EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
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JAGAN AND BRITISH GUIANA:
The Ethics of Foreign Aid
OpinionsA Are Free
Ltb will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This m*st be noted in all reprints.
)AY, NOVEMBER 14, 1961
NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAEL OLINICK
A New U.N. Leader-
Stagnation or Strength?
HE SECRETARY-GENERAL'S chair at the
United Nations is filled once more. It was
ewhat of a tragicomedy, for it took the'
great contemporary behemoths more than
weeks to come to terms over something
y agreed upon from the start. But the
.on of the General Assembly Nov. 3 is by
means a climax. Rather, it is the be-
aing of a brand new chapter in the Cold
n its breif, post-war existence, the United
ions has garnered strength of a kind the
League of Nations never knew. Now,, how-
r, the UN has reached an inevitable cross-
is. The new Secretary-General U Thant of'
ma, has two paths facing him': he can
c up where his controversial predecessor,
HammarskhJold, left off, guiding the UN
ards the position of arbitrator in a tem-
auous world; or he can lead the UN into,
vion, -turning it into a debating society,
the mercy of Premier Khrushchev's shoe.
'OULD THE LATTER HAPPEN, the Soviet
Jnion will have to be accredited another
ressive victory in its struggle with the,
t. The dream, the ideal of the believers ir'
rnational organization has been to turn
os into order. This hope is contrary' to
sian purposes. 'Without serious conflict,
lout 'war, advance toward Communism is
ossible," say discredited Stalinist V. M.'
otov. And if Khrushchev's words betray
concept, his actions most certainly do
Did the growing powers of the UN in the
last decade stem only from the incredible'
diplomatic talents of one man, or can they,
be institutionalized in the form of permanent
gains for the cause of world peace? If U Thant'
rejects the tools of mediation now available
to -him for calming the world's trouble cen-
.ters, the 'question will have been answered.
The UN will then function to the satisfaction of
the Communist world by not functioning at all.
IF THIS HAPPENS the United States, of
course, would have to reevaluate its attitude
toward the UN. The Rockefeller report of 1959
states, "The UN is proof of our conviction that
problems which are of world-wide impact must
be dealt with through institutions global in
their scope. It should stand as one of the
principal vehicles through which our foreign
policy is expressed."
The UN is, in fact, one of the main in-
struments of our foreign policy. But to func-
tion effectively from our point of view the
UN must be able to play an active role in
furthering the goals of the United States.
When the UN can no longer further these
goals, the United States will abandon it.
Already within the country, various critics
are set to give up the tUN. A recent campus
speaker, Col. W. Bruce Pirnie from the Com-
mittee of One Million Against the Admission
of Red China to the United Nations, vehe-
mently proclaimed, "As far as I'm concerned,
if Red China gets 'into, the UN, then we're
all through with that body."
- In the past few months, Senator Fulbright
has produced a plan to form a highly integrated
Western community, giving NATO, so to speak,
economic and political organization along with
its military role. This superstructure would
bypass the UN in dealing with world problems.
The .UN could hardly survive without Western
support, not to mention American money.
By RONALD WILTON
Daily Staff Writer
A SMALL MAN from a small
South American country is
forcing the United States govern-
ment to take a long hard look at
the basic principles behind its
foreign aid program.
The man is Cheddi Jagan and
he is the Prime Minister of Brit-
ish Guiana, a -self-governing Brit-
ish colony on the northeast coast
of South America which is sched-
uledi to receive its independence in
1963 or sooner. If Jagan has his
way it will be sooner.
* * *
THE QUESTION involved is as
old as the aid program; should
we give aid to countries which.
pursue a domestic policy of demo-
cratic socialism at home and neu-
In the country's election August
22, Jagan's People's Progressive
Party won an absolute majority
of 20 of the 35 seats in the Legis-
lative Council, the lower but more
important house of Guiana's par-
liament. The party also gained
control of the State Council by
winning 8 out of 13 seats.
This was the second time that
Jagan was elected to power. In the
1953 elections his party also won
a majority of the legislative seats.
