100%

Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue

Share

Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

November 11, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-11-11

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

"Mutations May Occur"

Atrigtgau Daily
Seventy-Second Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
- UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. " ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevall"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This mus t be noted in all reprints.'

SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 11, 1961

NIGHT EDITOR: HARRY PERLSTADT

The Peace Vigil:
Two Views

Matter of Action ... Matter of Balance...

* - 4 * ~.. 9 * -
. -.
" * * e * *
i. .
- *9-
t1LiLI- '- Q
t "-s
40 4- +- ยข- *s - . ,,
"- { -A 7 - * -
NUCLEAR FALLOUT:
Shadow2vf, over the Future

A GROU of kids hold a peace vigil on the
Diag-a petition for peace is circulated and
sent to Khrushchev by students in San Fran-
cisco-classes strike at Brandeis In protest
against nuclear testing in the atmosphere-
mothers in New York City demonstrate in front
of the Russian delegation's UN headquarters.
These incidents are the spark which may
ignite public reaction to combat the inertia of
a nation and a world headed towards war.
The American people do not want war. The
Europeans and the Russians, after experiences
with two world wars, want it even less. Yet
ever since 1945, the two opposing camps have
been following foreign policies which must
eventually bring them into some kind of
conflict, with the great possibility that it will
be the last.
The world situation has degenerated to the
point where neither side attaches much credi-
bility to the other's threats. Ultimately one
"of the participants will be forced to carry
out a threat to show it is not bluffing.
THE DECISION MAKERS have limited pos-
sible choices. Their decisions have to fall
within boundaries that they themselves have
established by decisions over the past 15 years.
If a country's foreign policy is based on the
policy of -military retaliation, it cannot easily
be changed to concentrate on an economic
offensive. The possibility that the time for
atiy kind of major policy change will be avail-
able getsslimmer every day.
The value of peace demonstrations lies in
their potential for forming a concerted effort
to mobilize large groups into a force strong
enough to combat the present inertia towards
war
AN ISOLATED INCIDENT here, and there
will be regarded as the work of a few
fanatics. Their motivations, no matter how
valid, will be disregarded. It is a characteristic
of human nature that people do not like
to work for something by themselves but pre-
fer to be, part of a movement.
But multiply this incident across the coun-
try with mass media coverage and it will
start people asking questions-just what needs
to be done, how it can be accomplished?
Somebody has to be first. But once the
basis for a peace movement is provided it
should-blossom into a nationwide protest,
stemming from the grass roots.
By the nature of our political system, de-
cision, makers are forced to keep an eye
on the moods of the public. Up to now there
has not been any particular mood. The people
and institutions which have a stake in the
continuation of the arms build-up, the mili-
tary and the armaments industries, have had
a clear opportunity to lead the decision makers
down a dangerous path. It is time that an
alternate route was provided.
THE CHIEF VALUE of such demonstrations
lies in their potential, but that is by no
means the only reason for conducting them.
They are positive proof that a sense of hu-
manity and concern for other human beings
has not left this country with the advent of
the bomb-shelter hysteria.
The campaign of the government and the
nation's press in favor of fall-out shelters
is making the American public accept the
idea that war is probably inevitable. Once they
fully accept the idea, war will be inevitable.
When one adds to the shelter craze the idea
of taking guns and killing other people seek-
ing shelter, one is tempted to lose all faith in
our ideals. The peace demonstrations are a
welcome, and 'necessary contrast.
DEMONSTRATIONS also have an effect on
our image overseas. Many people in other
nations have the idea of Americans either as
militantly for war or apathetic in the face
of current events. To have Americans demon-
strating for peace and against atmospheric nu-
clear testing along with people in other coun-
tries helps to offset this impression.
It is true that demonstrations in the United
States will have no effect on the Kremlin
unless they are first translated into policy
by Washington. One can say that even then
Khrushchev will do just as he pleases.
However, Western observers have recently
come around to the idea that he is beginning

to be aware of Russian public opinion. One
manifestation of this growing opinion took
place when students in Moscow university
would not let their teachers cancel a program
being presented by a group of American peace
marchers.
If the public gets behind the move for peace
in both countries then the chances of achiev-
ing it will improve markedly.
S0 THE NEXT TIME you go past the flag-
pole don't give a superior smirk. Those
kids are trying to start something that may
in in v i hin alive f a,. 'I,' 'pr, han + the'f

