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February 22, 1963 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1963-02-22

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Seventy-Third Year
Truth Wil Preval"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions, of staf writers
or the editors. This must bA noted in all reprints.

Brazil Faces Economic Woe




DAY, FEBRUARY 22, 1963


Demoeratie Ideals Prompt
Student Demonstration

WHILE STUDENTS picketed in front of the
Administration Building yesterday, passers-
by in automobiles shouted such delicate ad-
monishments as "Ya' goddam Reds, go back to
Russia" and less vehement messages about the
severe cold and the uselessness of such a dem-
The Human Relations Board picket, to con-
tinue today, is quite the opposite of an irra-
tional gesture. And, on the contrary to hazers
who believe they sniff Reds, the action is defi-
nitely an indication of faith in democratic
The immediate cause of the demonstration
was President Harlan Hatcher's lack of re-
sponse to a letter sent him by the HRB on
February 3. The letter pointed out that the
decision on a fair housing ordinance would
soon 'confront the City Council. The board
indicated that a positive statement supporting
the ordinance would definitely be in line at
this time because Regents Bylaw 2.14 pledges
that the University will help to eliminate dis-
crimination in housing where Iit affects stu-
dents, faculty or employes.
A STATEMENT from President Hatcher
strongly encouraging enactment of the non-
discriminatory ordinance would significantly
facilitate passage of the proposal. Passage of
the-housing legislation would benefit citizens
of minority groups, many of whom are certain-
ly students or faculty. A recent telephone poll
taken by the board revealed that approximate-
ly 50 per cent of the landlords contacted would
deny a Negro student rental of their apartments
while granting the housing to a white student.
Hatcher, however, made no statement. The
board was referred to the office of Vice-Presi-
dent for Student Affairs James A. Lewis. He
met with the board, and stated that it was
against University policy to get involved in lo-
cal legislation issues publicly.,
The board was aware that Bylaw 2.14 does not
provide a definite mandate for issuance of
public statements; it merely commits the Uni-
versity to "helping" eliminate discrimination.
The promise could be narrowly fulfilled by
"behind the scenes" action. At his first meeting
with board members Monday, Lewis promised
that he would attempt to express University
concern for the legislation through a letter
from his office or other non-public means.
Past experience with the above sort of end-
deavor led HRB members to the conclusion
that the act would be essentially ineffectual.
CONCERN MOUNTED among members be-
cause the date set for City Council consid-
eration of the non-discriminatory housing law
was yesterday. It was obvious that the Uni-
versity, specifically president Hatcher, was going
to ignore its opportunity to facilitate passage
of legislation which would be a significant aid
to students of the University being discriminat-
ed against.
The board decided that a public demonstra-
tion would make apparent to President Hatcher
the wide-spread student concern for the Uni-
versity's effectual action on the discrimination
Chairman of the HRB David Aroner planned
to notify President Hatcher of the demonstra-
tion ahead of time in the hope that such ex-
pression of concern would impel him to speak
and make the picket unnecessary. However, he
was in Washington, D.C., and could not be
reached by Lewis. The Human Relations Board
voted to go ahead with the demonstration.
T"HERE ARE MANY reasons it is a good thing
that the student-faculty picket is taking
place. The spirit of Bylaw 2.14 is' dying of
neglect. In the four years since the passage of
the bylaw President Hatcher has never public-
ly supported it or expressed a commitment
Grades Don't S
ONE OF the threats facing learning today is
the grading system. This system attempts
to rank a student among his fellows according
to the amount of knowledge he apparently has.
In reality, it places the importance of getting
a good grade above the importance of learn-
The intended use of a grade is to show the