However the government he set
up was dissolved by the British.
after only six months in office
on the grounds that Jagan was
trying to set up a Communist
After winning the August elec-
tion Jagan promptly announced
that he would go to London to
seek independence before the Brit-
ish imposed date of 1963. He also
said that he would go to Washing-
ton to ask for aid to help finance
part of his $240 million four year
development plan, thus. presenting
Washington with the problem.
* * *
JAGAN IS A self proclaimed
Marxist. In a recent speech in
New York he declared that he be-
lieved in a socialist form of econ-
omy, including national ownership
of the main means of production.
He plans to pursue a foreign policy
of "active neutralism." He has
also questioned the United States'
Alliance for Progress plan for
economic aid to Latin America
by saying that it "would not nelp
if certain reactionary business in-
terests . . . maintained the old
order of privilege and exploita-
As if that weren't questionable
enough he also married an Ameri-
can girl who was an alleged mem-
ber of the Young Communist
League while they were both stu-
dents at Northwestern University
during the 1930's, an event which
has added to Washington's sus-
picions of him.
* * *
BEFORE HIS Washington trip,
however, Jagan gave signs of mod-
erating his stand. He thinks i
is too early to think of national-
izing foreign investments in
Guiana. The United States has
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
'he USSR under Stalin attacked and -de-
lished Trygvie Lie because the UN acted
prevent a Communist take-over in South
ea. The USSR under Khrushchev attacked
mmarskjold because the UN refused to ig-
e the Hungarian and Tibetian bloodbaths,
ause the UN took positive police action in
Middle East, and, among other factors,
ause the UN police, force In ' the. Congo
ectly interfered with Russian subversive
s by not restoring Lumumba to power and
bringing some degree of stability to the'
HRUSHCHEV FAILED to annul the hard-
won strength of the UN while Hammar-
rjold was 'alive. But Hammarskjold is gone.
[ia untimely death has only hastened an all-
nportant question which would have emerged
'henever he left the Secretariat.
HERE WERE between four and five ,hun-
dred people at the Peace Assembly on the
fag Saturday. ,Looking around, I saw all the
d familiar faces - the three hundred-odd'
eople associated with the liberal' left, the
nes who would have -'come if the advertising
ad consisted of a two inch notice in the
ally Official Bulletin.
Then there was a handful of curiosity seek-
's,, an anti-assembly picketer with a sign
hich read "Those who ;;would rather be
ED than dead; you= couldn't have found a
etter way," and a girl who stood on the
Ige of the crowd talking to a friend about
ake-up. for Soph Show.
And where was the vast, uncommitted bulk
E the campus-the group whose lives depend
i world peace just as much as those of the
beral left? A couple of hundred, perhaps,
But thirty-one separate groups endorsed and
icouraged participation in the assembly.
here were the Young Republicans and Demo-
'ats? Where was the Wome1's League? Where
ere the housing units who supported the
I'm not sure. But the Undergraduate Library
as nearly full, with students too diligent to,
ke off an hour to listen to an argument for
ace and life in our world.
And as I walked through the basement of
e UGLI, I felt like telling them to' stay
iere-it is probably the best bomb shelter on
- THE CHAPTER MAY, however, be written
another way. Dag Hammarskjold was not
merely a tool of the West, for then he could
not have held the respect of the Afro-Asians.
Rather, he stood above the Cold War, acting
according to conviction against both East
and West. During the Suez crisis, for instance,
he was not exactly a welcome dinner guest
in either France or Britain,, He drew the ire
of Belgium over the Congo affair antl the re-
newed ire of France in the Bizerte incident.
Suppose U Thant follows in this tradition--
and there is some evidence that he might.
From the UN: rostrum, as Burma's chief
delegate, he has voiced leis opposition to
"pacific neutralism." Further, he will not be
burdened by the worthless troika system.
IF U THANT continues the Hammarskjold
policies, constantly strengthening the UN,
he will inevitably tange with the Russian
leadership. When Khrushchev begins bellow-
ing this time, however, he will be in quite a
different situation. For the first time, he will
be assaulting a member of the all-important,
self-sensitive Afro-Asian bloc.
This group raised only mild, vocal, support
in defense. of Hammarskjold because, after
all, Hammarskjold was merely a European.
The bloc did not even approach castigating
the Russians for their treatment of Hammar-
skjold in the manner it has castigated the
West for its colonial policies. But when one
of their own is in danger, however, they
draw their collective head out of the sand.