THIS WEEK, several students have been
freezing their toes on central campus, stag-
ing a vigil for peace. Similar vigils, and other
types of demonstrations, have been occurring
at scattered points across the nation; usually
their subject has been a more limited one-
opposition to nuclear testing, sometimes Rus-
sian, sometimes American, often both.
Another sort of demonstration will be held
on the Diag today. According to the plans,
there will be a' program consisting of a brief
religious service sand speeches by three Uni-
versity professors, all concerned with the prob-
lems of peace.a
After the main event, signatures will be
solicited for an anti-test telegram to President
John F. Kennedy and a petition, for a Uni-
versity course in the problems of peace.
These events have some merit. They mean
that every thoughtful person should take some
sort of stand about the problems of peace and
testing, problems too often dealt with by many
platitudes and little hard thinking.
If the purpose of such demonstrations-or
telegrams or petitions-is to influence Soviet
Premier Nikita S. Khrushchev, then they are
ridiculous. Khrushchev does what he wants,
and pays attention to public opinion only
when he wants to, especially if it is American.
What about a demonstration aimed at Ken-
nedy? The vigils and various wilder ideas and
statements of so-called "peaceniks" will be
ignored by Kennedy, and detract from the
"cause" of peace in the eyes of most con-
ventional Americans.
SUCH DEMONSTRATIONS as the campus
groups will stage today is of a more prom-
ising nature. First of all, the participants
won't be part of a so-called "lunatic fringe.'
the term with which most Americans dismiss
extreme liberal activitists.
This makes a difference-"average" people
will pay more attention to today's assembly.
The assembly's educational value will inform
the participants, enabling them to state their
position more effectively. It may also give
them the information for writing to Con-
gressmen, and even to Kennedy, advancing
their own arguments for the cause.
The assembly today is part of an attempt,
as it has been quaintly said, "to move peace
on this campus." Though the sponsors stress
that it will not be emotional in content, such
a meeting must take on some emotional char-
acteristics. It will be held on the Diag rather
than in a quieter auditorium. Many partici-
pants will view the matter emotionally, no
matter what the sponsors say. The addition of
religion makes for emotion. And, most of all,
the assembly will take place within a develop-
ing nation-wide emotional context.
The assembly can therefore generate both
emotional excitement and intellectual interest.
Are either a good thing? The answer lies within
an analysis of the nature of peace itself.
PEACE HAS BEEN defined as a "balance of
existential forces." The balance is ever
changing as the power of nations changes. A
new discovery, an epidemic, a brilliant gen-
eral, all can change the balance. War is the
forcible method to redress the balance-making
political arrangements conform to the new
situation. Politics is the peaceful method.
This definition springs from the nature
of man, avaricious, egocentric, self-seeking. It
assumes peace to be an absence of war; lack
of conflict and greed is just impossible, given
what nian is.
Peace is ensured by balancing forces against
one another, by making lack of peace un-
profitable to the peace breakers.
If demonstrations or assemblies have the
effect of inhibiting the balance by keeping
one nation from carrying out the policies
necessary to maintain it, then they don't serve
the cause of peace. A popular movement against
atmospheric testing might keep the United
States government from testing-at the very
time tests were needed to maintain the balance
of power and therefore peace.
Emotional action in this situation could
mean disaster. The balance of power cannot
be destroyed for sentimental hopes that peace
can be created in any other way. ;

On the other hand, an impetus is needed
if nations are seriously to seek a viable ac-
commodation that will cut off armed conflict.
In the United States, this is a political matter.
Information is first needed, and today's as-
sembly will have a favorable effect propor-
tional to the amount of information dissemi-
nated and absorbed.
The fact is that a real impetus for peace
can come only from a rational and know-
ledgeable appreciation of what peace is and
what its implications are.