University how well a student is doing in
comparison with other students. The Univer-
sity uses grades for conferring academic honors
and scholarships, and for showing other aca-
demic institutions a student's progress and
position in case the student wants to transfer
or go on to graduate school. Because of the law
of averages, the overall record of a student's
achievement is fairly accurate. For adminis-
trative purposes, this record need never be
more than fairly accurate.
GRADES as administrative tools are neces-
sary. The University must know where its
students stand in relation to each other. How-
ever, there is no reason for the student to
know his official standing. Each student knows
his ability and can guess his achievement. If
his guess of his achievement differs from
his professor's guess, it is probably the profes-

that the University would positively attempt
to implement it. The Regents instituted the
commitment on paper. The responsibility of
carrying it out clearly lies with the adminis-
Aroner claims that Lewis is sincere in his
desire to arrest the rampant discriminatory
pratices in Ann Arbor. However, mere sincerity
will not eradicate the problem. A genuine con-
cern for the many, many students who have
been discriminated against in Ann Arbor hous-
ing would surely warrant- the most generous
anti-discriminatory interpretation of Bylaw.
Lewis says that to "get involved in local leg-
islation" is against University policy. It is easy
to see why this might be a generally applicable
policy; it would be wrong for the University
to get involved in city politics except where its
own legitimate concerns are at stake.
HOWEVER, the housing ordinance is of great
import to students. A blanket rule never
to take a stand on local legislation can only
imply that the administration cannot exercise
reason, good judgment, a sense of discernment.
This is of course false.
Further, the Reed Report pledges the Uni-
versity to increasing non-interference in the
extra-curricular affairs of its students, ecept
when such interference clearly benefits the
student by enhancing his total educational
Yet foreign students live in little ghettos-
largely because so many doors are slammed in
their faces, so many integrated housing oppor-
tunities denied them. Would not such integra-
tion be a prime source of their education? Their
education is stunted, their experience stifled.
It is perhaps ironic that the influential Uni-
versity would not speak up on the students' be-
half, would not support the fair housing ordi-
nance, would not exercise "paternalism" in this
one instance.
THE PURPOSE of the demonstration was to
bring the concern of the students and fac-
ulty before President Hatcher. Repeated pleas
for statements supporting the bylaw have been
ignored. A letter to President Hatcher in
March, 1962 was somehow never acknowledged
or answered. The letter sent last week was re-
ferred to Lewis; the HRB request was not to be
Opponents of the demonstration have claimed
that it would place the University in a very
bad light, as it is occurring at the same time as
the Regents and Development Council meet-
ings. Underlying the decision of the Board was
the belief that continuing University indiffer-
ence to discriminatory practices against stu-
dents would, in the long run, place the Univer-
sity in a worse light.
Further, and even more important, it is only
in a totalitarian or hopelessly bureaucratic
structure that vital information is deliberately
kept from those whom it seriously concerns.
Therefore, the HRB. did not see any reason why
the University would want to hide the students'
active interest from the Regents or Develop-
ment Council.
COMMUNICATION, rather than prior-censor-
ship, between the administration and stu-
dents was one of the larger underlying con-
cepts in the Reed Report.
There was no malice or attempt to slur in-
tended by the demonstration. It was resorted to
as a communication effort only because less
formal efforts had failed. It was the only re-
course the Human Relations Board had left,
and can be Judged only on the basis of the ac-
tion it brings from the University in support of
the fair-housing law and in measures to im-
plement Bylaw 2.14.
erve AcademNes
by students with great ability and little
achievement to see. if their cleverness can
cover up their lack of knowledge. Usually this
bluffing doesn't fool the professor, and the
general attitude is that cleverness deserves a
reward which is a good grade, and that the
clever student should receive a college educa-
If the student didn't have the fun of playing

the grade game, if he were never given the
satisfaction of seeing if he won, he might
find more satisfaction in learning itself. Not
every student misuses grades in the bluffing
fashion, but every student does use them as
an incentive. They are a very good incentive,
but they are also false ones.
The purpose of a college education is to
give the student general knowledge as the basis
for specific knowledge, and to sharpen his
skill in a certain area. The goal of getting good
grades never entirely dissolves the real purpose
of an education, but it does dim it. If instead
of receiving a grade for a paper, or an hourly
exam, or even for a final exam, the student
were given written criticism, he would have
a better idea of not only where he stood, but
how he should proceed. This solution would not
work for all subjects. In lower levels of science

