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November 15, 1961 - Image 1

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FACULTY
POWER
See Page 4

Seventy-One Years of Editorial Freedom

:3a it1

CLOUDY, WARMER
Hligh-55
Low--40
Rain tonight turning
to snow flurries tomorrow.

VOL. LXXII, No. 51

ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 15, 1961

SEVEN CENTS

EIGHT PJ

Conference Releases Education

By MICHAEL HARRAH
Three pollsters and a college
coordinator highlighted the agenda
of the first session of the Fifteenth
Annual Cbnference on Higher Ed-
ucation with statistical light on
the problems of higher education,
in Rackham Amphitheatre yester-
day.
Prof. Stephen B. Withey of th.
psychology department, program
director at Survey Research Cen-
ter, presented his findings in "The
Attitudes of the Public Toward
Higher Education."
He found the public used four
criteria in judging the quality of
colleges and universities.
Personal Associates
"The first is rather vague," he
said. "Something called 'reputa-
tion'. It is derived from the re-
marks of personal associates." The
second is "knowledge about the
expertise of an institution in. a
certain field." Third is, the con-
currence (or lack of it) with the

institution's admission policy, and
fourth is the agreement with the
size and/or location of the insti-
tution.
However, in choosing a college
for a member of one's own family,
different criteria are used: small
size over large, or nearness to
home.
He said that the public generally
favored establishing more smaller
institutions with joint tax and
tuition support as a pattern of
enlarging higher education.
Life Role
Prof. Withey said that a person
associated a college education with
his own role in -life. If such edu-
catibn has been satisfactory, one
tends to view higher education
more favorably.
He concluded that "colleges and
universities must prove their utili-
tarian worth. They are accepted as
institutions for instruction but
also as more than that in terms
of community service and in en-

larging the domain of knowledge."
Paying for College
Prof. John B. Lansing of the
economics department, program
director at Survey Research Cen-
ter, presented tabular description
of "How People Pay for College."
He demonstrated that the an-
nual expense of attending college
for unmarried students could be
as low as $450 or under (six per
cent) or as high as $3,450. or over
(two per cent). His survey showed
the average to be around $1,550.
Fund Sources
Of that amount he found that
61 per cent was raised through
parental contribution, 23 per cent
from student earnings, 8 per cent
from scholarships, and eight per
cent from other sources.
Parents reported various meth-
ods of raising their contributions.
In 48 per cent of the cases, they
used money saved in advance, of
which 12 per cent represented en-
dowment insurance. Forty-four per
cent raised money from their cur-
rent income, but in 19 per cent of
the cases the mother worked more
and in eight per cent of the cases
the father worked more. Eight per
cent borrowed money, and eight
per cent received a windfall.
Prof. Senior Motivation
Po.Raymond J. Young of the

education school, director of the
Junior Community College Admin-
istrator Institute, reported on the
"Characteristics, Motivations, and
College - Going Expectations of
High School Seniors."
Prof. Young said that "the ex-
tent to which our youth is not
being developed is the extent of
the loss to our country. Yet even
in Michigan, no -more than 10 per
cent of our high school graduates
pursue a college education."
No Intention
He said that a recent survey has
shown that 37 per cent had no
intention of pursuing education be-
yond high school, while another!
37 per cent definitely did plan to
go on. Twenty-six per cent were
not certain.
He said that 30 per cent of those
who didn't plan to continue said
that "it was too expensive," 36 per
cent "wanted to go to work and
make money;" 35 per cent claimed
inability to make grades, but it
was ascertained that 38 per cent
of those who do not go on defi-
nitely have the ability.'
More Money
When asked whether, were more
money ayailable, would they have
continued their education, at least
one-third indicated they might
well have done so.

