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October 11, 1961 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-10-11

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Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
"Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
TruthWiPeai" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. 0 ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241

EUROPEAN COMMON MARKET:
Stress in Economic Combination

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff uriters
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

-..--r-,

WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 11, 1961

NIGHT EDITOR: ROBERT FARRELL

YR Con-Con Proposals
Endanger Education

THE MICHIGAN FEDERATION of college
Young Republican Clubs has sent delegates
of the constitutional convention a list of sug-
gestions ranging from a four year gubernatorial
term to changes in the control of higher edu-
cation.
The YR's suggestions on higher education
deal with the governing boards of the state-
supported schools and a budgetary coordinating
board. Although they suggest that the con-con
maintain the constitutional status of state-
supported schools, the YR's ask that members
of the governing boards of each of the state-
supported schools "be appointed by the legis-
lature."
HE STATE LEGISLATURE is a highly poli-
tical body seething with partisan dissen-
tion. To entrust to a small group of politicians
the right to select the Regents who determine
the educational policies of this University is
insane. I shudder to think of the possibility
(however remote) of several straight party
members being, appointed (or retired) to the
position of Regent.,
Partisan politics should remain outside the
University community as much as possible.
Perhaps even the present system of running
for Regent on a party ticket should be changed
to election on a non-partisan ballot. The
State Legislature and political parties should
be concerned with higher education in the
'same manner that an aware citizen is con-
cerned. But the politics of the Legislature
should not have a direct influence over the
University through appointment of Regents.
ACADEMIC FREEDOM and the strength of
higher education rests upon free discus-
sion and "fearless sifting and winnowing" of
ideas. Higher education should be able to
investigate all problems from any direction
without political or economic sanctions.

The, right to dissent and question is the
force which strengthens our nation and leads
to progress. A proposal which can lead to state
control of higher education would seriously
hinder progress and degrade the University.
BUT, as if that were not enough, the YR's
also suggest that a coordinating board be
established "to investigate completely the an-
nual budgets of the state-supported colleges
and universities before they are submitted to
the Legislature." State aid to education is not
sufficient and, acting together, the state col-
leges could obtain more funds. But the pos-
sibility of economic choice shifting from the
particular institution to the impersonal board
is great.
Where is this great Republican "individual-
ism" that is talked about across the land?
The YR's say each state-supported school
should have its own governing board (a status'
currently enjoyed only by the University, Michi-
gan State and Wayne State). If' each college
has a specific educational function to fulfill,
if each college should be wholly autonomous,
then why should each college filter its finan-
cial problems through a coordinating board?
The YR's leave the specifics of this board
to tlie con-con. But could a representative from
the University justify a need for a new music
school to a junior college which is seeking
more funds to enlarge its vocational shop
program? Such dissention in the board could
get even worse. What if the Legislature ap-
proaches the board and says, Here is $X bil-
lion for higher education. Split it up among
yourselves? The situation would be as bad
as it is now.
It is better for each college to seek its
own funds and unite when each feels the
necessity, than to form a coordinating board
which, in the end, represents no real progress.
--HARRY PERLSTADT

By RONALD WILTON
Daily Staff Writer
THE ENGLISH CHANNEL was
bridged yesterday at a table
in Paris as Great Britain sat down
with France, West Germany, Italy,
Belgium, the Netherlands and
Luxemborg to negotiate the fu-
ture of Western Europe.
The event was the start of the
"preliminary" talks to consider
and discuss the terms of Britain's
application for membership in the
Common Market. These talks are
not actual negotiations-these will
start in November. Rather, they
will center around the nature
of the concessions Britain will
need to make in order to shift
from a centuries-old policy of
aloofness towards European af-
fairs to integration into a group
which could be the forerunner of
an equally old dream-the United
States of Europe.
* * *
ONCE THE NEGOTIATIONS
start they must be successful. Due
to the political and economic facts
of life, England, the Six and,
most importantly, the whole West-
ern world can not afford a break-
down of the talks.
Failure would be disastrous. At
best it would strain relations be-
tween Britain and the Six se-
verely; at worst. it could split the
Atlantic Alliance. The gradual
shift towards the unification of
Europe would grind to a halt for
longer than anyone would want,
except perhaps the Russians.
Britain's smaller friends in
Europe-Denmark and Norway-
would probably stay out of the
Common Market if Britain were
refused membership.
Along with Portugal, Austria,
Sweden and Switzerland they
wouldnre-activate the European
Free Trade Association. This would
leave Western Europe divided in-
to - two, economic blocs whose
rivalry would greatly hurt the
Western cause in the Cold War.
* * *
THERE WILL STILL be a Com-
mon Market with or without Brit-
ain. Without her it would be
dominated by West Germany, a
fact contemplated with less than
enthusiasm by several European
nations. This is partly due to
memories of World War II and
partly because Germany is. not
considered to have had enough
experience with democracy to
make her ready to assume a role
of leadership in the non-Com-
munist world.
Events in France, the only other
possible leader of the Six, have
tended to indicate that when de
Gaulle dies, a stable governmental
transition is not a surety. In ad-
dition there is the war in Algeria
to consider.
This tends to leave Britain, with
her political- maturity, the only
qualified .leader in the shift to-
wards European unity.

ANOTHER FACT dictating Brit-
ain's entrance into the Six is her
own own economic condition.
Britain's share of world trade
has fallen as her manufactured
goods have tended to be con-
sumed at home rather than being
exported. This has lead the Mac-
millian government to adopt an
austerity policy which has met
with opposition from almost all
segments of the British public.
The Common Market, on the
other hand, is the fastest-growing
market in the world. In moving
towards the elimination of all
tariffs among themselves by 1970
and the creation of uniform tar-
iffs against outside countries, their
share of world trade has been
growing sharply. The British know
that if they don't join the Six,
there is a good chance that they
will be frozen out of the Continen-
tal Market.
Despite the above reasons, Brit-
ain's application for membership
in the Six has met with strong
opposition from two main groups,
who will be affected by the move.
* * *
THE FIRST SOURCE is the
British Commonwealth nations,
whose opposition stems from eco-
nomic considerations. Under the
present "Preference" system, Brit-
ain imports large quantities of
food, raw materials, semi-manu-
factured goods and some finished
goods from Commonwealth coun-
tries without tariff or other re-
strictions. If she joined the Com-
mon Market, Britain would have
to erect a tariff on many of these
items, a move which would re-
sult in heavy damage to the econ-
omies of the various Common-
wealth nations.
A high Indian governmental of-
ficial estimated that if Britain
joins the Common Market his
country would lose over $100 mil-
lion a year in exports, resulting
in inability to finance their de-
velopment plan.
The difficulty is compounded by
the fact that last year Britain
sent 41 per cent of her trade to
the Commonwealth and only 14.5
per cent to the members of the
members of the Common Market.
It is in the matter of eonces-
sions for Commonwealth coun-
tries that the present negotia-
tions are most likely to be dead-
locked. Both Prime Minister Mac-
millan and Secretary of State for
Commonwealth Relations Duncan
Sandys have said that if such con-
Think
"T BELIEVE we should go to the
moon, but I think every citi-
zen of this country, as well as
the members of the Congress,
should consider the matter care-
fully ... "
--John F. Kennedy

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"I Can Be Continental, Y'Know"

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>'i'ept we:
By PHI P
(EDITOR'S NOTE: The cupola of the Student
Publications Building, pictured above, whose in-
terior wails are lined with the names of past Daily
senior editors, symbolizes this new series of col-
umns, written by the 1961-162 senior staff. Ap-
pearing twice weekly, "OVERTIME" will have
seven contributors and will range widely in style,
temper and subject matter.)

Pharisees
SHERMAN, City Editor

cessions are not forthcoming and
the "vital Commonwealth in-
terests" are not protected, then
the price to pay for joining the
Six would be too high to pay.
On the other hand, the members
of the Common Market, especially
the French, are unwilling to make
any concessions which would ser-
iously compromise their basic
system. Proposals to settle the
problem have dealt with special
arrangements for special products
from the Commonwealth, such as
Canadian aluminum, Indian tex-
tiles and Nigerian cocoa.
No matter what concessions are
made, the Commonwealth coun-
tries can not expect to come out
completely unharmed. However, in
the long run they might benefit,
because lessening their dependence
on Britain will provide a stimulus
for them to diversify their econ-
omies in order to sell to a world-
wide market.

THE SECOND GROUP of op-
ponents comes from insiderBritain
herself and brings, together such
diverse elements as right-wing
Conservative Party members and
left-wing Laborites. The former
are against the move because they
see it as British acknowledgment
she is not a first-rate world power
any more, an acknowledgment the
right-wingers are not prepared-to
make. The left-wingers are afraid
that the move would give Euro-
pean governments some share of
control over Britain's economy,
which would make it difficult, if
not impossible, for the left-wingers
to nationalize the country's in-
dustries if they ever came to
power.
*4 *
SINCE BRITAIN is aiming for
an entry date of January 1, 1964,
the talks can be expected to go
on for some time. The world will
be watching, for successful nego-

AWEEK AGO, Columbia University President
Grayson Kirk said Russia can't be com-
pletely blamed for the world's troubles. Kirk
said that Americans must realize that, "though.
the Soviet Union is today an ever-present
danger to the Western world, much of the
same trouble and confusion of our day would
have existed in about the same form if the
Romanoff dynasty still ruled in Moscow. It
would still be with us tomorrow if, somehow,
the Soviet Union suddenly ceased to exist."
Speaking along the same line, the eminent
Arkansas Senator, J. W. Fulbright has said
that the West is partially responsible for the
present Berlin mess, because of r "mistakes"
mnade in the early stages of setting up the
present four-power agreements.
Last summer, Fulbright deprecated the idea
of "total victory" in any world conflict, saying
that such victories "generate more problems
than they solve."
Kirk and Fulbright's comments are sympto-
matic of one point of view on human relations,
unfortunately more popular in Europe than
in the United States, where the actual West-
ern power lies.
The American attitude - and often the
world's attitude - has been one of "crude
moralisms" in- international affairs or, alter-
nately, a Pharisaical posture toward the world.
The Soviets accept these terms of debate,
because the resulting ideological politics cause'
them no harm at all.
THE PHARISAICAL ATTITUDE can be
characterized in a number of ways:
1) The world is divided into' parties of
"good" and "bad," with "our" side (whatever
that may be) as the good. No effort is made
to understand the other side, or to admit that
such good-bad dichotomies just don't exist in
the world of men.
2) There is a primary emphasis on ideology,
on both sides. An ideology of the "good" (de-
mocracy,-the state, the classless society) isr
opposed to the bad (exploitation and oppres-
sion, democracy, the state, the classless so-
ciety.) There are slogan like "making the
world- safe for democracy," "Cuba Si, Yanqui
No!" and "Deutshland Uber Alles." Actions
are justified and condemned on ideological
grounds. No admission is made that a nation
is doing something as a matter of pure self-
interest, on either side.
3) "Total Victory" is a well-stated aim. The
"war to end war" has to be fought so there
will be peace; once the "bad" aggressors are
rAafPan fad, a nn..nca

5) The Pharisaical attitude is also character-
Ised by short-sight. The conflict of the moment
is dramatized so that it appears that the next
month of war will decide the fate of the
world for a thousand years (or the German
Reich, as Hitler said when his troops invaded
Russia.) The conflict is phrased so that each
side is fighting to preserve the human race.
SUCH A POSTURE is relatively new in world
politics. It really came into effective play
with World War I. Previous to that-from,
say, the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 to the
Sarajevo, with the exception of the French
Revolution-a condition of limited-aims war
and diplomacy prevailed. No effort at total
victory was made, because it was realized that,
destruction of part .of the world fabric of
order would mean more, perhaps never-ending
change. Ideology was not introduced because
it would confuse and compound the issue (as
it did do in the French Revolution.) War
could be an "instrument of policy," and was.
Came 1914, and the world seemed to change
-:--or, better, the Pharisaical tendencies in men,
relatively dormant since the Wars of Religion,
began to come more to the forefront.
The eloquence of Woodrow Wilson declaimed
the moralistic attitude, though Wilson is hardly
thought of as an ideologue. Lenin, Hitler,
Mussolini, Roosevelt, Khrushchev, Goldwater,
Nixon and Kennedy followed along the same
path, always fuelling the fire of popular in-
dignation and righteousness in their utter-
ances, always binding themselves through their
own words to demand total victory and un-
conditional surrender, always condemning,
never understanding.
BECAUSE THEIR LEADERS do not under-
stand that such a position is wrong, the
people have not understood either-and now
the peoples of the world are divided against
each other on the basis of simple but dis-
torted ideologies. There seems now to be no
way out.
The Soviets manipulate their popular opin-
ion-but they have no reason not to phrase
the conflict ideologically, because their ideol-
ogy sounds good to all but the few. The
Americans employ ideology too-but even when
they are honest; the words of Locke and Jef-
ferson and Lincoln are lost on the world's
illiterate millions.
Too, the American leaders can hardly ig-
nore the popular opinions they have created,
the John Birchers being only the most extreme
example.
THE ANSWER: some courage on. the part
of more leaders than Senator Fulbright;
and a realization, like President Kirk's, that

