one mil-'
lion Jews involved in this unprece-
dented migration to Israel and
other countries, where Jews are
welcomed, came in response to
various pressures, both external
~and internal, and out of various
motives. They came because they
were expelled from their native
lands; because the places where
they lived before the war had be-
come ghost cities in which every-
thing reminded them of the deci-
mation of their families: because
they wanted to escape from op-
pressive measures or from the
crushing burdens of poverty; and
because some were possessed of a
sense of religious duty to return
to the ancestral homeland.
To all these people Israel was
open as an eager haven. For the
first time ip modern history Jews
in search of a home did not have
to go begging for a country to re-
ceive them. Tens of thousands of
American Jews have been respon-
sible. for the $663 million that has
come to Israel through the-UJA
during the past 13 years. (The
sum of $500 million through the
Tani e A rnrf, *nr Tornal ond iA11 R

"Make Yourself Comfy In Our Little Lodge's
^ j
r I .

end of the war, have been helped
by the Joint Distribution Commit-
tee with funds provided by the
UJA, have made substantial pro-
gress in their rehabilitation and
reconstruction of the local Jewish
communities, which were ravaged
by the Hitler tyranny and by the
war. Eastern Europe and Moslem
countries are also recipients 'of
UJA support for very extensive re-
lief and rehabilitation programs.
For the record, the Jewish
Agency for Israel is the newly or-
iganized American Jewish body
which allocates and supervises the
expenditure of UJA funds for the

immigrant absorption in Israel.
The Jewish Agency has never ac-
tively encouraged American Jews
to emmigrate to Israel. This is not
one of their goals. 'The Jewish
Agency is recognized by the State
of Israel as the authorized agency
to work in Israel for the develop-
ment and colonization of the coun-,
try, and for the absorption and
settlement of immigrants there,
and for the coordination of the ac-
tivities in Israel of Jewish institu-
tions and associations operating in
their fields.
We thus can look back with
pride to the accomplishments of
the United Jewish Appeal over the

past 24 years, and we look ahead
to full and fruitful futures for
men, women, and children in need.
-Ronald Glancz, '65
Hillel President
Haos Off.
To the Editor:
HAD the pleasure of witnessing
the NCAA gymnastics cham-
pionships here recently and ex-
pressed my congratulations on be-
half of the University of Michigan
Club of Pittsburgh to Coach Loken
and his outstanding Michigan
Never before, to my knowledge,
has a national collegiate competi-
tion been so completely dominated
by one team as this championship
was dominated by Michigan. The
Wolverines won six of the nine
events. No other school won more
than one! Michigan's remarkable
captain Gil LaRose scored more
points (himself than any other
complete team except runner-up
Southern Illinois!
Gymnastics demands great ail-
around athletic ability. To those
who might low-rate this sport, I.
suggest they first attend a meet.
No Michigan man sitting in the
Pitt Field House could help but
admire any group that causes "The
Victors" to be played six times
while only four other school songs
were played at all.
Hats off to a great performance?
--Tom K. Phares, President
University of Michigan Club,
To the Editor:

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