Evaluate Colleges

By RICHARD KRAUT
One hundred years ago, the
Morrill Act, which provided for
the foundation and mainten-
ance of land-grant colleges in
the United States, was passed
by Congress Nand put into ef-
fect.
This week, the Americap As-
sociation of Land-Grant Col-
leges and State Universities
held their centennial convoca-
tion in Kansas City. Represen-
tatives of the member universi-
ties attended this conference
and submitted hundreds of re-
ports on the progress and fu-
ture of the fields with which
they were'best acquainted.
Among these were studies of
foreign students in land-grant
colleges, the education of
Americans to serve abroad, the
arts and sciences in land-grant
colleges;teacher education, en-
gineering and graduate work in
the humanities and social sci-
ence.
Foreign Students
A report on foreign students
was concerned with these stu-
dents studying in the United
States. The situation is espe-
cially urgent because of the
needs of the new nations of
the world. Each year, Ameri-
can universities undertake the
overwhelming task of educat-
ing more than 53,000 students
from abroad. And the number
of foreign students coming to
the United States each year
will 'increase.
More attention must be giv-
en to technical education close-
ly related to the needs of the
new nations, the report says.
However, the balance between
liberal and technical education
must still be maintained. ,
The present method of selec-
tion of foreign students has
serious defects. And "the illu-
sion that too many foreign stu-
dents are coming to the Unit-
ed States,' concludes the re-
port, "is the result of the un-
necessary concentration of for-
eign students in a few well-
known universities."
Selection Limited
The fact that almost all of
the work must be conducted in
English greatly limits the se-
lection of students and creates
both academic and social prob-
lems for those foreign students
who are admitted.
Further problems include the
great amount of indifference
toward foreign students on
American campuses, the rigid-
ness of course requirements and
the startling differences be-
tween the United States sys-
tem of education and those of
other nations. All of this means
that special orientation and
counseling are badly needed in
the universities.
Further Problems
Additional problems arise
when the foreign student re-
turns home. The curricula in
the United States is closely
identified with the American
economy and -culture; this
makes readjustments to the
foreign student's home coun-
try environment difficult. Even
when professors here try to
help the foreign student by re-
lating his new learning to the

countries, English language in-
struction centers in the native
lands of the students and'ori-
entation programs for students
before leaving and returning to
their homeland.
Third, more qualified stu-
dents should be permitted to
study in the United States. In
addition, the foreign students
should be more evenly distrib-
uted among qualified colleges
and universities in the country.
F o u r t h, the government
should adopt a more liberal
student and faculty exchange
program.
Foreign Affairs
In a related report on educa-
tion and foreign affairs, it was
found that many land-grant
colleges have already assumed
the responsibility of educating
Americans to serve abroad and
to promote an understanding
of the role of the United States
in world affairs. With only 16
per cent of the university stu-
dents of the nation, they have
26 per cent of the foreign stu-
dents and 36 per cent of the
foreign faculty in the United
States.
In addition, the Peace Corps
has now been added to our
overseas programs. To date, it
seems that the students select-
ed are unusually well qualified
and are, for the most part, col-
lege graduates.
However, the Peace Corps
orientation and training pro-
grams have been criticized for
attempting to do too much in
too little time. According to
International Study Group III,
"the training programs devel-
oped to date appear to move at
a very fast pace, with heavy re-
liance on lectures and other
materials to which the ,volun-
teers are exposed." Some have
questioned whether this sort of
training will equip Peace Corps
volunteers to function with
enough initiative and sound
judgment.
Arts and Sciences
A report on the arts and sci-
ences by Prof. George Stod-
dard of New York University
recognized the dual purpose of
teaching undergraduates in this
field: liberal education and
specialization. Up to now, how-
ever, the land-grant colleges
have not been successful in
maintaining a proper balance
between these two objectives.
In the author's attempt to
define the subjects with which
liberal arts must deal, he list-
ed the following as tests:
Is the subject matter endur-
ing? It must not be trivial or
merely descriptive. There must
be a search for abstract prin-
ciples.
Not Segment
Is the subject matter whole?
The course must not be sim-
ply a segment, without begin-
ning and end.
Does' the student approach
the subject matter without ref-
erence to technical applica-
tion?
Can it, to some degree, be
acquired by every student? The
subject cannot be -so specializ-
ed that it is no longer com-
municable to others.
Morrill Act
When the Morrill Act was

A'sks More Interest
For Education Bills
By CAROLINE DOW
If administrators in higher education are active and alert, 21
higher education bill will come through in 1962, Logan Wilson, presi-
dent of the American Council of Education said yesterday.
Speaking at to the 15th annual Conference on Higher Education
held here yesterday and today, Wilson asked leaders to enter the
political area and effect a closer liaison between key figures in both