The Soviet Union might find itself under
serious attack. At the same, the UN will
become more firmly entrenched in its struggle
for power. Russia cannot afford to offend
the unaligned and will back off.
THANT, then, will have a very important
impact on the Cold War. Perhaps he will
kill the United Nations, which stands as a
last hope against the utter polarization of
world power. Perhaps he will strengthen the
'UN, while providing another troublesome ob-
stacle to the "advance toward Communism."
In any case, his tenure as Secretary-General
is certain to bring a change in the status quo.
H. NEIL BERKSON
SINCE I WAS the creator of the
War Vigil, I guess I had better.
explain to Barbara Greenstein
and the small minority of people
like her, just we we "clowns" were
demonstrating. It seems so ob-
vious to me that an organization
like the National Association for
the - Advancement of World Ten-
sion could not be seriously in fa-
vor of war, that I don't really see
why anybody couldn't figure out
why we where there.
Basically, we were there to try
and get people to see how ridicu-
lous the "Vigil for Peace' was. I
do not say that the cause they
were vigiling for was ridiculous,
but to try and convince people
of it by a vigil has little or no
effect. My reasons for believing
'this are stated below..
* * *
1) The Vigilers should have
tested their strength before boldly
exposing themselves to the public
eye. On thedfirst day of their
vigil, it should have been obvious.
to them that they had very little
support. I hardly saw enough white
arm bands to make a decent band-
2) Nobody is goin to do any-
thing about nuclear testing just
because a few college students
stand out in the cold. So what if
people stop and think about it
for awhile. It is action that counts
and if action does take place it
won't be because of the Peace
Vigil. It will take place only when
each person decides within himself
that it is time to act. This coun-
try is so apathetic that no minor-
ity group is going to convince
anybody of anything, even by mak-
ing fools of themselves on the
3) Anyone who read the litera-
ture that the vigilers passed out
probably noticed that it took them
two flowery paragraphs to get a
few simple ideas across. There is
only one reason f'or the use of
long sentences and phony, i-.
pressive words such as, "the spec-
ter of annihilation," and, "a tem-
porary abberation created by ten-
These people seem to want to
convince the world that they are
super righteous and great search-
ers for the truth. I am' amazed
at the number of people, not only
on the Peace Vigil but all over this,
campus, who seem to think that
since they are now in college and
have done so much thinking about
the world's problems, they are
capable of solving them. The worst
part is that these people are sure
they are right and want the whole
world to kriow it. If they get pun-
ished and laughed at, they feel
greater since they are then mar-
tyrs for the "right."
SO, YOU peace vigilers and
others like you who thly i you are
so right, go right on standing in
the cold with your minority
groups. Don't use any logical
methods of persuasion. because
then enough people might join
your ranks to take away the thrill
of being a punished martyr.
To the Editor:
AS I WALKED across campus,
last week, I was impressed by
the efforts of fellow-students in
their "Peace-Vigil." It seems that
idealism is not yet 'submerged kin
materialism and practical politics
and that someone is still trying
to improve the state of the hu-
Their stand under a national
flag and across from a library
gave the protest an added, sig-
nificance. I did not stand with
them but certainly as I walked by,
I also remained. I remained with
their concern and with their av-
prehension. I remained with their
efforts to civilize the savage.
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
TUESDAY, 'NOVEMBER 14, 1961
President and Mrs. Hatcher will hold
open house for students at their home
Wed., Nov. 15 from 4 to 6 p.m.
(Continued on Page 5) f
investments of $20-$40 million in
the country, chiefly in sugar.
Canada has $60-$100- million in
bauxite investments and Britain
has $400-$500 million invested in
the same mineral. The British are
obviously not too worried about
Jagan, since they have granted
him a loan of $22 million and
grants of $12 million.
Jagan has also said that he
would like to join the Organization
of American States. Most impor-
tant of all, he recently told the
American ambassador in George-
town, the capital of his country,
that he knows that he has a bad
reputation in Washington out he
would like to be judged on his
actions from now on. He has also
declared his respect for Guiana's
parliamentary and democratic
forms of government.
