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November 09, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-11-09

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aj4g 33d43faf tIZZ
Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. " ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

"4Think We Should Consider A Falling-Ohut Shelter?"
dOtA lj

Exam Headaches-
Fast Fast Relief?

IT IS TIME the legislature killed state higher
education outright, rather than slowly.
strangling it to death with inadequate funds
and a thoroughly inadequate educational at-
"I am wondering why Wayne State Univer-
sity jus't doesn't go ahead and raise tuition
without this attempt to get more money from
the legislature," incredible Rep. Arnell Eng-
strom (R-Traverse City) said. Tuesday. "If
they need the money that much, they can
get it that way."
Now Rep. Engstrom is Chairman of the
House Ways and Means Committee, and a
man with no small say in state university
appropriations. He is a man who should be
aware of the purpose of state higher education.
But from comments like this, it would appear
that he has absolutely no idea of the ap-
propriate function or goal of ,a state univer-
UNLESS the state university .can offer nom-
inal cost, high-quality education to all
qualified residents, it is not fulfilling its
original and proper function.
Wayne has managed to come close to this
ideal for the past few. years by the skin of
its institutional teeth. While retaining very
reasonable admissions standards, it built up
fine faculties. in many departments. It has
remained a state service: institution while
steadily raising its quality-as long as the
money held out.
BUT WITHOUT MONEY it cannot continue.
As even the legislature must have heard by
this time, there was a baby boom during the
Second World War, and those babies are hit-
ting the colleges this year.
Without diastically increased state appro-
priations; school after school is sucked into
the never-ending spiral of tuition raises-and
with each raise another set of qualified stu-
dents are forced out because they cannot af-
ford education.
THE MONEY PINCH has hit the University
as well as Wayne, but the University's prob-
lems are a little different.
A complete system of state higher education
should include one nationally-oriented, extra
high-quality institution. California has Ber-
keley; Michigan, for the moment, has the
University. This university should provide mass
education as well as quality teaching and re-


INSTEIN, Magazine Editor

But ,the money crisis has left the University
with a peculiar responsibility. It must retain
its quality as a state institution--even at the.
expense of its duty to the citizens. The Uni-
versity has been forced to raise tuition "tem-
porarily" well beyond the "nominal" limit,
and it will probably be forced to raise it yet
again this year. It has begun to turn away even
qualified Michigan residents, for lack of room.
EVERY TIME limited funds force a tuition
boost, something is lost-a certain number
of excellent students who can no longer afford
the cost, and a certain part of an educational
Because the state must have a quality insti-.
tution, the University's action is justifiable.
But were Wayne to take the same action, it
would deny its function as a state university.
Wayne has been a service institution for
many years-designed, located, oriented to-
ward fulfilling the need for mass education.
If the money to continue its rise toward really
high quality is not forthcoming from the
legislature, Wayne will have to sacrifice qual-
ity if it is to continue to provide mass educa-
But this is an awfully lot to ask of any
institution. Wayne is dedicated to providing
mass education, but it would also like to
maintain its quality and raise it if possible.
That means it needs money, and this must
come either from tuition boosts or increased
If Wayne has to raise all the money it needs
through a series of tuition boosts, it will de-
feat the educational ideal it has fulfilled so
well for many years. If the legislature is willing
to force Wayne* into this position, they are
giving short-sighted and tacit approval to the
rapid decline of higher education in this state.
THE TIME has come for the Michigan state
legislature to make a philosophical decision
--and that's a horrifying prospect. The prob-
lem goes far deeper than this year's pathetic
plea from each university, and this year's
probably even more pathetic appropriation.
The ideal of quality, mass education in
Michigan is being lost in misunderstanding
and crippling appropriations. If the legislature
wants to scrap this ideal, and the system with
it, it should do so consciously and accept the
responsibility for the death of a fine state
educational system.