By JILL HAMBERG.
Daily Starr Writer
"WHY are they just standing
there?"
"Well, what do they mean by
'Vigil for Peace'?"
"Aren't they cold?"
"Do they really think they're
accomplishing anything anyhow?"
A group of concerned individ-
uals, reacting in "shock and fear
over the spector of annihilation.
that looms today before hundreds
of millions of people throughout
the world," felt the need to ex-
press and demonstrate their pro-
test of Soviet nuclear testing and
to call upon the United States to
desist from resuming atmospheric
bomb tests.
From Monday to Friday between
9 a.m. and 5 p.m., they stood, of-
ten for several hours at'a time,
near a sign in front of the flag
pole, bearing the words "Vigil for
Peace."
* * *
THESE PEOPLE chose to show'
their conviction through the vigil,
a form of demonstration which has
been widely used since the early
days of Christianity. Its origins
can be found in the Middle Ages
when a watch in prayer and other
devotion was kept on the night
before a feast.
Vigils in recent times have been
held for more secular purposes,
although they still carry with
them an air of meditation and
sometimes prayer.
"Vigils are thought to be the
result of a basic response of the
human spirit to times of crisis
when people have sought. gui-
dance," states Mrs. Kenneth
Boulding, a participant in the cur-
rent vigil.
When vigils are compared to
other forms of protest demonstra-
tions, one finds that they exhibit
very distinctive characteristics.
Methods such as picketing and
mass rallies try to persuade people
by attacking their minds with slo-
gans, attempting to convince them
with a kind of passive force..
Vigils utilize symbolic communi-
cation to provoke individuals to
give thought and consideration
to the issue at hand.
* * *
SPEAKING FROM her exten-
sive vigiling experience, Mrs.
Boulding says they can reach two
levels of effectiveness. The first
involves the personal self -satisf ac-
tion that the "vigiler" receives
from participating in such action.
Equally important, the com-
munity reacts to the vigil. Here in
Ann Arbor, this response has taken
many forms ranging from com-
plete support to indignant dis-
dain. Mild amusement and indif-

LONG HISTORY:
Vigil: A Revived
Tactic for. Peace

ference were the most usual re-
actions to the current vigil.
Worse still, have been the sev-
eral anti-vigil vigils, or WAR Vig-
ils (as they have called them-
selves) sprung up across the path.
These were started in an attempt
to mock the more sincere Peace
effort.
This can probably be attributed
to most people's lack of familiarity
with such forms of expression
and broad skepticism as to the
purpose of the action and its tang-
ible results.
IT IS GENERALLY acknow-
ledged that supplementary educa-
tional materials and programs
must be used in conjunction with
a vigil if it is to be effective on
a community basis. At the Uni-
versity, the Friends Center, Bran-
deis Co-operative, and the Con-
flict Resolution Center, among
other places, are distributing in-
formation and literature.
Mrs. Boulding says the trend of
public opinion can have a marked
effect on government policy. For
instance, she feels President Ken-
nedy really doesn't want to re-
sume atmospheric nuclear testing.
The pressure for such action,
however, from the military and
other interest groups is consider-
able. There must be some Indica-
tion of popular 'opposition to the
resumptionpofutests shown, so that
Kennedy will have evidence that
the American public is against
such action.
* * *
SINCE WORLD WAR Ii, the
use of vigils as a political techni-
que has increased immeasurably,
as in the campaigns of Ghandi
and Bertrand Russell. Ins this
country, the Southern sit-in move-
ment has put vigils successfully
to use. Recently, the Quakers,
long associated with vigils have
revived their use in Peace demon-
strations.
The Peace Vigil just concluded
here represents the first large
scale demonstration of its kind
in Ann Arbor and the second, in-
stance of vigiling (several years
ago Prof. Boulding held a small
vigil).
IT APPEARS that vigils are
finding a perranent place in the
tactics and techniques of the peace
movement. It must be realized,
however,that their effectiveness
cannot be measured in quantitative
terms, and often results are long
delayed. The size of the turn-out
at this afternoon's Peace Assembly
in the Diag though, will be a fair
indication of the extent to which
the Vigil for Peace has affected"
the University Community..

4
ii
I

'I

By ROBERT SELWA
Daily Staff Writer
AFTER KHRUSHCHSV dropped
The Bomb, the Washington
Post and Times-Herald ran an
obituary notice on its editorial
page for the "unnumbered hun-
dreds of thousands" who will be
its victims.
These victims, the newspaper
asserted, "will die before their
time. will carry on beneath the
burdens of incurable disease they
otherwise never would have had.
Some born even a thousand years
from now, will bear the mark of
this beast."
THE PUBLIC Health Service,
on the other hand, has said that
there is no cause now for "undue
public concern"sabout the hazards
of radiation but that present fall-
out levels warrant continuous and
intensive surveillance.
Atmospheric nuclear tests are
apparently causing more worry
than harm-so far. But the suf-
fering of humanity due to in-
creased radiation will be spread
over the years and generations to
come, if they continue.

