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March 24, 1963 - Image 1

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-03-24

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3roject Michigan Plas rime Role in 'UIes


The Institute of Science and Technology's Project Michigan is
the Army's chief source of advanced long-range research on combat
surveillance and is the University's largest research project, with a
continuing contract of about $4 million a year.
Yet few students have heard of the project because its output
consists of reports which are mostly secret. Project Michigan, how-
ever, is of vital importance to the United States military capability.
It is directed by Prof. Robert L. Hess of the engineering department.
"In these days of modern armies, when each side in a conflict
has the ability to destroy the other 'on sight,' the battle is going to
go to the side that 'sees' its enemy first," Project Michigan's assistant
director Willice E. Groves said recently,
Radar Research
Much of the research is done on radar, used to survey terrain
in all weather and at any time of the day.
A major accomplishment of the project in the field of radar
is a high-resolution airborne system. The system maps a wide ter-
rain strip which may extend to the line" of sight on either side of
the airplane carrying the instruments. The mapping appears as if
it were taken directly from above, except for shadowing.

Instruments in the plane record returning radar reflection
pulses on a signal storage film, which is fed into a specialized type of
analog computer after the flight. The computer output is then photo-
graphed to form a map.
One of the advantages of such a surveillance system is that a
plane can fly over friendly territory while investigating distant enemy
positions, Groves said.
A major objective in developing the system was to improve res-
olution, the ability to see fine detail and to distinguish between
closely spaced objects. To achieve this objective, IST personnel
synthesized a phantom radar antenna many times the size of the air-
craft, a technique which improved resolution proportionately.
Since Project Michigan is primarily concerned with research
rather than product development, it subcontracted to a private firm
the building and installing of several airborne systems in Army air-
craft for evaluation by the Army. The airborne components weigh
700 pounds.
Fundamental Investigations
Project Michigan is also doing fundamental investigations in all
areas of moving target indicating radar (MTD. This form of radar
registers only those objects which are moving.

In essence, it repeatedly scans and records the terrain, each scan
separated by a small amount of time. If an object is not moving, every
second picture cancels out the first. If it is moving, the shift in posi-
tion causes a blip to appear.
Photographs are taken of the blips as they appear on a cathode
ray tube. Seeking to increase the system's resolution, researchers are
attempting to reduce the size of cathode ray spots.
Limited Range
The range of all radar devices is limited to direct line of sight.
MTI radar is used in both ground-to-air and air-to-ground surveil-
lance. Ground-to-ground MTI may be used where suitable sites for
viewing the terrain are available.
Project Michigan experiments are also concerned with airborne
navigation. Airborne equipment can measure the time at which sig-
nals arrive from ground-based signal-broadcasting stations. Differ-
ences in time of arrival from three stations define two hyperboloids in
space whose intersection establishes the current position of the air-
In addition to radar, the project is also studying the uses of infra-
red detection devices for combat surveillance. One method, passive
infrared, utilizes suitable detectors to register emitted waves. Since
See ARMY, Page 8

RADAR RESEARCH-The Caribou, a transport plane loaned to
the University by the Army, has been refitted by Project Michigan
for radar research. The aircraft is used as a flying laboratory to
run tests on airborne moving target indicating radar systems.

See Editorial Page

I / CJ

Seventy-Two Years of Editorial Freedom

:43 a t t

Continued mild, turning
cloudy at night




Conference Views 'Trends '63'

Southern Politics
Reverse Course
Four panelists at the Issues
Conference yesterday agreed that
the South is changing but dis-
agreed as to exactly in what direc-
Discussing "Political Trends in
the South," Prof. Robert S. Fried-
man of the political science de-
partment cautioned against treat-
ing the South as a monolithic
body. There are changes in the
South in industrialization and
urbanization, he noted.
"So we now have urban areas
voting Republican while rural
areas are voting Democratic."
Negro Identification
The Negro in the South identi-
fies with the national Democratic
party but in local elections uses
his vote to the advantage of fac-
tions of either party in order to
gain short-range aims, Prof. Fried-
man maintained.
The Republicans face the prob-
lems of building the party at the
grass roots level.
Prof. Friedman declared that
while the Democrats are able to
"get away with a scrizoid situation
the Republicans probably won't
be able to." This is due in part
to the fact that the Southern
Democrats in Congress, whose
strength lies in Congress under the
seniority system, see the neces-
sities of compromising with the
national, presidential party.
And the national party is con-
stantly friendly to liberal social-
economic legislation and civil
Democratic Split
"Therefore the Southern Demo-
crats are willing to get a liberal
president in power to keep their
own power in Congress," he con-
tinued. But with the Republicans,
there is a split within the presi-
dential as well as the congression-
al wings.
"The Republicans may succeed
in wooing the conservative South-
ern white vote, but they would do
it at the expense of the national
party," Prof. Friedman said.
Former Daily Editor Thomas
Hayden, Grad, noted that he saw
See PANEL, Page 8
Bursley To Ask
Research Plan
Im provements
Rep. Gilbert E. Bursley (R-Ann
Arbor) will attempt to amend ap-
propriations bills this week in
order to restore Gov. George Rom-
ney's proposed $750,000 fund to
subsidize certain research pro-
grams at state universities.
The House Committee on Ways
and Means declined to report out
this provision last Friday, as its
members objected to appropriat-
ing money for projects not yet
In order to make the research
fund more acceptable, several
means of compromise are being
studied, Bursley said yesterday.
The most probable device would
be to establish a special leisa-
tive interim committee which
could approve or reject each pro-
In the bill's original form, funds
would have been given for one
year only to the best research
ntroietc submitted by stt col-