Angolan Atrocities Remain

Daily Staff Writer
THE HORROR of three final
exams in the first two days of
the exam period may be eliminated
by new proposals now before the
executive committee of the literary
A letter including problems of
the present system, and alterna-
tive solutions has been drawn up
by the literary college steering
committee, which will discuss the
issues at an open meeting this
- -
posedly a time for the student
and instructor to evaluate the
student's grasp of his material
and allow him to correlate ma-
terial within each course and all
his courses, the steering commit-
tee says.
At present, the first semester
has fifteen weeks of classes with
a one day reading period, and a
twelve day exam period in which
exams are given at the rate of
two a day on ten of the days.
The second semester has four-
teen and a half weeks of classes
with a two day reading period
(beause Memorial Day falls be-
tween the last day of classes and
the regular one day reading per-
iod) 'and an exam period similar,
to that of the first semester.
In the present system, there is
no protection against exessive
concentration of exams in a stu-
dent's schedule.
uation and correlation, the letter
says. The present system, it adds,
fails to fulfill the stated purposes
of the exam period, because exams
bunch up and there is little time
between classes and exams. The
sampling of the student's know-
ledge is not fair since the student
will probably not perform at his
best under intense pressure.
The major question In the let-
ter is "Does the present method
of scheduling make the best pos-
sible use of the exam period?"
The steering committee says no,
and suggests two alternatives to
the present system:
The first is a six day reading
period after fourteen weeks of
classes with the rest of the exam
schedule as it is at present. The
reading period would provide time
for correlation, conferences, and
outside reading that might be en-
countered, though not required.
* * *
Second is the "stagger system."
It entails fourteen weeks of classes
followed by a three day reading
period. The exams would be given
three a day every other day.' (Two
of the three periods, would be al-
lotted to the same class hour so
no student could have more than
two exams in one day, and would
have at least a one day break
between exams.)
The stagger system would in-
corporate most of the advantages
of the reading period. The free
days would provide study time for
students and sufficient grading
time for faculty.
The trimester system would not
alter the purposes of final exams,
the report states. However, prob-
lems would be intensified by the
contraction of the semester..
* * *
IN 1954, 1957 and 1958, faculty
committees prepared reports on,
the justfication for final exams,
the effectiveness of the {present
system and the merits of a read-

ing period. The literary college
steering committee, students who
advise the Associate Dean of the
college, have been considering the
problem since last spring.
The committee's proposals pro-
vide workable alternatives to the
present exam period, which is
often a nightmare instead of a
meaningful time to review and
interpret material.
* * *
EVEN IF the exam period can-
not be lengthened, many of the
same principles can be applied to
the present exam weekly to al-
leviate congestion.
Some attempt should be made
In scheduling to scatter the exams
of commonly elected hours (such
as 10 and 11 o'clock on Monday.)
Faculty and student discussion
will strengthen the proposals now
before the executive commnittee.
Students should take advantage
of this opportunity to relax, a time
which is unfortunately over-


S#o the



Outcome at the U.N.

THE OUTCOME at the UN in New York,
now that U Thant of Burma has been
elected Secretary General, is very much better
than many of us thought possible immediately
after the death of Dag Hammarskjold. It
looked then as if the Soviet Union would
insist on the troika-three co-equal Secre-
taries General-and would use its veto to
prevent the election of any one Secretary
This has not happened. The Soviet Union
has receded from the troika principle, even
in the attenuated form of three deputies who
would have to be unanimous before the Sec-
retary General could act. The settlement was
arrived at in New York after six or seven
weeks of quiet and very skillful diplomacy.
It leaves U Thant free to name his own advisers
and free, after a careful attempt to get agree-
ment among them, to make his own decisions.
Constitutionally and morally, U Thant is free
to be as independent as Dag Hammarskjold
THE PREDOMINANT VICE of the troika as
applied to the Secretary General of the UN
is not that it would introduce the principle of
the veto and of unanimity into the adminis-
tration of the Secretariat. The principle is al-
ready there because the United Nations is an
organization in which the great powers have,
not merely as a matter of law but by the
fact of their power, a veto on the actions of
the UN. They can always frustrate an action
even if, they have been overruled.
Dag Hammarskjold, with his extraordinary
diplomatic skill, was able to do many things
that the Soviet Union could have prevented had
it at the time thought it vital to do so. In
Laos, in Palestine, and in the early phase of
the Congo, the Soviet Union's inherent power
of the veto was not exercised. But at the
turning point in the Congo, the power of veto
was set in motion by the Soviet Union. Were
Dag Hammarskjold alive today he would be
bound to recognize the reality of this veto.
THE REAL VICE of the troika is that it

