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January 19, 1962 - Image 5

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The Michigan Daily, 1962-01-19

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ARY 19, 1962

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

ARI9 9~TEMCIA AL

sRSCORE:
Fallout: Clear and Present Danger

For Direct Classif ied Ad Service, Phone NO 2=4786
from 1:00 to 3:00 P.M. Monday through Friday, and Saturday 9:30 'til 11:30 A.M.

__.__ i

By MARTHA MacNEAL
Daily Staff Writer
T MTHE Russian resumption
of atmospheric atom bomb
ng, and the possible resump-
of our own tests the ques-
of fallout is in the air again.
ally important, if not more so,
ie question of how bomb test-
affects the chance of nuclear

A report in the Dec. 9 issue of
"The Nation" describes the prob-
lem of fallout in knowledgeable
detail., In a nuclear explosion,
matter is annihilated and turns
into energy through either the
splitting of a heavy nucleus (fis-
sion) or the joining of two light
nucleil (fusion).
The atom bomb functions
through the former, the hydrogen
bomb through the latter. Fusion
produces no seriously dangerous
radioactive products, but fission
results in unstable remains of the
uranium nucleus which emit high,
speed particles of radiation. Of
the approximately 200 different
kinds of radiation formed in the
atom bomb fireball, about five per
cent is radioactive strontium
which emits short range beta
particles, harmless outside the
body, but extremely dangerous in-
side. Another five per cent of the
total radioactive products is ces-
ium, which emits gamma rays of
such high penetrating power that
they are dangerous both external-
ly and internally.
Most of the other radioactive
products formed in a fission ex-
plosion have short periods of ra-
dioactive activity; enough to be
severely destructive over the down-
wind vicinity of a wartime blast,
but ineffective over long dis-
tances. Thus these may be disre-
garded in the case of testing.
STRONTIUM and cesium have
half-lives of approximately thir-
ty years, i.e., half of the original
amount disappears in that period
of time. A longer half-life would
reduce the amount of radiation
emitted from decay within the
body system, and a short half-
life would increase chances of

complete decay before the fallout
reaches human beings.
The 30-year period, however,
maximizes radiation danger in hu-
man beings. Cesium remains in
the system for only 140 days, but
strontium-90 lodges in the bones
where it proceeds to decay and
emit radiation.
One curie of radioactive mate-
rial emits 37 billion particles per
second. As these particles pass
through living tissue, they lose en-
ergy, causing harmful chemical
changes.
* * *
RADIATION damage affects ei-
ther somatic cells (those of the
body) or the genetic cells. The low
radiation doses resulting from test
fallout are unlikely to damage a
dangerously high number of so-
matic cells, except in cases of
cancer and leukemia which are
not well understood. But even
slight damage to the sex cells
can result in serious mutations in
succeeding generations.
Bomb testing prior to 1961 re-
leased approximately 92 million
tons of fission energy. By now
about 5.5 megacuries (5,500,000
curies) of strontium-90 have set-
tled onto the earth's surface, and
the recent Russian tests have re-
leased about four more mega-
curies into the stratosphere.
Rains bring down large amounts

of both cesium-137 and strontium-
90. Plants absorb these materials
through their leaves and cows then
consume contaminated food, so
that the strontiuni-90 passes into
milk. Milk in New York City aver-
aged 8 strontium units in 1960,
11 in 1959. But by next June, milk
units in New York will probably
rise to 40 units. By 1964, the av-
erage levels in children's bones
will be 4.5 or 5.
THE FEDERAL Radiation Coun-
cil sets the strontium unit dan-
ger point at 50. Though the av-
erage level may be only one-tenth
that amount, the report estimates
that one per cent of the popula-
tion will reach or exceed the dan-
ger point, and that 150-500 leuke-
mia deaths will result.
But any amount of radiation
carries the possibility of genetic
mutation and life-shortening. Ge-
neticist James Crow predicts 20,-
000 mutations resulting from tests
prior to 1958; "The Nation" would
double this prediction since re-
cent Soviet testing. And next
spring will bring the highest fall-
out ever.
Fallout is, right now, causing
death from disease. It is, right
now, altering human genetic ma-
terial. Can testing really be called
protection?