,SEVERAL WEEKS AGO Jagan
was in Washington, and among
others saw Secretary of State
. Dean Rusk and President John F.
Kennedy. The fact that he got
that far represents a sharp change
from the policy of the previous ad-
When the newly victorious Fidel
Castro came to the United States
in 1959 he was given what many
people consider the "brushoff" by
the Eisenhower administration.
Justifiably angered, Castro went
home and turned his attention to
the Soviet bloc which welcomed
him with open arms.
The Kennedy administration
realizes that this is what would
have happened if they had given
Jagan the cold shoulder when he
came asking for aid. The United
States has learned at least one
lesson from its experiences with
Castro; the way we had to learn
it was unfortunate.
The administration also knows
that Jagan will turn to the Com-
munist bloc if aid is not forth-
coming from Washington. Yet :f
the aid is granted, the numerous
critics of the administration and
foreign aid will claim that all we
are doing is helping a country
which will soon turn Communist.
TWO WEEKS AGO, back in
Guiana, Jagan told the Legislative
Assembly that the United States
had rejected two specific requests
for aid; $28 million for a develop-
ment program and funds for var-
ious specific projects.
According -.to the New York
Times some United States officials
denied this, saying that this coun-
try was prepared, tentatively, to
give Guiana a "modest" amount
of aid. The official also conceded
that no one was prepared to deny
that if Jagan threatened to go
to Moscow for aid, someone did
not tell him to go right ahead.
And on that indecisive note the
situation now rests.
.* * *
THE UNITED STATES does not
know enough about politics and
economics to be able to say that
it has a cure-all system for the
ills of any nation. In view of this
fact we should not employ the
giving of foreign aid as a weapon
to try to 'modify the political or
economic system of any nation.
Yet in effect this is what we will
be doing if we withhold aid frora
Guiana because of its polices.
in his inaugural address Presi-
dent Kennedy stated the best and
indeed the only reason for giving
aid; "Because it is right." Un-
fortunately, like so many of Ken-
nedy's declarations this has ob-
viously not been put into practice.
Cheddi Jagan is the legally
elected leader \of British Guiana.
The fact that he was overwhelm-
ingly elected in a three party race
indicates that the people of the
country want to live under a demo-
cratic socialist system. An out-
side party has no right to try to
change their preference.
THE TACT that Cheddi Jagan
stood on his beliefs while he was
here and did not come begging
like other leaders is definitely to
his credit. The fact that his pro-
gram of land and social reforms
includes the measures which other
Latin American nations will have
to adopt before they can solve
their problems should make his
receiving aid imperative.
AT HILL AUDITORIUM:
In Diverse Recital
SUNDAY AFTERNOON violinist Yehudi Menuhin performed with
consummate mastery to a near capacity audience. One could almost
expect a Menuhin recital to be virtually irreproachable as was this
one. He has been a concert artist for 47 years (since he was eight
years old). I am sure that as a child prodigy Mr. Menuhin was an
excellent violinist, but now he is somewhat more than an able
instrumentalist. He is a precise and superlative musician.
The program was diversified and intelligently planned. It seemed
surprising, however, that Menuhin, who has devoted much attention
to the music of Bach, did not choose to play anything written before
the time of Beethoven.
* * * *
FIRST ON THE PROGRAM was the Beethoven "Sonata in F
major," opus 24, which is not especially difficult and is most notable
for its treatment of the relationship between soloist and accompanist.
The piano part is on equal footing with the violin part throughout
the sonata. Mr. Menuhin and his accompanist, Roy Bogas, achieved
a sensitive balance when thematic material alternated between violin
and piano. The performance was extremely Careful, but by no means
pedantic. The very short Scherzo displayed Beethoven's wit in
rhythmic' discrepancies between the violin and piano. In general, the
piece was characterized by frequent unusual modulations.
Second was the "Fantasy for Solo Violin" by University resident
composer Ross Lee Finney, commissioned by Menuhin in 1958. The
work is reminiscent of Bartok to some extent. Its chromatic theme.
begins in D tonality and returns at the end, in the manner of the
first movement of Bartok's "Music for Strings, Percussion, and
Celesta." The organization and unification of the piece derives from
the use of the serial technique.