RADIATION is a movement of
energy from one place to another
which can not be seen, felt, tasted,
smelled or heard. Its presence can
be detected only by instruments.
When radiating particles pass
through living plant or animal
cells, they disturb the delicate
chemical balance, and can change
the normal life processes or kill
the cell.
Test bomb explosions and nu-
clear piles produce radiation that
can damage human life in several
ways.
Strontium 89 and 90, constitu-
ents of radioactive fall-out, col-
lects in the bones like calciuni and
produce bone tumors.
Iodine 131 collects in the thy-
roid gland and can damage them.
Cesium 137 spreads over the en-
tire body.
Radioactive carbon 14 is be-
lieved to be able to get into the
molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid,
which governs the process of
heredity.
VERY HIGH doses of radiation
as in the area of a nuclear bomb
exploded at low altitude-destroy
the central nervous system and
bause death in a few hours.

FIRE STORMS:
No Shelter in Cities

By ROBERT FARRELL
Daily Staff Writer
CIVIL defense shelters in large
cities are no good, a Rocke-
feller Institute scientific report in-
dicates.
Against little bombs-atomic or
small hydrogen devices- they are
a great protection to the popula-
tion. But if there is a big- bomb
attack on the United States, shel-
ters would give little aid to any-
one.
EVEN IF A relatively small 20-
megaton bomb were to be used on
New York, six million of the city's
DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 11
General Notices
Concert: Yehudi Menuhin, Violinist,
will be presented in the sixth concert
in the Choral Union Series Sun., Nov.
12, at 2:30 p.m. in Hill Aud.
A limited number of tickets are
available at the offices of the Univer-
sity Musical Society in Burton Tower
Saturday until 11:45 a.m. and on Sun-
day after 1:00 p.m. at the Hill Aud.
box office.
Women's Research Club will meet on
Mon., Nov. 13, at 8:00 p.m. in the West
SConference Room, Rackham Bldg. Mrs.
Kenneth Pike will talk on "Some Lin-
guistic Research and the Bilingual
Schools in Peru."
Summary of Action Takel by Student
Government Council at its Meeting of
November 9, 1961
Approved: Minutes of previous meet-
ing.
Adopted: Motion to suspend the rules
to make seating of new members the
first order of business following offi-
cers' reports.

eight million inhabitants-shel-
tered or not-would die, many
from asphyxiation rather than the
direct effects of the bomb.
The primary danger is what
scientists call "fire storms"-
found primarily in forest fires and
similar natural phenomena, physi-
cist Thomas Sonier's report says.
This "storm" is created when
many small fires are concentrated
in one area with a certain critical
amount of inflammable material
per acre. The fire's heat sends the
air directly over them upwards,
and causes tremendous winds
from all directions into the area.
These winds fan the flames un-
til the entire area is ablaze-but
the actual burning is not the
worst danger to humans (or ani-
mals in a forest fire). Instead, as-
phyxiation threatens - the fire
burns so thoroughly that there is
not enough oxygen left in the at-
mosphere to breathe. And what
there is is in the higher levels of
the atmosphere, since the com-
busion products, particularly car-
bon monoxide-are heavier than
oxygen.
Also, the heat reaches, many
thousands of degrees-even with-
out the effects of the bomb's fire-
ball itself.
* * *
FIRE STORMS are known to
have actually hit large cities only
twice in history. Once was in an
air raid on Hamburg during World
War II, once the atomic bombing
of Hiroshima. Both occurrences
confirmed the report's conclusions.
If the 100-megaton bomb that
Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrush-
chev has bragged of were to be
used on an American city, it would
cause fire storms throughout an
area 140 miles in diameter.
* * *
THIS NEW report on the effects
of massive nuclear bombing leaves
open questions of national policy.
If the United States were to
support so-called "hard" shelters