WE ARE TOLD that we need
testing to better our deterrent
strength. Our bombs get bigger
and better. The Russians decide to
increase their deterrent strength.
Their bombs get bigger and bet-
ter. What are we deterring? Cer-
tainly not bombs. Are we deter-
ring war? Does one deter an ef-
fect by multiplying both the
causes and the means? Nobody
fights until somebody makes
threats.
Weapons are the means of war,
fear is one of war's major causes.
The defense of nuclear testing in
the name of "deterrence" is ab-
surd. Peace does not and cannot
exist under force of arms, because
an increase of threat breeds an
increase in tension, and tension
eventually breaks whatever has to
bear it.
In effect, nuclear testing is
causing death now in order to
cause more death in the future.
The United States has one of the
most valuable chances it has ever
had for positive action. The So-
viets broke the test ban. If we de-
clare to the world, unconditionally,
that we refuse to follow in the
very action that we have con-
demned, we can score a victory on
the side of life, one of the first
in a long time.

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Figure 5 average words to a line.
Phone NO 2-4786

i

CHOICE OF RISKS:
Disarmament or Protectionism?

By ANNE SCHULTZ'
Daily staff Writer
THE UNITED STATES govern-
ment is facing the increasing-
ly important problem of the 60's:
the choice between armament and
disarmament.
To decide intelligently, we must
consider the implications and as-
pects of both. Can we survive if
we continue to develop nuclear
arms and weapons? Must we give
up our freedom and be subjected

TODAY AND TOMORROW.
Negotiation Realistic-
We Both Need It

0

- By WALTER LIPPMANN
TALKING recently with a jour-
nalistic colleague whom I great-
ly respect we came to the point
whether it is possible to negotiate
agreements with the Soviet Union.
My friend argued that it is im-
possible. They will never, he said,
concede to us anything which we
can accept, and we can never con-
cede to them anything that they
want.
If negotiation is indeed impos-
sible, I said, there can be no ac-
commodation of any kind about
Berlin. The Soviet Union will be
free to do what it dares to do,
and we shall be free to react as
we can react. The fate of Berlin
will depend on events that we do
not control, and will be at the
mercy of accidents and collisions.
I do not feel that this is a toler-
able future for the people of West
Berlin. We cannot resign our-
selves to it.
THE CRUCIAL POINT was that
my friend regards a negotiation
as an interchange in which one
side wins and the other side losses.
I was brought up to believe that
a true negotiation is one that
leads to an agreement in which
each side gains more than it gives
up. In the long run the agreements
which work and are observed are
those whose provisions insure that
both parties would lose much, and
neither would gain anything com-
parable, by breaking them.
We have made one successful
negotiation with the Soviet since
the war. That was about Austria.
Whether anything comparable can
be done about Berlin is not clear
now and we shall have to wait
and see what the exploratory talks
now under way produce.
But what I think I do know is
that we must try for such an
agreement because the disadvan-
tages of not getting one will grow
heavier for us. Because I believe
that the losses from refusing to
negotiate will also grow heavier
for the Soviet Union, I dare to
believe that a modus vivendi can
be found.
* * *
WHAT WOULD we lose by fol-
lowing Gen. de Gaulle's line and
refusing to negotiate? We have
already had one spectacular dem-
onstration of the kind of risk that
lies in refusing to negotiate.
DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN

Last summer, after the Khrush-
chev-Kennedy meeting in Vienna,
the United States policy was to
carry out a partial mobilization in
order to validate the firmness of
our purpose and at the same time
to begin negotiations with Mos-
cow. In July, Gen. de Gaulle ve-
toed the negotiations which not
only Britain and the United States
but even West Germany, although
reluctantly, were willing to enter
upon.
It was not merely a coincidence
that a very few weeks after this
refusal to negotiate Khrushchev
approved the erection of the wall
in Berlin. It may be that he
would have done this even in the
midst of negotiations because of
the pressure from the flight of the
refugees. But it certainly would
have been greatly more difficult
for him to do it.
* * * '
NOW, with Berlin divided by the
wall, the Western position in West
Berlin is weaker than it was last
July. The refugees from the East
are locked in. The division of
Germany is marked by the wall
and the West has acquiesced in
that symbolic division.
We have lost so much ground
that my greatest worry today is
that West Berlin will wither if its
freedom, its rights of access, and
its function are not restated and
reaffirmed.
* * *
SO GREAT is our need to ar-
rive at an agreed status for West
Berlin that, as I said above, the
temptation in Moscow to refuse it
must be big. But there are, I be-
lieve, countervailing reasons in
Moscow which will lead the Soviet
Union to work out an arrange-
ment.
The paramount reason is that
in Berlin there is a direct con-
frontation of the two nuclear
powers. While a direct and deliber-
ate resort to nuclear war by either
power is most improbable, the
irritations and provocations which
can arise when nothing is definite-
ly settled are too great to be ig-
nored.
There is, I believe, another rea-
son why Moscow has a serious in-
terest in arriving at an agreement.
It is that an agreement which
stabilizes the situation of West
Berlin will reduce the tension and
tend to stabilize against popu-
lar uprisings the situation in East
Germany and Eastern Europe.
Some Westerners will say that
this is just why we ought not to