position in an international controversy. This
knowledge enables him to mediate. Without
this confidential relationship he would have
to rely on public declarations, which are in
fact often quite different from the true nego-
tiating position.
HE NEGOTIATIONS in New York have pre-
served the greatest function of the Secre-
tary General, which is to be the mediator.
How was this done? It was done by the mass
of the small, weak, and unaligned countries
who rallied to the United Nations because it
is their only means of playing a self-respect-
ing part in international affairs. U Thant
is from Burma, one of the nations to which
the UN is a primary interest, not as with
the great powers, a secondary matter. This
means that he comes to his task with a
strong impulse to make the United Nations a
going concern.
Mr. Adlai Stevenson would be the last, I
imagine, to call the result of the part he
played a victory over the Soviet Union. A
really good diplomat does not go in for vic-
tories even when he wins them. For - the
essence of a diplomatic success is that the
contenders can accept the result without loss
of face. A good diplomat, like the old Chinese
warlords, never destroys the last bridge over
which the enemy could retreat. What Mr.
Stevenson has done these past six weeks is to
use the influence of the United States to help
the weaker nations save , the UN. Only a
wise, experienced, patient, and self-effacing
man could have done it.
Nobody can possibly predict how, in the
unforeseeable conglomeration of events, U
Thant will act. No doubt he will seek to mediate
conflicts as, when, and if he can get com-
bined support of the USSR and the USA.
How this combined support will work out de-
pends ultimately on whether the East-West
tension increases or is reduced.
U Thant comes to this crucial problem as
a diplomat and scholar who has read and
pondered history in a long perspective. He

Daily Staff Writer
IT IS QUIET now in Angola.
And while the native rebels
are regrouping their forces, 20,000
Portugese troops are clamping the
lid on any hint of an uprising, and
the Portuguese government is
foisting off on the Western world
a misrepresentation of the terror
and atrocities, which have not
abated, in Angola.
A public relations firm in New
York, for a fee of $1 million from
Portugal dictator Antonio Sala-
zar, is telling Americans of the
brutal murders of about 1,000
Portuguese by Angolans in the
riots last February. The firm will
continue to tell the United States
what the press media here have
been saying: that here is another
instance of a Communist-inspired
barbaric frenzy, and that black
mobs such as these are therefore
incapable of self-government.
THESE CLAIMS are partly true.
Unfortunately, they do not tell
the whole truth; the remaining
parts of the Angolan story have
come out only from a few strag-
gling missionaries and refugees,
who have shown that the real.
blame falls on the Portuguese for
their operations of forced labor,
restriction of educational oppor-
tunities and suppression of civil
rights in Angola.
Angola is essentially an agri-
cultural country. Although it is
14 times as large as its "mother"
country, it is often faced with a
shortage of good land for cer-
tain crops, usually coffee.
As a result, the Portuguese es-.
tablished a system by which the
natives have to prove theircapi-
bility for production in order to
be granted the right to own land.
HOWEVER, this permit (Modelo
J) is apportioned on a most harsh
and unfair basis. European plan-
tation owners, reluctant to give
up part of their holdings, fre-
quently bribe government officials
.to ignore the Africans' qualifica-
tions and 'thus allowed to pre-
empt land rightfully belonging to
the natives.
For example, one requirement
is that an African with 5,000 cof-
fee plants is eligible to be classed
as a private farmer. Yet cases
were found where natives with up
to 12,000 were still waiting to be
heard for the Modelo J.
* * *
golans who are unable to obtain
this permit are subject to forced
labor. They work under the most
harsh of conditions. The coffee
harvest lasts for six months, the
first three of which are devoted
to picking the beans, the second
three used to separate bad beans
after they are passed through a
mechanical sheller. Wages are
about 35 cents a day. The Af-
ricans are not permitted to stay
in a town for more than one
Non-permit holders between the
ages of 18 and 55 are eligible, to be
"contract labor," which is a
euphemism for this crude ex-