FORWHOM does the bell toll
in Brazil?
For all of Latin America, since
the problems of Brazil are the
problems of Latin America'wrap-
ped up in one big hunk of nation.
With 3.3 million square miles
and 67 million people, Brazil has
half of South America's territory
and population. With 60 per cent
inflation in 1962, Brazil wastes
United States aid even faster than
the rest of Latin America. And in
a continent known for its poverty,
Brazil's Northeast section is one
of the most deprived areas of the
President John F. Kennedy re-
cently expressed his concern about
Brazilian inflation, and he sent
roving assistant - President - at -
large Robert Kennedy to Brazil.
Kennedy and Brazilian President
Joao Goulart met for three hours.
When they emerged from their
talk, Goulart looked grim.
HE HAD REASON to be grim.
Over the past 10 years the United
States has pumped $1.4 billion
worth of aid into Brazily. This aid
is currently $200 million yearly.
But, Kennedy no doubt told Gou-
lart, public or Congressional opin-
ion may force a cutoff in this aid
unless Goulart can set his house
in order. For Brazil's inflation has
been increasing the cost of living
412 times as fast as per capita
income growth during most of the
postwar period.
"Even as the .statesmen dined,"
Newsweek magazine noted at the
time, "Brazil's economy spiraled
further out of control. The cru-
Spec tre
WHAT A panorama, indeed, his-
tory conjures up! We are still
moved by the sight of Nebuchad-
nezzar, his hair tangled on his
shoulders, his uncombed beard
hanging down his swarthy chest,
his nails sharp as an eagle's talons,
returning sane at last to the gates
of Babylon. We still thrill to the
shout of Xenophon's Ten Tousand
as, reachong the crest of their
final hill, they at last descry the
dark line of the Euxine Sea.
We catch the crash of brazen
impact, the crackling of flames,
and the yells of rage and pain as
Antony's five hundred ships close
with the Octavian fleet,-and then,
we see the purple sails of Cleo-
patra's ship puff in the breeze as
she signals the Egyptian vessels
to flee with her. We watch Diocle-
tian, entering the massive amphi-
theater near his palace at Spalato,
take the salute of two bands of
doomed criminals before, rushing
upon one another with sword and
spear, they open the gladiatorial
We see the thin English line at
Crecy 'halting at Edward's sharp
command, planting their pointed
stakes in the mud, drawing bow
to ear, and suddenly darkening the
air with clothyard arrows that
crumple the French host in front.
And so the story marches down
with ever-widening sweep until
we see Wolfe reciting the Elegy
below Quebec, Lincoln sinking
back unconscious in his chair at
Ford's Theatre, Bismarck presid-
ing over the Congress of Berlin,
the German tide rolling through
Brussels in 1914; until, with a
start, we face the events of yes-
terday-Hitler and Stalin invad-
ing Poland, and an American air-
plane exploding a bomb over
-Allen Nevins,
The Gateway to History

zeiro was at 850 to the U.S. dollar
and still falling. Brazilians stood
in rice queues to pick up 11-pound
bags of rice distributed at con-
trolled prices. Black beans, another
staple, were just as scarce. Meat
had all but disappeared."
Goulart aims to cut the rate of
inflation in half this year and
to keep reducing it in future years.
But he needs also to do some-
thing about Brazil's foreign debt
of $2.7 billion and about Brazil's
great illiteracy. Half of the people
cannot read nor write.
* * *
Goulart is a president who wants
to go "all out" to get his country
out of a severe economic crisis.
Goulart now has been granted the
powers as well as the office of
the presidency. Roosevelt used and
maximized his Presidential powers
and was successful in both relief
and reform. Effort was vigorous
in the New Deal; great effort is
needed for the success of Gou-
lart's new deal, his three-year
development program, for Brazil.
Brazil sorely needs development.
It is a country composed of pov-
erty, illiteracy, inefficient feudal
agriculture, lagging industrial de-
velopment, insufficient capital,
inadequate housing, chronic un-
employment, disease, bitterly par-
tisan politics aggravated by ultra-
nationalists, unused natural re-
sources and an enormous gap be-
tween the rich and the Woor.
Like the sharp contrast within,
between affluence of a few and
poverty of the many, Brazil pro-
vides a sharp contrast without.
Life expectancy is 70 years for the
United States, 45 years for Brazil.
The per capita national product
is over $2,700 in the United States,
only $210 in Brazil. There are 91
teachers per 10,000 people of the
United States, 45 per 10,000
* * *
America the long history of mis-
treatment by the United States.
This mistreatment continued even
after Franklin Roosevelt began
the so-called Good Neighbor policy
of the United States.
During World War II Latin
America had supplied the Unted
States with raw materials, and
Brazil had even sent armies to
fight. Yet Brazil and the rest of
Latin America were almost vir-
tually excluded from the Maishall
"Now it seems belatedly," Prof.
Irving Leonard of the history de-
partment has noted, "that with
the Alliance for Progress we are
trying to remedy that very grave
error that was made at the end
of World War I. I believe that
at the time of the Marshail Plan
had we included as much as per-
haps a billion, it would have ac-
complished what the 20 billion
now is going to try to accomplish.
And we would have had a psy-
chological advantage which we
now lack. For Latin Americans
say, thank you Fidel Casro, not
Uncle Sam."
Is it any wonder that Goulart,
to be a successful politician in
Brazil, finds it necessary to decry
Yankee imperialism and to flirt
with the Communists, our most
forthright critics?
* * *
NOR IS IT any real surprise
that Communism has a substan-
tive following in Brazil and other
Latin American countries. Much of
the "proletariat" of Brazil have
become resentful of the "bour-
geoisie," and there is hardly any
middle class. The system is feudal
with "bourgeoisie" controlling the
fazenda (hacienda) and exploit-

ing the work of the peons-ten-
ants or sharecroppers dependent
for their survival on the planta-
tion boss.
Such patterns of exploitation
and deprivation are especially
prevalent in the Northeast where
average income is less than $100
a year, where three-fourths of the
population is illiterate, and where
the population dies before the age
of 30.
POVERTY, former Brazilian
President Janio Quadros has writ-
ten, "separates us from North
America . . . What solidarity can
there be between a prosperous
nation and a wretched people?
What common ideals can .
withstand the comparison between
the rich, cultivated areas of the
United States and the famine-
ridden zones of the Brazilian
Perhaps the answer to Qudros
question is this: the common
ideals of humanity, the fraternity
ideal of democracy, an ideal that
has helped make possible the $92
billion in total foreign aid that we
have given since World War II.
And perhaps the advent of the
Kennedy Administration has
marked the beginning of a change
-a rededication to humanitarian
goals and an attempt at their im-
plementation through the Peace
Corps and the Alliance for Pro-
* * *
BUT THE YEARS scheduled for
the Alliance for Progress will not
be enough; we have made little
progress in the two years that this
Alliance has been in effect. The
problems are too intrenched, the
ways of men in power too set for
rapid progress; yet progress should
be as rapid as possible.
The need to give aid increases
every year because the split be-
tween rich and poor nations is
widening. And although Brazil and
the other underdeveloped nations
have been increasing their share
in production, their share in con-
sumption has been dropping..
In short, more and more poor
are consuming less and less. And
human multiplication is hindering
Brazil and other underdeveloped
countries from acquiring what
they need-more capital and more
Thus the United States needs to
ftspense birth control information
in Brazil and to help Brazil make
more jobs, largely through indus-
trialization, for the increasing
crop of youngsters who survive to
In Brazil and in Latin America,
destitution need no longer be a
reality, but prosperity is yet a
dream. What is now happening in
Brazil and in Latin America is a
sincere attempt to challenge the
reality of destitution. The Alliance
for Progress is feeding one out
of every four children in Latin
America an extra ration from our
farm surplus; the Alliance has dis-
tributed 15 million school books
and is building 17,000 classrooms;
it has helped resettle tens of
thousands of farm families on land
they can call their own.
* * *,
THIS IS a good start, but it is
only a start. Last year Theodoro
Moscoso told his staff that there
shall be no "celebation" of the
first anniversary of the Alliance
for Progress.
Likewise there should be no
"celebration" of the second an-
niversary, for inflation plagues
Brazil, poverty remains wide-
spread, and economies continue to
suffer. The demands of assistance
are still heavy. But the fruits of
generosity will be worthwhile.