to the ideals of others if we sub-
mit to world disarmament?
* *.
THE MOST desirable goal is
the preservation of both civiliza-
tion and democracy. Conserva-
tives, like Sen. Barry Goldwater,
see armament as the only solu-
tion. Sen. Goldwater maintains
that the United States should
stress "victory over, rather than
coexistence with Communism."
Dr. Hass A. Bethe, head of a
government advisory committee of
scientists, says that armament of
both powers will create a stabil-
ity where either country could de-
fend itself against any attack by
the other, thus creating an "in-
vulnerable deterrence." Armed
forces and arms themselves would
become obsolete and therefore
non-existent. The strength of each
country would lie in anti-missile
missiles and nuclear missiles.
Opponents to this theory, such
as James P. Warburg, author of
"Disarmament: Challenge of the
Nineteen Sixties," maintains that
there is. "little stability in stable
deterrence." This supposedly in-
vulnerable deterrence would only
permit each power to completely
destroy the other, not protection
against destruction.
Until the powers reach this
claimed "invulnerable deterrence,"
the advantage lies with the pow-
er that strikes first. Some opposed
to armament and skeptical of
Bethe's "stability" theory, advo-
cate world disarmament. This
would include banning nuclear
tests, stopping arms production,
clearing the stockpiles of nuclear
weapons, and submitting each
country to an international board
for arbitration and arms inspec-
tion. Through disarmament, no
country would have the power to
destroy the other-preserving our
lives and our civilization.
* * *
ALTHOUGH this sounds fine,
one must consider the feasibility
and results of disarmament.
1) Would it work? Would both
countries actually destroy all their
present bombs and stop all future
production? All existing nuclear
weapons would be destroyed, but
if, in some obscure laboratory re-
search continued until one atom-
ic bomb were developed, then dis-
armament would become mean-
ingless. Disarmament must mean
complete disarmament of all coun-
tries with nuclear weapons. Is this
possible?
2) For disarmament to be ef-
fective, someone would have to
settle disputes and to see that the
"rules" were carried out. A UN or
international arbitration board
has been suggested, but if, as War-
burg suggests, this board extends
its powers into any other realm
beside arbitration, every country
could loose its sovereignty.
3) All disputes to this time have
been settled by war and the in-
dustrial economies of the major
powers revolve around defense.
Would it be possible to so dras-
tically change our economy, our
labor force, our educational sys-
tem and almost every element of
our society?
* * *
BUT EVEN if these obstacles
are surmountable, the U.S. and
USSR must still come to an agree-
ment on the means of disarma-
ment.
During the Eisenhower admin-

ament before the United Nations.
This plan would disband all na-
tional armies, destroy all atomic
weapons and depend on the Unit-
ed Nations to keep peace.
Stage one of this plan consists
of establishing an international
disarmament organization, ban-
ning nuclear tests, stopping Pro-
duction of atomic weapons, cut-
ting forces to 2.1 million men,
limiting output of other arms and
the manufacture of missiles, and
destroying all weapons above a
certain number, prohibition of the
launching of weapons in space,
and reporting all launchings to
the International Disarmament
Organization.
Stage Two gives the IDO more
power of inspection, reducing nu-
clear stockpiles even further, and
establishing a United Nations
Peace Force.
Stage three completes stages
one and two, providing for fur-
ther reduction of military forces
to the point where each country
has enough only to maintain in-
ternal order.
s- .
RUSSIA refused to accept this
plan, insisting that total inspec-
tion and nuclear test bans be post-
poned until total disarmament has
been achieved. Russia also advo-
cates a troika-type control organ-
ization with one representative
from an Eastern, Western, and
neutral power, where action would
require unanimous agreement of
the three.
Disarmament negotiations are
at a standstill until the Geneva
conference on March 14. But until
then, the United States must take
a definite stand on its disarma-
ment policy and be prepared to
maintain this policy if no agree-
ment is reached in Geneva.
* * *
THERE ARE two main alter-
natives open: resumption of test-
ing-trying to protect ourselves
and keep a stable balance of pow-
er in the world; or unilateral dis-
armament-putting ourselves at
the mercy of the Communists in
an attempt to prevent an all-out
destruction of humanity.
Resumption of testing might in-
crease the possibility of war; uni-
lateral disarmament would pre-
sent the economic problems of bi-
lateral disarmament plus the prob-
lem of our vulnerability to Com-
munism. Many who urge this be-
lieve that each power is compet-
ing in the arms race primarily
for defense rather than offense.
Therefore, if the United States re-
moved some of her threats to Rus-
sia, world tension would diminish
and Russia too would begin to
lessen some of her offensive pow-
er.
Some suggestions which have
been made (and are again to be
presented to Kennedy in a 10,-
000-student rally in Washington,
D.C. on Feb. 16-17) propose to
decrease our offensive power while
keeping our defenses intact.
The proposals include: public
announcement of nuclear test
bans by the United States, the
denial of nuclear weapons to any
other country, withdrawal of mis-
sile bases from Turkey since these
bases are solely for offensive pur-
poses, and repeal of the Connelly
Amendment which would ack-
nowledge our acceptance of all
decisions of a World Court. Rath-
er than center our economy around

ATTENTION ROTC
OFFICERS' SHOES
Army-Navy Oxfords - $7.95
Socks 39c Shorts 69c
Military Supplies
SAM'S STORE
122 E. WASHINGTON W6
C-TED
STANDARD
SERVICE
FRIENDLY SERVICE
IS OUR BUSINESS
It is fall change over time.
Time to check your cooling
system and put in ATLAS
PERMA-GUARD anti-freeze.
"You expect more from
Standard & you get it."
SOUTH UNIVERSITY & FOREST
NO 8-9168
STUDIO, 800 sq. ft., Music, Dance, Re-
ducing, Ceramic, large assembly room
33x15, 4 smaller rooms, over Pretzel
Bell, 2-5 year lease. Will sell entire
building of 3 floors. Call Lansing,
ED 7-9305. R6

'54 NINETY-EIGHT OLDS HDTP, power
steering and power brakes-best offer
takes. Call NO 5-6388. Nil
'54 STUDEBAKER Champion. Radio.
heater, overdrive, and rebuilt engine.
Used as professor's commuter Clean
and dependable. $330. Call 663-72
DON'T YOU HAVE a heart? Even
rough, tough bikes from Beaver's
need to be protected from Ann Ar-
bor rain and snow. Get a cover for
your Bike today at
BEAVER BIKE
AND HARDWARE
Z13
WANTED-Ride to vicinity of Dart-
mouth College, N.H., on Feb. 8. Will-
ing to share expenses and driving.
Call NO 3-1561, Ext. 1006. F24
WANTED: two female roommates for
second semester to share house--
ideal setup - close to campus -
call 3-2761. M6
RIDE WANTED TO CHICAGO Feb. 2,
will share driving and expenses. Call
NO 5-9627 after 5. G1
ONE OR TWO GIRLS wanted to share
beautiful, modern apartment. Two
blocks from campus. Phone NO 2-5997
after 5:30. H13
WOMAN ROOMMATE wanted to share
apartment with woman art student.
Beginning Feb. 1. Modern apartment
with all conveniences. Call 665-0874
after 5:30. H14
AM LOOKING FOR RIDE to town in
southwestern corner of Virginia on
route 23 during any vacation. Willing
to share expenses and driving. Call
Mary Ellen, NO 3-1561, Ext. 920. iS
NEED EXTRA MONEY? Wanted: some-
one with aptitude in shorthand and/
or typing. 4 or 5 hours a week-time
at your convenience. Write Box 27,
Michigan Daily. H11
-f

ESTES ACR ES
Mobile Home Center
New - Used

GOOD FOOD in an international at-
mosphere. Meals Monday' thru Satur-
day, lunch and dinner. $12.60. Call
Mrs. Griffee, NO 5-5703, 724 Tappan.
M
LEM AND TIGER: See you Wednesday.
P141
C. F. G., II: Happy Birthday-Better
early than never! F16
FOR INFORMATION on U. of Chicago
Folk Festival, call NO 8-7548. F32
SBX has FREE plasticized book covers
FOR YOU. Save $ at SBX. F39
LOVER BOY LEVITSKY: Happy Birth-
day early. Good luck in 331. C.H.
P12
IT'S ABOUT THOSE LEOTARDS, "Sex-
pot"-I understand they're excessively
couth! F13
GIRLS-Get it while it lasts. Peace
and quiet at the League Library, third
floor, Women's League. ,P22
BUY AND SELL used texts at SBX.
Save 10-20 per cent. Basement SAB.
P38
EVERY responsible person should see
"The Crucible" at Lydia Mendelssohn
Theatre this week. Flo
ALL SENIORS-Please pay senior dues.
$3 payable by check made out to
Senior Board may be mailed to 2528
SAB. F31
APPLICATIONS are now being ac-
cepted for MORALE BOASTER. The
positiop1 requires a female student
between 18-21. For information call
NO 2-5571. F3
TERRIFIC NEW CONTEST - Great
prizes, great prestige. In 25 words or
less write why you want Andy back
writing personals. Send to Box ASC.
F5
LOTS OF LUCK ON EXAMS, especially
to the goddess of fertility and fire
fighting, the shoe repairer, and the
most coordinated girl in the world,
ie. Genevieve, Laughing Legs, and
Small Spastic. F15
THOSE COMPOSITES of the best of
Williams Houe men and the beat of
Jordan Hal women leave much to the
imagination. The irregularities in the
individuals originally are what makes
things confusing. F17
PLANNED PARENTHOOD CLINIC. Ad-
vice of physician on birth control.
Professional counsel on: marriage
problems. Clinic hours Tues., and
Thurs. 7:30-9. 201 E. Liberty. Call
NO 2-9281. F20
TO ZEKE GABBOUR, president of the
Civic Theatre:
Dear Zeke,
Sorry I can't make it to "The Cru-
cible" tonight. I've been hung up.
John Proctor F11
WE PUBLISH humorous greeting cards
designed exclusively for college stu-
dents. We are looking for good ideas
or sketches. Top prices paid. Write
College Hall Cards, Larchmont, New
York. P21
DISPOSING of my large library at pri-
vate sale. Rare opportunity for stu-
dents to build up a library of good
books at low prices. Special low prices
on sets of books. Showings at 617
Packard St. (near State) from 12
P.M. to 4 P.M. every day except Sub
day. F8
MICHIGANENSIAN
your yearbook
s. now selling for
$6.50
THIS IS NO JOKE!
DIAMONDS WHOLESALE
Diamond specialists for 17 years.
Before you buy, consult us.
ROBERT HAACK, Diamond Importers
Suite 504, First Nat'l Bldg.
NO 3-0653
Miners-Cutters-Setters
Ann Arbor, Milwaukee, Madison,
Minneapolis, and Caracas, Venezuela
F26
LADY'S Raccoon Coat-size 12, good
condition. $39. Call 3-0680. B40
WHITE STAG powder blue hooded ski
jacket. Size 14. Unused. Call NO 2-
0006. B7

2 SCOOTERS-Lambretta 150 and Vespa.
Graduating senior-best offer. Call NO
2-5196. B4
DIAMONDS-Charles Reaver Co. is of-
fering for sale estate and imported
diamonds. For appointment call NO
2-5685 after 6 P.M. M2
HEAD SKIS-6'9" medium, flex well
kept; used two seasons, $25 with poles
included. Also G e r m a n c a meras
(Voigtlander and Vitissa) rapid re-
winding range finder, built-in self
exposure timer, comes in original
leather case.e$68. Call NO 5-4338. B8

2967 Packard
NO 8-8688
Ann Arbor
R4

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Why buy from out of
town - see this,
GARRARD
"A"Changer
Shure M7D Cartridge
not $103.50
BUT 79.50
You Save 22%
at
Hi Fi & TV
Center
304 S. THAYER
ACROSS FROM HILL AUDITORIUM
Service and repairs by
Fred Flack, M.A.E.S.

DOES FOOD leave you listless? Is that
your problem, Bunky? Then try a
Schwabenburger. You haven't tasted
anything until you have one at
Schwaben Inn. J71
MAKE CAMPUS HEADLINES
WITH YOUR NEW COIFFURE
from
Florence Beauty Studios
106 E. Liberty St. Hutzel Bldg.
NO 2-0897 J22
HI-FI, PHONO TV, and radio repair.
Clip this ad for free pickup and de-
livery. Campus Radio and TV, 325 E.
Hoover. NO 5-6644. J24
A-i New and Used Instruments
BANJOS. GUITARS AND BONGOS
Rental Purchase Plan
PAUL'S MUSICAL REPAIR
119 W. Washington NO 2-1834
BEFORE you buy a class ring, look at
the official Michigan ring. Burr-Pat-
terson and Auld Co. 1209 South Uni-
versity, NO 8-8887. J11
RITZ BEAUTY SALON
COMPLETE LINE OF BEAUTY WORK
605 E. WILLIAM
PHONE NI 8-7066
Finding holes in your winter cloth-
ing? Find that the wind whistles
through and sends chills up and
down your spine? Then send them
to
WEAVE-BAC SHOP
224 Arcade NO 2-4647
"We'll reweave them to look like new"
J12A
COME IN AND BROWSE AT THE
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Featuring student ufrnishings of
all kinds, appliances, typewriters,
televisions, bicycles, etc. Open
Monday & Friday evenings 'til 9.
4 J112

X9I

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