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February 05, 1963 - Image 6

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Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-02-05

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THE MICHIGAN D AI T

TIMSDAT

THE MICHIGAN DAILY TTTE~DAY.

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U' Conducts Antarctic Progrt

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By MICHAEL HYMAN
For the past five years, the
University has been conducting
experiments at the Antarctic.
Charles W. Swithinbank, recent
director of these experiments, was
down there last year, along with
Arthur Rundle, and Thomas E.
Taylor, of the University of Wis-
consin. Now correlating the col-
lected data, Swithinbank recently
explained that the experiments
are designed to formulate a flow
law.
To understand the search for a
flow law, on~e must first recognize
that the University's party was
camped on a glacier, the largest
floating glacier in the world (the
Ross Ice Shelf)-200,000 sq. miles,
600 ft. thick at the sea edge, and
X3000 ft. thick at the farthest in-,
land point. (In Antarctica, the ice
age is in full swing.)
Ice Cracks
There is a slight slope, or height
differential, between the sea edge
of the' glacier and the land, or
continental edge, Swithinbank
said. Ice constantly breaks off
from the sea edge of the glacier;
snow constantly falls to replenish
this loss.
The height differential causes
the frozen snow to move towaid
the sea edge of the ice shelf. The
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the author's service in World War I
"Lampedusa In Sicily": An Atlantic
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Archibald MacLelsh: On hatred exhib.
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W. D. Snodgrass: A new poem
"The Indiana Dunesland
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William Peeples
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ice will move because its physical
properties are like those of a vis-
cous fluid or a plastic solid. Swith-
inbank and his associates assume
that the total volume of ice in
the glacier remains constant.

/

If this assumption is justifiable,
then one can form a flow law,
which explains the equilibrium be-
tween departing ice and forward
moving ice.
Flow Law
The Antarctic is an ideal loca-
tion for studying a flow law pos-
sibility. For instance, there is vir-
tually no friction between the'
floating glacier and the sea. 'Thus.
the number of variables are re-
duced. This makes Antarctica a
good model from which we may
learn more about our own ice age,
Swithinbank said.
To measure the quantities need-
ed, the scientists used seismic
sounding for the thickness of the
glacier. Also, markers were placed
on the ice and tellurometers were
used to measure, geometrically.
the ice movement. A Worden gra-
vity meter converted the surface
movement to volume transplanted.
Slope, thickness, and rate of move-
ment, are interrelated. If two of
the variables are known, the
scientists can find the third.
However, the glaciologists have
not yet described the flow law in
mathematical terms.
Sea Water
The assumption that all incom-
ing flow is derived from falling
snow may not be justifiable. It
is possible that freezing sea water
at the bottom of the glacier moves
up and replenishes the glacier.
However, since the temperature
at the bottom of the glacier is
29*F, the melting point of ice, this
is not probable, and the assump-
tion is most likely a fact.
Besides determining the flow
law, and informing us about the
North American ice age, the ex-
periments may have commercial
applicability. In the dry western
states, many mountains are ice-
capped, and melting occurs dur-
ing the summer, the driest season.
This provides irrigation water.
Movement Studies
Swithinbank's glacial movement
studies will provide more informa-
tion on the valley glaciers in the
West. Again, Antarctica is an ideal
model: one valley glacier studied
is 20 miles wide and 140 miles
long.
Studies of the Antarctic from
this country began as early as
1838. The Navy has provided most
of the transportation ever since.
The sealing industry between 1800-
1850 frequented the area.
Admiral Byrd was the individual
most responsible for the extensive
use of aviation in the Antarctic,
Swithinbank concluded.

POPULATION SHIFTS:
SRC National Sampling
Undergoes Alterations

I

N

By THOMAS DRAPER
The Social Research Center's
national sample of households is
undergoing alterations this year
to maintain accuracy, Irene Hess
of the Institute for Social Re-
search said recently.
The 1960 census indicates that
the population concentrations have
shifted since the household sam-
ple was set up in 1948 and 1950,
Miss Hess said."The sample yields
estimates with known precision. As
the population shifts the sampling
variability increases."
Robert Voight, assistant to the
director of ISR said that the sam-
ple could be used for all research
involving interviews with people
across the country.
The sample is used for both in-
dividual research projects and an--
nual surveys. An article in the
January 12 issue of Business Week
is based on the annual survey,
"Consumer Attitudes and Inclina-
tions to Buy."
The research projects for which
the sample is used are usually ini-
tiated by the ISR program direc-
tors and approved by an executive
committee composed of the Uni-
versity officials and directors of
the related fields of study. If a
project is approved a sponsor is
then solicited. Voight noted that
in this way the ISR is primarily a
self-supporting institution.
Voight said that the national
household sample was just one of
the important research resources
of the ISR. "In addition to the
sample, the directors of the vari-

ous areas of research and the fa-
cilities for data processing have
made the ISR one of the major
social research centers in the
country."
Miss Hess noted that one of the
goals of the sample was to "pro-
vide maximum accuracy at mini-
mum cost." She said that this was
achieved by probability sampling
techniques. Every county in the
United States is classified into
one of 74 strata according to such
criteria as geographic location, de-
gree of urbanization and rate of
growth. One primary unit is se-
lected from each strata and local
interviewers trained to cover that
unit.
She said that the current
changes being made involved a
complete restructuring of the west-
ern geographic region due to the
rapid growth there since 1950.
Strata have been revised through-
out the country with a total in-
crease of eight.
Recounts Confirm
Election Decisions
LANSING-Recounts confirmed
the legislative lineup as Sen.
Charles O. McMamiman (D-
Houghton) was declared the win-
ner over Bert H. Heideman of
Hancock by 268 votes and Rep,
Clifford Perras (R-Nadeau) had
bested former Rep. James K. Con-
stantini (D-Iron Mountain) by 192
votes.

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