... views democracy
Panel Disc usses
U.S.-Latin PolicyyROETSLA
Prof. Martin C. Needler of the
political science department, par-
ticipating in a session of yester-
day's Issues Conference devoted to
Latin America said that it has
been fashionable to criticize the
Alliance for Progress because a
monumental amount of expecta-
tion had accumulated. The United
States had no Latin America
policy during the eight years of
the Eisenhower administration
and thus had "a backlog of
things to be done."
Cautioning the Young. Demo-
crats not to take too literally the
concrete goals of the Alliance, he
suggested that these goals be re-
garded as targets aimed at rather
than as specific obligations to be
Prof. C. Norman Guice of
Wayne State University's history
department asked, who is to sup-
ply the coersive force to cause rul-
ing elites to give up their power
and wealth?
The Organization of American
States cannot supply the force be-
cause the OAS is a week reed; it
is a moral force but it is not coer-
cive, Prof. Guice continued. The
United Nations is tied up in the
Congo, he noted.
Local Pressure Needed
The force will have to come
from the governments of Latin
America, themselves. But they are
not inclined to vote themselves
out of office or deprive themselves
of their land, Prof. Guice pointed
It will be necessary for the
United States to co-operate with
these governing elites, he said. He
predicted that tax and land re-
form will come but that they will
not be as sweeping as the Alliance
would like.
"The Alliance for Progress has
ideals and we should recognize
them as such, realizing that in
ten years we will not get too far,"
Prof. Guice declared. "Unless
we're prepared to underwrite im-
mediate, bloody revolutions, we
will see our goals realized only
Prof. Carl Cohen of the phil-
osophy department examined Lat-
in America through what he called
a Cuban lens. If the United States
refuses to do business with a de-
pendent developing nation. this
coutry forces that nation to do
business with the Russians, he
pointed out.
Democracy' Inaccurate
He said that "we sully the name

Group Discusses
Academic Liberty
Defining academic f r e e d o m
broadly as "an atmosphere and
climate of civil liberties on the
college campus," Robert Ross, '63,
opened a panel discussion on
trends in academic freedom, part
of this weekend's Issues Confer-
ence sponsored by the Young
Democratic Club.
Ernest Mazey, executive direc-
tor of the Michigan American Civil
Liberties Union, Prof. Stephen
Tonsor of the history department
and Regent Donald M.D. Thurber
of Grosse Pointe also gave their
outlook on academic freedom.
Citing "an aspect of academic
freedom which is now neglected
and which is important in the
state-institutional autonomy in
policy-making," Ross said that
there now exist limitations on
academic freedom which surpass
limitations on freedom in the
classroom alone.
Immediate Limitation
He noted immediate limitations
such as speaker policy, loyalty
measures, "informal but pernici-
ous racial and religious bias;" in-
termediate limitations such as
legislative and alumni pressures.
and the self-imposed attitudes of
adminisartors to look for these
pressures which limit autonomy
and to keep "the university's
image bright."
Mazey said that "in the last 15
years academic freedom has suf-
fered serious blows, not in isola-
tion but as part of the total pat-
tern of events in the United
Cites Improvement
He cited some improvements in
the area of academic freedom in
Michigan but saw some academic
freedom problems which are con-
tinuing. Specifically, he listed the
cases of Prof. Samuel Shapiro of
Oakland University; at Delta Col-
lege where there is no tenure sys-
tem since the school is new; and
at the Detroit Institute of Tech-
nology, where those active in or-
ganizing a branch of the American
Federation of Teachers did not
have their contracts renewed.
"Institutions of higher educa-
tion should lead in the fight for
civil liberties," Mazey said. Rights
of free expression should be more
unlimited at an academic institu-
tion which has as an aim the free
examination of ideas than else-
See ISSUES, Page 2