The performance of the "Solo Fantasy" required a great deal
of musicianship and technical skil.'Menuhin performed it extremely
well, the performance perhaps marred only by the inclusion of notes
that were not in the piece, in particular unintentional notes from
the open D string. Menuhin called Prof. Finney to the edge of the
stage to share in the applause. The work should become an important
part of solo violin literature.
* * * *
DEBUSSY'S "Sonata in G minor," his last completed work, was
next. Menuhin's rendition greatly enhanced the subtle beauties of
Despite the high standard of performance of the foregoing works,
Mr. Menuhin's performance of the Bartok "Roumanian Folk Dances,"
transcribed from the original piano version for violin and piano,
almost made one wish that he had played an all Bartok program.,
His tone became wonderfully darker and he infused the music with
much more expression than the notes seemed to suggest. Six dif-
ferent styles of Roumanian dances were represented.
The final piece was "La Campanella" by N. Paganini, which
is, musically speaking, milding ludicrous. However, Mr. Mennhin, by
virtue of his superb musicianship, was able to carry it off, making
it a showpiece for his prodigious technical ability.
The' audience required two encores: Debussy's "Maid With the
Flaxen Hair" and Wieniawski's "Scherzo-Tarantelle," of whicli the
latter would probably have made a better showpiece than the
Roy Bogas deseres special praise for having provided unerring
and unobstrusive accompaniment.
AT THE STATE-
Frankz Sinatra Isl
'Devil' of an8 ctor
"THE DEVIL at 4 O'Clock" is built around an erupting volcano, a
disillusioned priest and a hospital for leprous children. Only with
the expert assistance of Frank Sinatra could all this turn out dull.
Sinatra portrays one of three desperate (though likable) con-
victs in transit to a prison in Tahiti. Stopping overnight 'on a small
island, the criminals are enlisted by an old priest to help repair the
chapel at-the leper hospital.
The priest,brembittered by resistnce to his hospital and'the
boycott it has brought upon is church, is looked upon as a, nasty
old nuisance in.;the village and as' a saint by the hospital staff (a,
blind girl, an ex-prostitute and a dedicated doctor). Tracy, can't
seem to decide at times which image he wants to- project, and only
at rare moments does his considerable talent display itself.
The climax of the story comes when the volcano at the island's
center begins to rumble and cough up pink .lava. Unable to recruit
other assistance, the priest 'finally persuades Sinatra and friends t
bring the trapped children down the mountainside.
* * * *
THE RESULTING CLASH of man and -jungl isn't as excitng
as would seem likely, because the jungle doesn't put up much of a
fight. The priest, his faith in mankind restored, sends up a special
prayer for rain, and when the downpour comes to quench the burning
lava, the kids are home free.
Perhaps the grestest weakness in the picture is the presentation
of the desperadoes. One would gather from their actions that they
have been convicted for running an illegal bingo game or stealing
Sinatra, their spiritual leader, is at his evil best when he refers
to the island police as "cruds," but even during these bursts of naked
brutality there is a warm twinkle in his eye, and integrity in his
The film was obviously designed to appeal to anyone with a
taste for adventure, pretty girls, children, colorful special effects or
Frank Sinatra. After two 'hours, however, the appetite is dulled
The Great Charles Curse
,OM THE MOMENT their tickets were
purchased, those who attended last year's
lay Charles Concert were doomed to an ill-
ate-and their curse has not lifted yet.
They should have recognized from the first
hat this was no quick curse -that strikes fast,
hen goes away. After all, it was not until the
eccnd half of the show that they even sus-
>ected that Ray Charles was never to ma-
,True, half their ticket money was paid back
n the next few days. But the fate of the
Dther half remains unknown, and Morris
Richman, the booking agent for the show,
redicts that it may remain so for up to
to which musicians must belong if they expect
to get bookings.
Were the union to decide against Ray
Charles-and then he still refused to pay, the
musician's federation could effectively "black-
ball" him from the profession.
Consequently, the sponsors told their sad
tale to the union. In due time, Ray Charles
replied with his side of the story. Well over
six weeks ago both sides had turned in their
rebuttals-but, not a word has lsince been
,heard from the union.
E FEDERATION has all the information;
it now has only to make a decision. But
nothing has been done. No explanations for
the delay have been given. The case has
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