Phi Kappa T a Claims
First 'New Concept'
To the Editor:
IN A RECENT Daily issue a letter was published in which Triangle
Fraternity laid claim to being the first Michigan fraternity to
orientate itself to an academic emphasis. This is very probably true,
and I shall not dispute their claim. However, I cannot tolerate their
claim that Phi Kappa Tau is their first disciple. The Phi Tau rush

literature announced "a daring
new concept in fraternity living"
and that is what it meant.
Unlike the Triangles,%Phi Tau
does not discriminate on the basis
of academic interest-a Phi Tau
can major in anything. It must
also be emphasized that Phi Tau
has not resolved to surplant so-
cial activities with seminars, it
has accepted the challenge of be-
ing a social fraternity that offers
the fullest of academic opportun-
ity to its members.
* * * '
FINALLY, an important part of
the Phi Tau program consists of
the activities of its individual mem-
bers. This is important because it
must be realized that the class-
room and the book are not by any
means the exclusive agents of
education at the University of
It is therefore obvious that a
clear distinction must be made
between the social fraternity, the
academic fraternity, and the socio-
academic fraternity, of which Phi
Kappa Tau is the first. We reject
the contention of the Triangles
that we have taken up their cause.
The Phi Tau concept yet remains
unique among Michigan frater-
-James P. Starks, '65
Rush Chairman,
Phi Kappa Tau
MEAN to say that a harmony
admits of degrees, and is more
of a harmony, and more com-
pletely a harmony, when more
completely harmonized, if thatr
be possible, and less of a harmony,
and less completely a harmony,
when less harmonized.
-Plato, Phaedo

IN MY OLD DAYS at the Up-
town Theatre in New York, I
would never go unless they had
a double-feature. Now, accustomed
to Ann Arbor, such things are
tiring, especially if they, are two
such mediocrities as "Walk On
The Wild Side" and "The Notor-
ious Landlady."
Oddly enough, both films have
certain qualities which could have
made them into passable movies.
"Walk," the story of a Texan who
searches New Orleans for his lost
girl-friend (now a prostitute in
Jo's [Barbara Stanwyck] estab-
lishment) has Capucine, turning
in a fine performance as Hallie,
the lost girl-friend; but Laurence
Harvey as the Texan and sup-
posedly the focal point of the
picture, negates her effectiveness
completely and then some. Lines,
such as "The cute ones ain't never
talkers, and the talkers ain't never
cute. You're cute," directed to
Harvey, don't help at all.
"NOTORIOUS" stars Kim No-
vak as Carolee Hardwick, the one
referred to in the title, who is
suspected by Scotland Yard and
just about everyone else of killing
her husband. Fred Astaire turns
in a fair performance as the har-
ried and career-conscious state
department official (in London),
but it is Jack 'Lemmon, as Mrs.
Hardwick's new roomer, who al-
most manages to save the picture.
But again, it goes under, due
mainly to Kim Novak, who "is
about 36-24-36" but can't act at
all.- 5
--Steven Hendel

Real Nifty Brahms
THE BUDAPEST QUARTET is a musical phenomenon. They are also
a psychological and scientific phenomenon. It would be fascinating
to take them apart in a laboratory and find out just how 'their
incredible coordination is achieved. But it just might not be possible
to put them together again; and that were unforgivable.
By now,. after two evenings, that is, I almost think of Eugene

"Idol Must Have Human Sacrifice"

Istomin as part of the Budapest.
to the ensemble. His feelings about-
the music and style of interpre-,
tation are in close alliance with
Further he utilizes his technique
most ingeniously to adapt the
large piano sound, which he uses
in solo or concerted work, to the
smaller idiom of the chamber. His
pedalling, for example, is exem-
plary. There is just enough to
produce a liquidity of tone which
blends with the continuous sound
of the strings. He also varies the
color of his instrument by bril-
liant use of the una corda pedal,
producing an almost muted tone
when he is playing as a continuo,
becoming suddenly brighter and
incisive when his melodic line is
more important.
* s *
LAST NIGHT'S concert at
Rackham Auditorium got off to a
slow start with Mozart's K-4789
Piano Quartet. The performance
was marred by surprisingly many
scratches from Boris Kroyt's :'ola.
Most unusual for him, of course,
but there are those days.
I ,admit to a certain diffidence
in discussion of chamber music.
My record collection in that area
is but modest, and the number of
concerts is limited. It is then,
perhaps, naive to observe that the
early trios of Beethoven seem
more substantial than much of his,
other music of that period.
The second work last night was
his Piano Trio, Opus I, number 2.
Though not of the power, depth,
and subtlety of the master's later
periods, it is a stronger work than
the Mozart. The performance was
brilliant. The slow movement was
a particular extravaganza of de-
light: gossamer strands of melody
were played in interlocking solos
by the three instruments with
never a break in the melodic line
or musical intent.
* * *
THE ENSEMBLE work cannot
be described as incredible, for
such things do happen, but it is
a privilege to be there when they
The evening ended with some
nice juicy Brahms: the Piano Trio,
Opus 87. It was Brahms as Brahms
should be, warm, lush, but with-
out a trace of flabby discipline.
The slow movement shifts be-
tween that throbbing, pulsating,
fullness that seems' peculiarly
Brahms and moments of exquisite

Light Side'
Of Divorce
AH, SUNNY Southern Italy,
where passion rules the hearts
of the Italian male-where honor
is worth more than life, and di-
vorce is impossible. Ferdinado
(Marcello Mastroianni) an arro-
gant, moustachioed count is mar-
ried to a love-sick, moustachioed
wife who plagues him so much at
night, he kills her by day. Ferin-
ado sees his un-loved sinking into
quicksand, simmering in a soap
vat, rocketing to the moon. Ah-
to be left in the arms of Angela,
his beautiful, virginal, adoring
There is only one recourse-the
crime of passion. And a wickedly
planned crime of passion it turns
out to be. Before the movie comes
to its just end, Pietro Germi (The
Straw Man, An Ugly Mess) gives
us a chance to look and laugh at
s lIi c k- Latin lovers, politicing
priests, Italian communists, Sicil-
ian customs and life. His handling
of the, comedy is melodramatic and
stylized. Each gesture is an Ital-
ianism, each line an overstate-
* * *
IN THIS COMIC soap opera, as
in all soap operas, the music adds
its perfect climatic touch. Here,
instead of an organ, it's Italian
brass. The director might have
carried us through the film's in-
evitable sequences a little faster,
but after all this is Sicily where
the pace is slow and crime (there's
plenty) is calculated.
As Ferdinado, Mastroianni (La
Dolce Vita) gives the performance
of his career. His slippery hair,
drooping eyes and silvery cigarette
holder present a caricature un-
equalled by Rudolph Valentino.
It's like the return of the Shiek
in wolf's clothing. With a mere
twitch of the mouth, a slouch of
the shoulder, a hand to his smooth
head, the entire complexion of a
scene is change. The .other out-
standing performance of the film
belongs to Daniella Rocco who
plays the, unfortunate wife.
* * *
THIS FILM is great Italian

He is a most felicitous addition



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