High doses that are less than
lethal produce blood and intes-
tinal disorders such as leukemia
and other cancer, ulcers or loss
of hair.
Radiation injury has been found
to be difficult to treat, although
some success . has been achieved
with antibiotics (to prevent sec-
ondary infection) and blood trans-
fusions.
* * *
WITH LOW DOSES, the inher-
itance mechanism is the most
sensitive of all the biological pro-
cesses, according to the National
Research Council of the National
Academy of Sciences.
Mutations in genes, the instru-
ments of heredity, are almost in-
variably harmful when caused by
radiation. However, these mutated
genes are usually recessive, the
Council found. Thus, in combina-
tion with a dominant gene they
usually will not cause harm. But
from generation to generation, and
they will continue to be passed on
will eventually emerge, causing the
premature death or the handicap-
ped life of a descendant or pre-
venting his ability to have the
normal number of children.
* * -*
ANY RADIATION DOSE, how-
ever small, can induce some mu-
tations. There seems to be no min-
imum dose to be exceeded before
mutations occur.
Radiation absorbed over long
periods adds up, and the damage
is cumulative.
Exposure to moderate levels of
radiation shortens life expectancy.
Radiologists live five years less
on the average than other phy-
sicians. Radiation apparently low-
ers immunity to disease, damages
tissue and leads to premature ag-
ing, in the process of shortening
life expectancy.
Of the producers of beta rays.-
iodine 131, strontium 89 and 90,
and cesium 137-strontium 90 is
stressed most often in releases
about the danger of test explo-
sions.,
Strontium 90 is one of the more
abundant fission products, and
it is carried up into the atmos-
phere and spread over the entire
earth after a test explosion. It has
a half-life of 25 years, making
it a strong radiator that stays
active for a long time. (A half-
life is the period of time required
for a substance to lose half its
radioactivity.)
* * *
FALL-OUT from the current
Soviet tests is expected to increase
the amount of radioactive stron-
tium 90 in children's bones in the
northern hemisphere by as much
as-or more than-50 per cent,
This is below the danger limit
suggested by the International
Commission for Radiological Pro-
tection. But to set such a ceiling
is illogical, for any exposure to
radiation can cause damage.
Radioactive material does not
come down from the atmosphere
in a uniform, predictable pattern,
but is concentrated in areas in
which there is much rain. This
factor would be particularily sig-
nificant in the event of a nu-
clear war.
FROM THE MANY factors and
statistics involved, it is possible to
draw these general conclusions:
The effects of the current at-

By WALTER LIPPMANN
THE SOVIET nuclear explosions,
which have been in the open
air, have posed the question ,of
our resumption of testing in the
open air. The President's state-"
ment of Nov. 2 'deals with this
question and, so it seems to me,
defines it accurately.
Since the Soviet Union has bro-
ken off the negotiations for a
treaty, the United States must
decide for itself whether, when,;
how, and how often it needs to
conduct open air tests in order to
protect its vital interests and its
essential responsibilities. These
decisions, have to be made here
in Washington. They cannot ,be
made by the United Nations in
New York because the United Na-
tions cannot meet our paramount
responsibility should we become
unable to meet it. I
Our paramount responsibility is
to maintain the nuclear force
needed' to preserve without sques-
tion the nuclear balance of power.
If we do that, co-existence will
continue to be practised and a
world war will continue to -vbe
highly improbable. We can, there-
fore, never take the chance of
losing the race of armaments, and
the question of testing must be
decided by that criterion.
THIS IS, as I understand, the
position taken by the President.
He will resume testing in the
open air if and as it is necessary
to the maintenance of our "rela-
tive position." He will not resume
testing in order to make a big
noise, or propaganda or psycho-
logical warfare. He will not, I take
it, order a test because some group
of nuclear scientists and weapons
makers have had a, bright idea
which they would like to try out.
If the United States tests in the
air, it will be only because it
deems the tests essential to main-
tain the balance of power.
This means that the decisions
will have to be made by the Presi-
dent, that they cannot be made

TODAY AND TOMORROW:
The U.S. Position
On Nuclear Testing

of our own tesinological capa-
bility. Also, he knows, what our
best intelligence believes about
affairs in the Soviet Union.
In preparing for these decisions
the President should, it seems to
me, make a searching study of
the record of the advice given to
President Eisenhower and to.Con-
gress and to the public during the
past few years. That record would
throw light on where among the
experts and civilian insiders he,
should look now for advice.
The record since 1955, which is
when the Soviet Union tested suc-
cessfully a hydrogen bomb, is not
a happy. one. For in these years,
when our postion has been that
we would rather have no nuclear
treaty if it was not perfect and
foolproof, the Soviet Union, which
was way behind us in 1955, be-
came a great nuclear power.
To be sure, it is not nearly so
great a power as we are. The re-
cent tests are an admission by
the Soviet Union that they are
far behind us. But the Soviet
Union is already a sufficiently
great nuclear power to hold up
its end in the balance of terror,
It is strong enough to have cie
ated a stalemate in which we, who
possess superior power, are still
not able to use nuclear power as
an instrument of diplomacy.
The Soviet Union has been com-
ing up from behind. Tn general, it
is almost certainly true that the
more tests there are by both nu-
clear powers, the more the gap-
which is now in our favor-will
tend to close.
THIS WILL BE a consideration
of the greatset importance as the
President makes his decisions.
There is no doubt that he must
test if and when it is clear to
him that our relative position Is
involved. But these occasions will
be -comparatively rare. There are
likely to be many more times when
the issue is not clear, when it
would be merely interesting and
fltnfl'9l fl in+ R. +0+.,' h an +ae.+nr

A

Back to Top

© 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan