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October 08, 1961 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1961-10-08

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I

"Look, I'm Being Conciliatory - Now Don't Go On
Being Stubborn"

1jr'AEtrligatt Eat
Seventy-First Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
Where Opinions Are Free UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
Truth WillPrevail" STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH.' * Phone NO 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
DAY, OCTOBER 8, 1961 NIGHT EDITOR: JUDITH OPPENHEIM

The 'Free Press:'

Methods of Deception,

IEPUBLICAN National Chairman William E.
Miller stuck his neck out again Friday, and
laimed that the Kennedy administration has
ttempted to use newsmen as propaganda pipe-
nes. Miller's assertion is tenuous in the sense
lat the Kennedy administration is hardly the
rily governmental body to follow such prac-
.ces.
It is a fact, contrary to, what Miller may
ay publicly, that the background briefing, the
se of "informed sources" and favoritism to-
ard certain reporters have been long-time
Vashington customs. One of the best examples
'as Franklin Roosevelt's euphemistic instruc-
.on that he was ofte to be quoted only as a
high White House source.",
Whether it be on the national, state, local or
iniversity level, the "leak" is a law of life.
ther laws include the suppression of some,
iformation, and favoritism toward reporters.
HERE ARE several reasons, good and bad,
'whyinformation is manipulated in such
ashions. I
Honesty
Among Thieves
[HEN PRESIDENT JOIN KENNEDY gave
reluctant approval this week to a bill
xtending the National Defense Education Act,
e was not at all happy, about the .inclusion
n the bill of the non-Communist disclaimer
ffidavit that college students have to sign
efore qualifying for a loan.
Kennedy's feelings on the subject have long
een known. He feels that any real Com-
aunists would have no hesitancy about per-
iring themselves in taking, a loyalty oath or
ffidavit, and that the presence of an affidavit
ill not keep them out of the program.
The affidavit would, however, keep out of
he program non-Communists who object to
aving to take an oath to affirm their loyalty
o the United States. Thus Kennedy feels the
ath is discriminatory and subversive.
For two more years educators,'administrators
,nd students will have to put up with what
he President of the United States has termed
a meaningless, unenforcible procedure that
dds greatly to the cost of administering the
rogram without making any real contribution
o national security."
-R. SELWA

1) An official desires to hide some embar-
rassing fact and so attempts to leak enough
information to send reporters on a wild goose
chase. Or, more dangerously, the officials will
ingeniously take reporters into their confidence,
in return for a promise not to print, or to mini-
mize. I
2) An official has a point of view which has
been overlooked in policy determination. He
wants his say, and the best way is often to have
it appear in print credited to a "high admin-
istration source."
3) An official disagrees with a policy line, and
desires to disassociate himself with it. He leakts
his own view, which gets printed in the form:
"Reportedly, the Secretary of Offense has vio-
lently disagreed with his chief."
4) An official, like Chester Bowles, wants to
save his job, and gets a propaganda campaign
started in his behalf.
5) An official honestly wants reporters to be
informed of what's happening so they will be in
a position to write more intelligent stories when
they get hard news.
6) An official wants to send up a "trial bal-
loon" to test public reaction to a new program.
Governor Swainson's early revelation of his tax
plan last year is a good example.
OF ALL THESE REASONS, only the fifth has
general validity. The sixth can be honest
enough, but it hardly bespeaks political courage
on the part of the unnamed official.
But the more general mode of misinforming
the public takes the form of releasing no infor-
mation at all, or so little information that no
accurate public judgment may be formed.
This kind of maneuvering compromises the
nation's ideal of a free and informed society.
Even if most people won't understand and
properly interpret news, good or bad, it is still
necessary to circulate relevant, non-military in-
formation because the few people who will un-
derstand must know.
SUCH TEMPTATIONS should be avoided by
public officials, though it is unrealistic to
expect that they will do so. Rather, the burden,
is on the reporter to ensure that the correct
and full information is being released.
A reporter has an obligation not simply to,
print something to print it; he should be sure'
his story is full and fair, and that he is not
being used to mislead.
Chairman Miller can attack the administra-
tion if he wishes, but in reality his condemna-
tion is of the so-called free press.
-PHILIP SHERMAN
City Editor

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AT THE STATE:
A Canticle,
Half-Realized
" HE TRAPP FAMILY" dimly projects human qualities not often
marked on' the screen and seldom recognized by the living.
Maria Trapp's memoirs, "The Story of the Trapp Family Singers,"
provided the material for this unpretentious, German-made film of
special courage and love.
In 1936, a spirited and devoted novice in a convent in Salzburg,
Austria-Marie (Ruth Leuwerik)-is sent by the Mother Superior,
and called by the will of God into the world to teach the seven chil-
dren of Baron Von Trapp (Hans Holt), a widower and distinguished
captain in the Austrian Navy. The Baron is a reserved and handsome

I*.f4 . t- Lo{

gentleman - not the chewing,
swearing mariner as a postulant
might suppose.
HOWEVER, his system for
child-raising is modeled upon
naval rigor: the seven children en-
ter to meet their new teacher, in
rank and dressed in sailor suits,
summoned by blasts on a boat
whistle.
Fraulein Maria's contrasting
philosophy that "children should
not group up unhappily" employs
a 'more persuasive rhetoric of love
and music. Soon the children ac-
quire play-clothes, a natural free-
dom, and the art of singing. The
"crew" comes to love their teach-
er as does the Captain, and mov-
ing marriage rites take place in
the Catholic Church.
The Baron placed his wealth
and person against the rising Nazi
Movement, so the Trapp family
moved to' America in 1938.
Their capital consisted of voices
and repertoire of doubtful enter-
tainment value, and a faith in
God: "When the Lord closes a
door, he knows there is a window
open for us."
* * *
ON\ TOUR, the going is hard
for the Trapp Family Singers un-
til they discover (in Stowe, Vt.)
that the liturgical songs of Pal-
estrina and Scarlatti belong at
the end of the program. "Oh,,
Susannah," performed in leider-
hosen a'nd delivered with German
accent is a great opener.
Success brings the family a new
home and life with something of
the old Austrian flavor in Ver-
mont's Green Mountains.
"The Trapp Family" was made
in the 'fifties; yet it has an old-
world quality not attributable to
its age or the fair condition of its
frames and sound track. English
dialogue is dubbed in with un-
fortunate effects: lines revealing
characterization that is not very
penetrating ring banally.
THE ALPINE TUNES are sung
in German; they have a pleasing
simplicity if the listener can rise
above the boy soprano. Also-col-
orful scenes of Salzburg and the
Baron's estate.
"The Trapp Family" is hardly
the canticle to Divine Providence
that Maria Trapp might have
hoped for, but the children are
delightful, and Ruth Leuwerik
propects something of the beatific.
-Peter Mallery

Happy
TODAY nothing is as important
to this' nation as the need to
relax the ,emotional tensions of
our people. We have been "stand-
ing firm" so long now with fingers
frozen on nuclear triggers that
our national nerves are frayed and
jagged. And they might well be,
for in the past no great nation
that mobilized ever demobilized
until after a war. I think it is
high time we began to challenge
the Soviets creatively, with imag-
ination. It is time we take the of-
fensive for peace. Thii challenge
must, of course, rest on two
points:
1)- The free society of Berlin
must be preserved.
2) Access to Berlin must be
guaranteed.
* * *
BUT this is not enough. I be-
lieve we can do much to improve
the whole European situation. I
would start by taking the Russians
up on their slogans. They have
suggested a zone in Europe free
of nuclear weapons-and have of-
fered a disarmed central Europ(%
All right-let us see if this is what
they mean. They have offered to
take nuclear weapons out of East
Germany, Poland and Czechoslo-
vakia in exchange for a denu-
clearized West Germany. Such a
zone, free of nuclear weapons,
would provide a huge cushion of
space which would allow a mo-
ment of reason before the ultimate
irrationality of total war.
FINALLY, if we were to link a
denuclear zone with a second stage
of withdrawal of. foreign forces
from the zone, we might well be-
gin the retreat of the Red Army
from Eastern Europe and thus
initiate tlie opportunity for real
freedom in this area.
Within the context of this chal-
lenge, the formalities for settle-
ment of the Berlin and East Ger-
man crisis would fall into place.
I see no future in standing rigid-
ly like wooden soldiers glued to
a board. Let us take the offensive
for peace.
-Rep. Frank Kowalski (D-
Conn) in the House, Sept. 25

31

f

FINLAND'S DILEMMA:

TTY, FREEDOM:
co ncert of Nations

'T HE* TROUBLETODAY is that the Com-
munist world,.understands unity but not
liberty, while the free world understands li-
berty but not unity. Eventual victory may be
won by the first of the two sides to achieve
the synthesis of both."
Spanish philosopher Salvador de Madariaga'
thus states a major problem facing Western
statesmen today, that of coalescing diversity
into unitly to better concentrate the strength
of he West against Communism.
On a larger scale, this is a classic problem
facing democracy: How does a free society,
with all of the stresses and strains liberty can
generate, prevent these centrifugal forces from
crippling the society?
THE SOVIET UNION is marching away from
Communism in the most direct manner: a
slap in the collective face of Marx and Engels.
Moscow has announced that the second stage
of its Five Year Plan to abolish income taxes
has gone into effect. The government abolished
taxes on workers earning up to 60 rubles a
month (four Ensians) and cut taxes 40 per
cent on incomes of 61 to 70 rubles a month.
The "Communist Manifesto," however, de-
mands "a heavy progressive or graduated in-
come tax" as the second of 10 specific measures
to be taken for the realization of Communism
through governimental action..
THE UNITED STATES government Friday
held a coming-out party for its brand new
income tax form 1040 printed with bigger
type and on higher quality paper.
The Soviets are moving away from, the
Manifesto. The United States is installing
means to make the Manifesto's recommenda-
tions easier to implement.
Thus, the John Birchers faced with an,
American more communistic than Russia, can
only say that Communism is "the most primi-
tive form of society; found in practice only
among savages, dimwitted creatures who have
nothing that is worth owning anyway."
They are called loyal.
-M. OLINICK

One way democracies have handled the prob-
lem is by circumscribing liberty with boundaries
and ground rules recognized by the citizens as
the responsibilities that liberty entails. In a
strong democracy, citizens share certain values
and interests which strengthens the commun-
ity embrace, preventing liberty from degenerat-
ing into anarchy.
A RKANSAS SNATOR J. William Fulibright
argues in the October issue of Foreign
Affairs that the free nations must develop
such a "civic sense" to acquire the unity needed
to formulate coordinated and concentrated
policies needed to stymie Communism.'
The "free world," Fulbright thinks, must
play the cold war game against its relatively
monolithic enemy as a "concert of nations,"
harmonizing their activities to better focus
the effort.
What Fulbright is seeking is neither narrow
chauvinism nor expansive and, at least for the
present, idealistic supranationalism.
He sees politics as "the art of the possible."
While recognizing the United Nations as a
"symbol of our aspirations" for a strong in-
ternational authority. to inhibit the world's
suicidal tendencies, he says world order is not
within our capacity to impose.
WHILE CONTINUING to work toward the
t logic of a powerful UN, we must realize
with Fulbright that the world is not always
logical' and that we must guard against its
irrationalities with safeguards. Such a -safe-
guard, as Fulbright sees it, is to "devise pro-
cesses more modest in their aspirations, ad-
justed to the real world of sovereign nation
states and diverse and hostile communities."
A more unified effort against Communism
by the free nations through tle available
machinery of the UN, NATO, the Organization
for Economic Cooperation and Development
(OECD) and other agencies is the prescription
Fulbright writes. The machinery is there; it's
the community spirit to operate it that is
missing. As Fulbright says, "Such a com-
munity falls far short of the stable world
order we desire. Its merit is that it represents
.. . n~~ n nn n m rr .tt1 f'f1P 'F tY kP

BTrap pe
By JAMES NICHOLS1
Daily Staff Writer
NIKITA Khrushchev frequently
presents to the world a beauti-
ful picture of Russia and the
democracies of the globe living and
working together in "peaceful co-
existence" to the benefit of both.
One tiny democracy, for compel-'
ling geographic reasons, has been
coexisting with Russia to various
degrees for centuries, and it has1
found Khrushchev's "dream" to be
a nightmare of spies, subversion,
suppression and Russian meddling
in internal affairs.
Finland, or Suomi, is the only;
democracy to have survived under
Soviet influence. It shares a 700-
mile frontier with Russia. Its capi-
tal, Helsinki, is one hour by air
from Leningrad.
TROUBLE WITH RUSSIA is not
new to this little land. It has been
a battlefield for centuries as Russia
and Sweden both fought to possess
it. It became a Russian grand
duchy in 1809. and remained under
the oppressive thumb of the Czars
until 1917.,
Finland escaped invasion in
World War I, but it suffered from
a near-total blockade during which
living costs rose 25 per cent. Dur-
ing the Russian revolution, Fin-
land was able to choose a senate
and declare its independence.
'Communist opposition was put
down by Finnish militia and a few
German soldiers.
One of the most notable accom-
plishments of this "land of integ-
rity" was to pay its war debts in
full. Finland is still the only nation
to have done so.
* * *
THE FINNS' constitution pro-
vides for a republican government.
They have a president elected to
six - year terms, a 300 - member
electoral college, suffrage for
everyone 24 or older, and a uni-
cameral diet subject to veto or
dissolution by the chief executive.
Ten ministers serve to advise the
president.
Finland successfully resisted the
right-wing movement that swept
Europe in the 1930's, and at the
same time passed effective anti-
Communist legislation.
The Finns signed non-aggression
pacts with Russia in 1932 and 1933,
but, in 1939, Russia attacked the-
country by land, sea and air. After
105 days of resistance againstim-
possible odds, the Finns capitu-
DAILY OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
publication.
SUNDAY, OCTOBER 8, 1961
General Notices
German Make-up Examinations will
be held Thursday, Oct. 12, 7-9 p.m. In
Rooms 3032, 3035, and 3040 Frieze Bldg.
Please register in German Dept. office

riby'
lated. Recruitin
entered World,
nal ally of Geri
only as an ene
land's military
markable, but,
effect. The Uni
tons of suppli4
Great Britain
Finland. Thus t
Was forced to su
terms.
Under the S5
Finns lost 17,7
their territory,
of 30 per cent of
20 per cent of1
their fishing ca
their potato cr
of their total al
tion. In additior
$570 million i
$143 for every
child in the c
annexed territ
refugees for w
land and jobs I
The Finnish pe4
belts and raise
of 560 millionc
*
WITHIN Eli
little nation wit
that of New Y

'Co-existen ce'
g another army, it, employ American merchandising
War II as a nomi- techniques. Its teenagers wear blue
many, but actually jeans, and English is the most
my of Russia. Fin- popular foreign language in its
success was re- schools. President Kokkonen is
had little lasting widely criticized if his policies ap-
ted States shipped pear soft toward Russia.
es to Russia,. and When Western powers counte-
declared war on nanced the bloody slaughter in
the little democracy Budapest, Finland saw that it too
rrender on Russian could expect no outside help. Ob-
servers feel, however, that Rus-
oviet demands, the sia does not dare to make Finland
00 square miles of a puppet for fear of frightening
including the sites neutral Sweden into the NATO
f the electric power, camp.
their railroads and Anti-Communist sentiment in
tch, 14 per cent of Finland is well represented by car-
p, and 11 per cent toonist Kari Suomalinin, who re-
n, the ere assessed cently provoked an international1
in tewreaossesse incident with s widely published
in reparations, or r radey
man, aman.and caricature. His 'cartoon. pictured,
man, woman and Khrushchev on a barge being
ountry. From the pulled by wretched looking slaves,
ory came 430,000 labeled with the names of the
hich homes, food, satellite countries. He is shown
had to be provided, crying to Eisenhower, and Mac-
ople tightened their millan, "Shame on you, imperial-
Iaists." Khrushchev's puppet press
dollars. exploded with criticism, and the
* * Soviet Premier extracted an apol-
GHT YEARS the ogy for the quality of the Finnish
h a population half press from President Kekkonen.
fork City acquitted

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
The Seat of Trouble

#.

i

I1

itself of debts greatly exceeding
one billion dollars. Since the war,
gross national production has in-
creased by half, and the metal and
water power industries have tri-
pled. ,
Its trade union federation exerts,
a powerful anti-Communist influ-
ence on the workers. Seven unions
were expelled by it during a series
of Red-led wildcat strikes in 1948.
Two-thirds of the demands made
upon Finland by the Russians after
World War II were for machinery
and ships, neither of which the
Finns had any capacity to pro-
duce. The little nation underwent
an economic revolution in order to
pay its debts. Today, unable to
compete effectively with the richer
manufacturing nations of the
West, Finland's most important
customer is the Soviet Union. In
fact, the economic life of Finland
depends on Russia as the source of
oil, wheat, fertilizer and raw ma-
terials. These economic needs
chain Finland helplessly to the
USSR.
**
IN 1948, the Russians showed the
meaning of their new term "peace-
ful coexistence." Moscow disap-
proved of the new Finnish cabinet,
and set about to destroy it. The
Russian ambassador was recalled
from Helsinki. Contracts with Fin-
nish industry were cancelled, effec-
,tively destroying the Finnishecon-
omy, and vital 'trade negotiations
were sabotaged by the Reds.
In an attempt to move closer
to the Western powers, Finland
has sought membership in Eu-
rope's "Outer Seven," the trade
organization to which its principal
competitors-Norway, Sweden and
Denmark belong. Khrushchev has
consistently refused to allow it. The
"Outer Seven" last year mutually
lowered their tariffs by 20 per cent,
making Finnish competition prac-
tically impossible.
Finnish President Kekkonen, to
avoid economic extinction, pleaded
with Khrushchev. The Finns re-

aT
A "DAVID and Goliath" presi-
dential campaign is now going on
between Agrarian Party incumbent
Kekkonen and Social Democrat
Olavi Honka. The incumbent and
his party are beginning to worry
over the election' that was to have
been merely a formality. Observers
fear Kekkonen may be forced to
compromise with the Communists
to gain needed support.
The gains this little democracy
has made only indicate what it is,
capable of. Finland remains crip-
pled by a lack of invested capital.
If present projects could be ade-
quately financed, Finnish exports
could be increased many times
over. American experts call Finish
forests Europe's finest. Again, only
money is necessary for the utiliza-
tion of this valuable resource.
However much Finland may
want to move Westward, it can
only stay with present suppliers
and markets. It is to the discredit
of the West that these still rest
primarily within the nations of
the Communist bloc.
Community
Of Peace?
S SIGNERS of the United Na-
tions Charter, we shall always
be prepared to discuss interna-
tional problems with any and all
nations that are willing to talk-
and-listen-with reason. If they
have requests-not demands-we
shall hear them. If they seek
genuine understanding-not con-
cessions of our: rights-we shall
meet with them .. .
"In short, while we are ready
to. defend our interests (in Ber-
lin), we shall also be ready to
search for peace-in quiet ex-
ploratory talks-in formal or in-

To the Editor:
AVING TTENDED both the
University of Michigan and
Michigan State University, I am
confronted with a difficult deci-
sion before October 14. Before the
meeting of the fine football squads
of these great pillars of learning,
one in a position such as I find;
myself in must take a stand and
throw his metaphysical thought
to the members of one squad or
the other. My difficulty in mak-
ing an objective and completely
rational judgment on the matter
stems from an incident which oc-
curred a few weeks ago while I
attended a social function at 608
Monroe Street in'Ann Arbor.
It,' seems that some student,
most probably an unknowing
freshman at your fine University,
saw fit to abscond with the back
seat of my car while I enjoyed
the good fellowship of some Uni-
versity of Michigan students. So
that I may reach a completely
unbiased decision and remain "an
island of reason in a Sea of Emo-
tion," I would really appreciate
the return of the car seat to., 608
Monroe before the big day.
Herbert N. Ashley
At Last
To the Editor:
AT LONG LAST The Michigan
Daily has found a competent
staff writer: Mr. Ronald Wilton.
His two recent articles, concern-
ing the'Syrian Revolt and the cur-
rent political crisis in El Salva-
dor deserve the highest praise
from readers of The Daily for
their factuality, decent writing,
and, above all, intelligence.
To find an'article equalling the
high calibre of the El Salvador
piece would cause one to look
very far. It shows research, a
familiarity with Latin American

academic evaluations in women's
residence halls."
I was present at that meeting
and no such motion was passed.
I quote the motion that was
passed from the minutes of that
meeting.
"It was moved' that Assembly
Dormitory Council not approve of
non-academic evaluations. Sec-
onded and passed."
There is a vast difference be-
tween that statement and the one
that appeared in your story.
Any newspaper worth the paper
on whieh it is printed takes time
to check out their facts before
they print them. It is too much
to ask the Daily to do the same?
-Marylou Seldon
First Vice-President
Assembly Association
Illustrious . .
To the Editor:
IN THEIR October 4th Letter to
the Editor,. Miss Berliner and
Mr. Kemnitz show that they have
misunderstood the spirit of Miss
Stock's letter. Hypocrisy is not to
be confused with Miss Stock's
"commony decency." The quality
of graciousness -so evident in
Dean Bacon's action -- must not
be considered a point of weakness
in theever-onward attack of the
"reformers," but rather a point
of strength.
The Daily might have been able
to recall itself to the ranks of the
professional newspaper had it
eliminated the editorialized cov-
erage of the investigation of the
OSA and, in particular, Dean Ba-
con's resignation. Championing
its own causes seems to be the
preoccupation of our most illus-
trious campus newspaper.
-Aletta Biersack, '65
Thanks . .

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