and young children are also forc-
ed to participate as "contract la-
bor." At times mother and child
are separated, working on dif-
ferent plantations. Women are
sometimes compelled to work on
road projects.
This sort of environment is not
exactly conducive to healthy moral
standards, and many girls are mo-
tivated to prostitution. The usual
practice is not to give women and
children a wage, but a "tip" at
the end of the season. In the
past this gratuity has amounted
to as little as $2.00
this sadism as a vicious circle.
Africans are unable to escape the
labor without an education; they
are too poor to obtain an educa-
tion; the only way to attain capital
is with an education.
Illiteracy among the Angolans
is 99 per cent. There are two high
schools there, each with 800 stu-
dents. Two students in each are
The grade school education that
does exist is handled by govern-
ment-subsidized Catholic missions.
But this instruction is not free,
and the cost is usually prohibitive
to Angolans. The instruction is
carried out under an ominous Por-
tuguese statute:
"In the teaching of .special sub-
jects, such as history, the legiti-
mate Portuguese and patriotic
sentiments are to be taken into
are generally unknown and un-
disseminated, due to complete
Portuguese censorship. Everything
from the daily newspapers to re-
ligious pamphlets is checked. Cri-
tical comment elicits banning and
reprisals. No foreign newsmen are
The PIDE (Portugal political
pblice) also help to suppress civil
rights. According to a recent ar-
ticle in' Nation, the secret police
is continually uprooting and ar-
resting nationalists. Police bait
and insult Africans on the street,
and in one instance an eight-year-
old child was struck and killed
with a rifle butt..
IT WAS THESE conditions, and
not the incidental clamorings of
a mob, which sparked the first
uprising in Angola last February.
This revolt was against the typi-
cally harsh practices of an agri
cultural program. Africans looted
stores and attacked missions; sev-
eral whites were killed.
Portuguese retaliation was swift.
Troops were sent to crush the
rebellion, and aided by bombing
on the villages, put a quick end to
the attack. True to form, nothing
concerning the revolt was printed,
but most reports indicated that
thousands of Africans were killed
in the counterattack.
One Portuguese official was sent
from another colony to report on
the situation, and concluded that
the Africans had just cause in re-
belling. He was soon recalled to
Lisbon, and has not been heard
from since.

now-famous massacre of Portu-
guese settlers was launched. An-
golans brutally attacked defense-
less women and children, and
those who were not killed out-
right were tortured.
Portugal then once again gave
a similarly barbaric version of the
"white man's burden." The rein-
forced militiawas given absolute
power, and proceeded to install a
reign of terror. ,
Bombing was done on a much
more intensified scale. Estimates
as to African casualties centered
around 50,000, with 130,000 refu-
gees fleeing to the Congo. Thou-
sands of Angolans were arrested,
and by some not-so-mysterious
process room was always available
in prisons, and very few prisoners
seemed to return to their families.
The worst atrocity of all was
the Portuguese destruction of the
missions, which were probably the
only restraining influence on the
Angolan rioters. Malcolm McVeigh,
a Methodist missionary who stayed
there until June, reports that out
of 167 pastors and teachers in one
region, 21 were killed, 26 are still
held in prison by the Portuguese
and 76 are missing. It seems the
troops had "mistakenly" conclud-
ed that the missions had cooper-
ated with the rebels.
THE SITUATION at present is
much the same as the aftermath
of the big riots. News is still sup-
pressed; hundreds of Africans are
held in custody without charges
and without a trial date; forced
labor continues. Portugal has made
only slight concessions, and the
authorities still deny that anything
is remiss.
But the avalanche is clearly'~
ahead. There is some guerilla ac-
tivity now, and two underground
movements are regrouping and or-
ganizing in the Congo. It is dif-
ficult to ascertain their potency,
but in the period between March
and August 1959, more than 200
underground nationalists were ar-
rested. Perhaps this is some nu-
merical indication of the revolu-
tionary strength, and the moral
fervor is certainly at a peak.
IT IS OBVIOUS that if trends
remain unchanged, violence is im-
minant. It is equally obvious that
this bloody clash should be averted
if possible.
The United States, whose hands
have not been clean in the affair,
ran redeem itself by influencing
the course of events toward a more
desirable end.
First of all, it should insist that
Portugal return arms supplied by
the North Atlantic Treaty Organ-
ization for its troops in Angola.
The United States at the time did
not protest this use of arms which
it supplied to NATO, but can
easily arrange to evict Portugal
from the alliance if the very hu-
manitarian and justifiable demand
is ignored.
Second, it should insist on the
immediate release of all political
prisoners and clergymen. Among
those missionaries still in cus-
tody without charge are four