At Border.
By The Associated Press
NEW DELHI - Indian Prime
Minister Jawaharial Nehru warn-
ed yesterday that China may be
planning new attacks along the
2000-mile border between India
and Tibet.
Nehru told the lower house of
parliament that China has moved
in fresh troops along the border
and may be considering "further
armed action at a time of its own
"During the past fortnight or
so Chinese notes to India have
become sharp and provocative,
some actually scurrilous," Nehru
'Self Defense'
He told the house that Com-
munist China's defense minstry
recently issued a statement re-
serving the right to act "in self-
defense." The prime minister said
he thought the phrase might be
used to justify a new assault
In Peking, Communist Chinese
Foreign Minister and Deputy
Premier Chen Yi charged that
India has "stepped up its war
preparations with imperialist rr.il-
.itary aid." Speaking at a Pakistani
national day, reception Friday
night, he said India "has contin-
ued to make anti-China clamors
and adopted anti-China meas-
ures "
The border between India and
China has been in dispute for
Cease Fire
China then proposed that both
sides withdraw 12.5 miles from
the line of actual control while
they negotiate the dispute. New
Delhi rejected any proposal to
leave Chinese troops in Indian
territory but a de facto cease-fre
has existed since.
Nehru said the Chinese pulled
back 12.5 miles but "their concen-
tration beyond this narrow strip
continues unchanged." The prime
minister called the concentration
Nehru also said the Red Chinese,
aided by Tibetan villagers, have
been building roads leading to
India's northern border.
The prime minister said he had
a good idea of the strength of the
Communist air force and its de-
Nehru urged Red China to abide
by proposals for settling the dis-
pute outlined by neutral nation3
at the-Colombo conference.



Joi~nt Appropriation

Councilman To Request
Session for Legislation
At tomorrow night's Ann Arbor City Council work session, first
ward Democratic councilman Lynn Eley will call for a special council
session to hold a second reading on proposed fair housing legislation.
The only way fair housing legislation can be passed into law by
council before the April 1 elections is if a special session is called,
Eley said yesterday. Such a session can be called by any three mem-

Picket Bursts
Into Violence
KNOXVILLE, Tenn. (M)-What
began as an orderly racial dem-
onstration snowballed into shov-
ing, pushing and fighting yester-
day after a group of Negroes be-
gan picketing movie houses.
Police arrested 36 persons, in-
cluding 32 Negroes.
At one point, several of the
Negroes -- denied tickets at the
window - rushed the doors of a
theater with tickets which police
said were passed out by sympa-
thetic white persons.
Ushers grabbed and pushed
back most of them, but several
made it inside, only to be dragged
from the lobby.
Police fded charges of disorder-
ly conduct and conspiracy to ob-
struct trade and commerce against
most of those arrested.

Back Scheme

bers of the council. Eley will b
suported in his request by first
ward Democratic councilwoman
Eunice Burns. Mrs. Burns and Eley
at present are the only council
members who have announced
their intention of calling a special
A silent vigil is scheduled for
6:45-7:45.p.m. tomorrow, the night
of the work session.
"The intent of the demonstra-
tion is not specifically to have the
ordinance passed on Monday, but
rather to have an effective or-
dinance passed as soon as possible,
perhaps on Monday,'' Eugene N.
Feingold of the political science
department and advisor to the
Human Relations Board said yes-
"If we fail to get a special meet-
ing, we will press for a date for
the next public hearing and a
schedule for the adoption of an
ordinance," Eley said.
All that is procedurally neces-
sary for the ordinance to pass into
law at this point is a second hear-
ing, Eley said.

Kennedy Claims Joblessness
'To Rise Without Tax Relief
CHICAGO (IP)-President John F. Kennedy told the nation yes-
terday the unemployment rate will climb "steadily and swiftly" to
seven per cent-even without a recession-unless taxes are cut to
speed economic growth.
Kennedy flew to Chicago for three hours of ceremonies marking
the formal dedication of O'Hare International Airport, the busiest
airport in the world. In a major address, Kennedy made a blunt bid
tfor greater public support of his