+ t

Pay Students,
Schultz Says
KANSAS CITY (P)-A University
of Chicago economist suggested
yesterday that students should be
paid to go to college.
Prof. H. W. Schultz said that
such a practice would be one way
of ending the waste of students'
time and bringing about basic re-
forms in higher education.
Schultz told the American As-
sociation of Land Grant Colleges
and State Universities -that col-
leges and universities seriously un-
derestimate the value of the time
students spend at college.
"How else," he asked, "can one
explain the wastage of the time of
~the students?"
In 1956, Schultz said, the total
cost of higher education in the
United States were $3.5 billion.
The total earnings foregone by
college and university students
that year were $5.8 billion.
"But colleges go merrily on," he
said, "treating the time of stu-
dents as if they were a free re-
source.sWhat is the remedy?"
"Instead of rationing admissions
and not economizing on the time
of students, one answer would be
to recruit and pay each student
the earnings he will forego while
attending college," he said. -
"I venture such a procedure,
impractical as it may appear would
bring about basic reforms in the
use of school facilities-libraries,
laboratories and classrooms-in
the use of faculty time, and above
all a reform in curricula."
Sawyer Views
Course Needs
For Graduates
Graduate extension work is "one
of the ways in which the increas-
ing demand for more specialized
higher education can be met with-
out too great a strain on our cam-
pus facilities," Dean Ralph Saw-
yer, vice-president for research
said Sunday.
Speaking at the session of the
General Extension Division Ameri-
can Association of, Land - Grant
Colleges and State Universities in
Kansas City, Dean Sawyer said
that a state-supported university
has a responsibility to provide for
the education needs of the state.
Graduate extension programs, he
added, can be an invaluable serv-
ice to the in-service teachers and

,,

the legislative and executive
branches of government.
He called on each separate insti-
tution to recognize the present
iexistence and , future need for
federal aid and to enter actively
into legislative work by individual
contact with the state representa-
tive.
Effective Partnership

Figures
"There's a link between parental
attitude toward higher education
and college attendance. Approxi-
mately 40 per cent of the youth
perceive their parents to be in-
different to hostile to higher edu-
cation.
Prof. Merritt M. Chambers, ex-
ecutive director of the Michigan
Council .of State College Presi-
dents, reported that "higher edu-
cation is about to experience a
renaissance the like of which has
not been seen for 400 years."
He said that he expected this
phenomenon to appear not merely
in science and technology, but also
in humanities and the arts.
Financial Support
Prof. Chambers cited student
fees, private gifts and taxation as
means of financial support for
education, and he said that it was
the "broad question of public pol-
icy is whether we shall support
higher education by" all these
methods, and whether the total
support shall continue to increase,
and how rapidly."
Prof. Chambers stressed that!
the state must be prepared to meet
the increasing needs of higher
education and suggested a state
bond issue or a state building
authority to supplement present
fund sources.I
DEFENSE:,
Pentagon
Plans New
.Program
WASHINGTON (A) - Pentagon
officials hope to have ready in a
few weeks a new three-year pro,-
gram for indoctrinating United
States troops on such matters as
democracy, Communism and citi-
zenship.
It is expected to be in shape for
hearings by a Senate armed serv-
ices subcommittee on defense de-
partment policies in this field and
related issues raised by critics such
as Sen. Strom Thurmond, (D-SC).
The hearings, which could be
lengthy, are scheduled to begin
Nov. 27.
From all indications, the new<
plan will not be a radical departure
from the present armed forces
information and education pro-
gram.
Mainly, it-will aim at a more
coordinate use of films, pamphlets,
military post and unit newspapers,
and armed forces radio and tele-
vision to get ideas across.
Planners said another important
feature is that for the first timeI
the information and education
program will operate on more
than a year-to-year basis, giving
field commanders more lead time
to draft their own local programs.
Officials acknowledged that local
commanders will not be required
to stay within the limits of the
Pentagon-supplied material.
Ask Expulsion
Of Foreigners
From Congo
UNITED NATIONS 5) - Three1
Asian-African nations proposed
yesterday that the United Nations
Security Council authorize acting
Secretary-General U Thant to usef
force if need be to drive foreignf
mercenaries out of the strife-torn
Congo.
The resolution, sponsored by1

Celyon, the United Arab Republic,
and Liberia, would empower T
Thant to use force for the "ap-
prehenson, dentention . . . and
deportation" of all foreign mer-T
'cenaries and hostile elements.
The Security Council resumes
debate today on the Congo. Strong1
African criticism is expected of
secessionist Katanga province. 4

USSR, Neutrals Defeat
West with Plan To Stop
Nuclear Tests in Africa

OPPOSITION LIBERAL:
Maca pa gal Ahead
In Pilippine Race
MANILA (RP)-Vice-President, Diosdado Macapagal surged far!
ahead of President Carlos P. Garcia early this morning with nearly
half the returns counted from the Philippines general election.
The latest count, in mid-day, showed Macagapal, candidate of the
opposition Liberal party, had an early lead-1,915,936 votes to 1,383,719
for Garcia. Macapagal showed surprising strength in. areas long

"The real question confronting
us here is not whether there is
to be a partnership but one of how
the partnership can be made as
effective as possible," Wilson said.
In asking for more interest in
legislation, Wilson disagreed with
Health, Education, and Welfare
Secretary Abraham Ribicoff's opin-
ion that leading educators are in-
different to the importance of
education as a whole.
Four points are essential to the
efficient mobilization of human
resources, Wilson said. First, "we
must recognize that education is
a national concern." With the ac--
ceptance of this national respon-
sibility institutions must retain in-
dividual nitegrity, formulate basic
long-range goals of American
higher education and improve the
structure of higher education, he
outlined.
Local Needs
Institutions, although founded
to meet local needs, are the source
of the nation's trained manpower.
Because scattered endeavors will
not meet this need, both the fed-
eral government and individual in-
stitutions must interrelate, he said.
He cited the National Defense Ed-
ucation Act as the first move to-
ward recognizing the need for gen-
eral support on' the federal side.
Each institution must define its
own goals and relate them to pub-
lic policy as they are more valu-
able as centers of independent in-
quiry than purveyors of specialized
services, he continued.
Not only must universities and
colleges formulate national pur-
pose for education but they must
promote public understanding and
support. This entails entering into
public questions, he warned. With
public understanding and when
adequate monetary support is at-
tained, leadership energy can be
redirected from fund raising to
more beneficial pursuits, he pre-
dicted.

SGC To Vote
On Officers
By JUDITH OPPENHEIM
Student Government Council willf
elect officers tonight as the first
order of business following officer
reports.
President Richard Nohl, '62BAd,
is running for re-election to that
office. Richard G'Sell, '64E, and
John Vos, '63, are contending for
the office of administrative vice-
president and Sharon Jeffrey, '63,
and Thomas Brown, '63, are run-
ning for the treadirer's post.
There are no nominees thus far
for the position of executive vice-
president currently held by Per
Hanson, '62. Hanson was nomi-
nated for re-election at last week's
meeting, but declined. There will
be further nominations before the
election tonight.
Establish Committee
A motion to establish a judiciary
study committee will be submitted
to the Council by Brown and Miss
Jeffrey. It asks that SGC establish
a committee to study Joint Judi-
ciary Council, Women's Judic,
Women's Panhel, Men's Judic, the
Interfraternity Council Executive
Committee, the three quadrangle
judiciaries, women's dormitory ju-
diciaries and the quadrangle house
judiciaries.
uThe group, which would replace
the former SGC Joint Judiciary
Study Committee would look into
"procedural and substantive due
process granted to those brought
before any judiciary council be-
cause of alleged violations."
It would also study "theoretical
and actual relationship of the
judiciary councils to the offices of
the dean of men and the dean of
women, the Subcommittee on Dis-
cipline and Committee .on Student
Conduct of the University Senate
and other administrative personnel
involved with student conduct."
Six Members
According to the motion the
committee would be composed of
six members, two of whom would
be SGC members. They would be
appointed by the Council on rec-
ommendation of the Interviewing
and Nominating Committee.
(These recommendations would be
made at the meeting of Nov. 29).
Robert Ross, '63, will move con-
sideration of former member David
Croysdale's motion on expression
of student opinion which was
tabled at last week's meeting.
Ross's motion says that since
the "off-campus issue" question
was so important in- the recent
SGC campaign, the Council owes
it to the campus to discuss it.
A motion from Steven Stock-
meyer, '63, proposes that the Coun-
cil study the status of higher
education in Michigan particularly
that of the University, and recom-
mend action to the Constitutional
Convention now in progress.

dominated by the ruling Nacional-
ista party.
Macapagal had hit hard on the
issue of corruption in government.
Observers had predicted one of the
closest presidential races in the
history of this island nation.
The latest tabulation 1:11
EST) gave Macapagal 2,216,246
votes to 1,601,591 for Garcia.
The commission of elections said
it expected a total vote of about
seven million.

To Prohibit
Wartime Use
Of. Weapons
.-
UN Comnmittee Seeks
New Geneva Talks,
Testing Moratorium
UNITED NATIONS P) -Asian
and African neutrals combined
with the Soviet Union yesterday to
push through two proposals at-
tempting to limit the use of -
clear weapons without the inspec-
tion and controls demanded by the
West.
The defeat suffered by the West
in the United Nations political
committee is certain to be con-
firmed by the General Assembly.
Both resolutions passed by over-
whelming margins.
The drafts call for an end to all
nuclear tests in Africa and urge
all nations not to transport or
store atomic or hydrogen bombs
on ,African territory. The vote
on this was 57-0, with 42 absteti-
tions.
Charter Violation
They declare the use of nuclear
weapons a violation of the, UN
charter and a crime against man-
kind; ask acting Secretary-Gen-
eral U Thant to explore the posi-
bility of convening an interna-
tional conference to outlaw the
use of nuclear weapons in war-
time. This was passed 60-16 with
25 abstentions.
Passage of these resolutions
ended the committee's debate on
nuclear weapons tests. Approved
earlier were UN appeals for a re-
sumption' of the Geneva test ban
negotiations, for a voluntary mor-
atorium on nuclear tests arid
against the Soviet Union's super-
bomb explosion last month,
Votes of the Afro-Asian nations
had been the decisive factor in all
the resolutions.
Holds Out
The United States held out
against the drive for a declara-
tign against the use of nuclear
weapons in any circumstances.
United States Delegate Arthur
Dean told the committee it would
be suicide for any nation to give
up its right to self-defense vol-
untarily. Numerous W e s t e r n
speakers also recalled that Soviet
Premier Nikita Khrushchev had
said modern wars are almost cer-
tain to become nuclear conflicts.
The United States also opposed
the idea of an uninspected ban
on nuclear tests and weapons in
Africa.
Connittee
Hears.Report
On 'U' Housing
The Office of Student Affairs
Study Committee yesterday spent
the first of two sessions on con-
sideration of University housing.
Committee Chairman John Reed
of the law school said the group
heard a report from a subcommit-
tee on a survey made of various
living units on campus after con-
sultation with representatives
from these units.
At its next meeting the com-
mittee will continue the discus-
sion.

DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL
surges ahead

Deny Legality
Of Communist'
Speaker .Ban
By The Associated Press
The legality of a speaker ban
imposed last month at the City
University of New York was chal-
lenged by six professors of consti-
tutional law there.-,
The ban, which forbids Com-
munists from speaking on the
university's campuses, was passed
by the university's Administrative
Council.
"We take cognizance of the fact
that the Administrative Council
has been advised by legal counsel
that college authorities are pro-
hibited by law from permitting
known members of the Communist
party from speaking on college
campuses," the professors said.
However theyhquestioned the
competence of the advice. They
pointed out that a known Com-
munist has addressed students at
Columbia University and that the
legality of this meeting has not
been investigated.
John R. Everett, chancellor of
City University, said he would be
"delighted ifthere are some 'good
legal brains" able to point to a
legally soundl reason to change the
policy.
Garcia's strength lies in the
southern province of Bohol, and
that vote was not expected until
late in the counting.

NUCLEAR WEAPONS:
SANE Director Views Hazard

By GAIL EVANSt
SANE is an "organization by
default," Donald Keys, program
director of SANE Nuclear Policy,
Inc., told a Challenge audience last1
night.{

through lobbies in Washington and
at the UN and by pressure on
congressmen from individual SANE
groups.
Since to Soviet Union resumed'
testing, SANE's job has been made
easier than it has been for some

membership policy was announced
because "Student SANE is sensi-
tive about civil liberties," Keys
said. However, he added that the
two organizations are still affili-
ated.
In student movements Keys sees

version of efforts from working
toward peace. A serious attempt
to develop bomb shelters creates
a psychology of the inevitability of
war, he added.
SANE's policy on Berlin is that
a plan for the' demilitarization of

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