To the Editor:
LAST SATURDAY, a letter from
one Kermit Krueger comment-
ed that it wounded his asthetic
feelings to see the large yellow
edifice on the Diag. He alluded
to the fact that the elections of
the Student Government Council
should be a rather mundane af-
fair, instead; of, the unIversally
experienced all-out'rally.
Of course, we might well as-
sume that Mr. Krueger and his
mighty "band," are equally as of-
fended by the elephant of the
Republican party and that he is
probably wondering how best to
destroy that Image. (May we sug-
gest that keeping peanuts from it
might do quite well-and be a bit
more humanitarian than total an-
nihilation.) The Democratic Party
has also opened itself for Mr.
Krueger's wrath-In this case, car-
rot stoppage would do the' trick.
* * *
PERHAPS Mighty Krueger'fail-
ed to see the significance to our
innocent "plin." Our aim was
not to create a farce of the im-
portance of the elections; rather,
it was to bring to the attention
of the campus the fact that there
was indeed an election and to
post the platforms and the com-
poits of those people interested
enough to run.
'You must admit, prior to its
"unveiling," that the plin ful-
filled its purpose, by drawing at-
tention. The publicity techniques
used were 'designed to interest
persons to investigate the plat-
forms of the candidates, and to
bring to the campus some of the
spirit so long missing.
Perhaps this campus does not
need plins as such, but there is
certainly; ONE plin of which it is
worth taking note . . . disciPLINe.
"Like all trees, as they face win-
ter, the plin has lost its leaves;
luckily, the foundation remains."
... as a reminder, of the splendor
that once was.
-Barbara Perlma, '62Ed.,
Elections Director
-Judy Lusk, '62
Public Relations, Elections



Arms and the Women,
THE BEST THING about Shaw's "Arms and the Man" is its title
(and that's Virgil).
It is getting to be a pretty creaky old battle wagon, what with
Balkan politics not a subject of much mirth these days, but has
just enough Shavian wit to oil the axles. It is, nevertheless, still
a vehicle for actors with enough polish and style to bring it off. In
the usual Shaw battle of Women vs. Man, the distaff side won with
a three-to-one victory. The three women in the cast formed a
brigade that swept the men (with one notable exception) off the
Raina is a role for an actress of great charm, beauty and wit...
she is a challenge to any player and an inspiration to a good one.
Sherry Levy (who is herself the distaff side of a fine acting team)
is much better than good, and she used every gesture, every turn
of line, every nuance of meaning to bring her character across the
It was quite a feat to see her turn badly handled lines from
her leading man into laughs by the timing and the inflection of
her answers.
HENRIETTA KLEINPELL was a wonderfully screwloose mother,
letting her ignorance add to the laughs of the show by carefully timed
"double takes." Her energy matched Mrs. Levy's and that's saying
a lot.
Perhaps she was too beautiful to really be Raina's mother, but
her handling of the role showed a sure hand at projecting both
maturity and at the same time the vapid humor of the woman. She
and Mrs. Levy were an unbeatable combination, especially in the
opening scene where they are forced to carry a none-too-interesting
plot line.
Bruno Koch, lest you think I am unduly favoring the women,
played to the hilt the old pot-bellied stove of a sputtering Major. His
entrance was a masterpiece of comic makeup and beautifully exag-
gerated characterization.' His entire performance was a sheer delight
4: 4 -1.. ..:. - T w-. I --.t.. s *rr 'L. Sim 'L. 3 ' nY. '.iiY.




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