. .. sees benefits
State Seeks
.federal Aid
To Children
LANSING-Gov. George Rom-
ney's awaiting a list of legal rea-
sons from Secretary of Health,
Education and Welfare Anthony
Celebrezze's office explaining why
Michigan would not be legible for
aid to dependent children of un-
The ADC-U bill was passed by
both houses of the Michigan Legis-
lature recently and would give
Michigan approximately $12 mil-
lion in federal relief funds.
Romney had what was described
an an "amicable" meeting with
the secretary Thursday during
which Celebrezze promised to de-
liver by early next week a state-
ment clarifying why the ADC-U
bill as passed by the legislature
does not conform with federal
Other Action
In other legislative action last
week, the Senate sent to the
House a bill banning discrimina-
tion in real estate transactions.
However, its future in the
House is somewhat less certain.
Senate leaders feared the bill
might be buried in the House Com-
mittee on state affairs, chaired by
Rep. Lloyd Gibbs (R-Portland).
House speaker Allison Green (R-
Kingston) did not alleviate their
fears in announcing that he did
indeed intend to send the r .eas-
ure to Gibbs' committee.
Defeat Bill
Also in the House, a bill' to ban
subversives from the ballot was
defeated 52-51, lacking five votes
to make the 56 necessary for
Rep. Edward K. Michalski tD-
Detroit) proposed one amendment
that would have sold at auction
any business which has ever given
preferential treatment to any un-
ion' "dominated by communists."
The amendment was defeated
Pass Package
The House passed the fourth in
a package of bills designed to
promote economic recovery in
Michigan. The Romney - backed

Survey Finds
Indiana Plan
Hatcher Sees U' Gain,
In Graduate Finanring
By Using Procedure
The presidents of the state
colleges and universities, including
University P r e s i d e n t Harlan
Hatcher, tentatively supported a
unified approach to appropria-
tioris as in Indiana, a Detroit
News survey revealed last night.
The Indiana plan calls for sub-
mitting a joint hkher education
budget to the legislature, eliminat-
ing harmful competition among
the various institutions.
The colleges and universities
would first agree to a combined
request, then decide how to split
it if the legislature cuts or raises
it. Funds received from student
fees and the operations of the
health science schools are ex-
cluded from the Indiana plan.
Presidents See Difficulties
The college presidents generally
agreed to the idea, but found many
difficulties in the implementing
it, the News survey found. A ma-
jor problem would be getting the
10-state supported institutions to
agree on a common budget, sev-
eral presidents pointed out.
"We would be happy at such an
arrangement. Our problem stead-
ily has been one of calling atten-
tion to the University's more
costly graduate program which
comprises more than 40 per cent
of the University's activity. When
we apply the Indiana plan, which
follows a graduated formula built
on cost studies, we discover that
in 1961-62, the University would
have received another $5 million
in state funds," Hatcher noted.
Executive Vice - President Mar-
vin L. Niehuss added that uniform
cost accounting has developed to
the point where the Indiana plan
could be applied to Michigan.
Within Constitution
He said that this joint arrange-
ment would not violate the Uni-
versity's constitutional autonomy.
It is aeco-operativeiagreement,
Niehuss explained, which no one is
forced to make.
"This plan requires close co-
operation with the legislature. In
Indiana an interim committee
works with the various colleges
and universities," he added.
Rep. Arnell Engstrom (R-Tra-
verse City) was somewhat skep-
tical of the plan. He said that it
had been talked about for years
and had been suggested in the
Russell Report, a comprehensive
1958 study of Michigan education.
No Serious Consideration
"This plan has merit, but it has
never seriously been considered," ;
Engstrom said.
Charles Orlebeke, Gov George
Romney's education advisor noted

Clever Collegians Sing Show

Collegiate U.S.A. filled Hill Aud.
last night when five college sing-
ing groups, replete in blazers,
striped ties and crew-cuts, par-
ticipated in the Vulcan-Interfra-
ternity Council sponsored show,
"Sounds from the Summit."
The Jabberwocks, from Brown
University and one of the nation's
oldest octets, made their first trip
to the Midwest for the show. They
did numbers ranging from "Fas-
cinating Rhythm" to a strait-
laced parody of the Yale singing
From Ohio State, the Mello-
Lites did sophisticated, modern
numbers with 'an emphasis on

plan to cut taxes by $10.3 billion
during the next three years.
Kennedy said a tax cut is needed
"above all" if the country is to
cope with an onrushing "tide of
Declaring that the creation of
millions of jobs is "our No. 1
domestic concern," Kennedy said:
"Unless we step up our rate of
growth-unless we create a supply
of jobs that is more equal to the'
demand-our rate of unemploy-
ment will steadily and swiftly
climb to the recession level of
seven per cent."
"Above all," he said, "we need
to release the brake of wartime tax
rates which are now holding down
growth at the very time we need
more growth to create more jobs."
Kennedy predicted that his tax
cut proposal would result in a
multiplication of new markets, new
equipment, new jobs. He did not
confine his solution to the employ-1

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