tiations would mean the creation
of a third great bloc in the world,
combining over 220 million people
in a prosperous and industrious
union.
The talks must succeed, for in
that direction lie unity and a
stronger Western' alliance.
European unity has been talked
about for centuries but this is the
first time that the eventual pos-
sibility, small though it now may
be, has existed. If the difficulties
are overcome and feet are set
upon the path it could be one of
the adventures of our time.
War' Jitters
FEAR IS A BAD foundation of
i policy, an even worse one if
is coupled with ill-will toward
the country which is feared and
toward its friends. Fear and
enmity have driven the Soviets
into a position (on Germany and
West Berlin) from which they will
obviously now have difficulty in
extricating themselves even if they
wanted to.
"The West, not altogether
blameless for the turn which
events have taken (though most
of the blame must fall on the
Soviet Union) is on the defensive
and has very little room for re-
treat ..
"The worst pessimists can
already see the moment when the
last opportunity for compromise
in the narrow field in which it is
now possible will have passed.
Then Fate will take over from
helpless men, and a war psychosis
will have produced actual war."
-John Gellner
DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN

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The Daily Official, Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for wnich The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m, two days preceding
publication.
WEDNESDAY, OCTOBER 11
General Notices
Blue Cross-Blue shield annual open
Enrollment Period will be held in the
fourth floor lobby, Admin. Bldg. on
State St. from Oct. 10 through Oct.
20. New applications and changes to
existing contracts will be allowable.
Any family member, eligible for cov-
erage, mayabe added at this time. No
new applications, changes, or additions
will be accepted after this two week
enrollment period until October, 1962.
Events Wednesday
Seminar on Functions of a Complex
Variable: will meet in 3017 Angell Hall,
Wed.: Oct. 11, at 4 p.m. John Kelingos
will complete his talk on the paper
of Beurling and Ahifors, "The Boun-
dary Correspondence Under Quasicon-
formal Mappings."
Events Thursday
Carillon Recital: Percival Price, Uni-
versity carillonneur, will present a re-
cital on Thurs., Oct. 12 at 7:15 p.m. in

4

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By SID MOODY
Associated Press Newsfeatures Writer
THE DISRUPTION of the infant
United Arab Republic is but
another sign of Arab disunity.
Time and again Arab .leaders
proclaim their supra-national bro-
therhood only to have their words
of fellowship snarled in intrigues,
threatened aggression and deep
mistrust.
When Syrians voted for the
merger with Egypt declared Feb.
1, 1958, 1,312,759 persons balloted
approval. Only 39 voted no. Gamal
Nasser's name was cheered in the

the troops of Iraq after Premier
Kassem threatened to annex that
tiny but oil wealthy sheikdom.
Jordan has been a prime ex-
ample of the Arab states' failure
,to live in peace with one another.
In 1958, just two weeks after the
United Arab Republic was pro-
claimed, Jordan and Iraq merged
into the Arab Federation. Unlike
the Egypt-Syria UAR, the new
Federation had a common border,
similar peoples and countryside.
The Federation had the beaming
approval of other Arai states. Six
months later it was dissolved when

for the assassination of Jordan's
King Hussein.
-In November, 1958 Hussein
charged that UAR jet fighters
from Syria, a country that only a
year before had agreed with Egypt
and Saudi Arabia to extend aid to
Jordan, had tried to shoot down
the plane that was carrying him
to a European visit.
Yet less than a year later, Jor-
dan had resumed the diplomatic
relations it had previously severed
with the UAR. And relations be-
tween Nasser and Kassem had de-
cidedly cooled as Iraq and Egypt
vied as snnkeman for the Arab

termination to be as strong out-
side Egypt as he is in it.
U.S. Marines landed in Lebanon
the day after Kassem's purge at
the request of then Lebanese
President Camille Chamoun. Cha-
moun claimed that pro-Nasser
elements had caused the civil war
then dividing that small nation.
It was Nasser's growing subor-
dination of Syria in the UAR that
is believed to have set off last
week's successful revolt. Cairo in-
creasingly concentrated control of
the republic in Egypt. Nasser's
recently announced economic con-
trols counled with strict T"lnd r-

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