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Truth Wil Prevail"
Editorials printed in The, Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints. ,
AY, MAY 19, 1962
NIGHT EDITOR: MICHAML HARRAH
Elements of Controversy-
Progress from Conflict
1ONTROVERSY will mark this, weekend's MORE DIFFICULT to ascertain is the ques-
"Conference on the University. tion what can bring progress out of con-
It ll w consider one of the most controversial, trovers.natea
yS In4 3 . deScac there are many
uiestions in the democracy of the United
bates, the purpose and direction of education.
ersons with quite differing views will consider
ie who, what, when, where, why, and how of
lucation. Hopefully there will be many break-
iroughs in the morass of decisions that face
The conference, in an attempt to get a fresh
iok at the problems of education, brings into
ocus a larger question - what are the ingre-
ents of a constructive controversy? Moreover,
hat makes a successful controversy in the field
' education, where there are no cut and
T IS EASY to see what makes a failure out
of a controversy: For instance:
-Publicity at a time when both sides are
ot sure of their positions freezes decisions
t halfway points. A man in position of power
ho is unable to change his stand by reason
' his position or previous commitments stops
ogress. This has been a problem at the Stu-
mt Government Council table where members
ave become obligated to oppose certain things
ecause they come from a certain quarter. This
as a factor in the case of the Student Bill.
E Rights, where basic questions of individual
gghts were opposed because the bill was pushed
r a liberal faction.
-A man's security becoming staked on a
osition to a point where he can no longer be
)nstructive, brings needless controversy.
ometimes a man becomes forced to hold a
osition that he has taken to save his pride,
o matter what the facts are. This might have
een the case with Admiral Rickover when he
'iticized the schools and then was made aware
at they were meeting the problems and were
st waiting for money to implement them. Ile
as continued with the same criticism for the
st four years in spite of the fact that the
tuation. has changed. It is hard for a man
a high position to admit that he spoke and
Dted off the top of 'his head. The problem
ose when a man of note spoke on an area
which he had insufficient information.
-A clear definition of the problem or the
>cabulary is necessary in discussing a situa-
,on. For example the term "quality education"
not properly defined when used in a decision,
light bring cries of "sabotage" from those who
.sagree with the implementation. Another po-
ntial ground for misunderstanding comes
hen attempts to reach the "optimum" size and
stribution of the'student body have been at-
mpted where the conception of the role of
e University has ranged from an instate con-
nuation of high school to an international
enter of learning, research and culture.
theories as to how the society can be improved,
yet the way that is acceptable to the majority
must be used. Controversy is the name we use
for a situation that has many answers and an
advocate for every answer. How is progress
Trite as it sounds, common information, con-
sensus of principles, patience and trust are al-
most essential to progressive controversy.
Common information is essential if there is
to be a meaningful decision.
A YEAR AGO a decision to "end segregation
in Detroit Public Schools" meant different
things to the public than it did to school ad-
ministrators. Now, when a racial count has
taken place and this information has been cor-
related with the differing quality of the schools
in Detroit and publicized, it has become clear
to the public what the administrators suspect-
ed - that there was de facto segregation in
Detroit. Now a decision to "end segregation"
means to all groups that action is necessary.
This gives the group a common basis on which
to make decisions.
Concensus of principal is necessary before
implementation can- even be discussed. It is
almost impossible to make progress in a demo-
cratic society wherer the basic principles are
not held in common. Mississippi will not see
progress until a large enough group there really
believes that both whites and Negros will profit
from and deserve equal education.
PATIENCE, or the willingness to work for a
consensus or majority, is necessary for the
long term solution of controversy. For exam-
ple, the opinion that it is a right f all able
students to obtain higher education will not
be powerful until a majority believes it. Until
such time as the principle and implementation
of such an opinion are seriously considered, all
groups which advocate or oppose it must have
the patience not to attempt a drastic solution
which will damage clear consideration.
Trust is also necessary to make progress out
of controversy - trust that there can be more
than one path to progress. This trust is neces-
sary if opposing groups are to listen to one
another. If they do not listen, then controversy
cannot be constructive.
The Conference on the University is just
one example of the potential of constructive
controversy. It is hoped that the results of
the conference will bring an optimistic indica-
tion of the potential of constructive controversy
"Son, Let's Not Be Too Dogmatic About This"
r46 Tt t~AS~tlGx1 a r CW
To the Editor:
STEVEN Freedman's letter was
prompted by the notice given
him last Tuesday. He was warned
that he must assume the respon-
sibilities of his position or relin-
quish them to a more mature per-
son. I regret the method he chose
to turn in his inaccurate resigna-
I will be glad to accept Mr.
Freedman's resignation when he
resigns from his position as study
group committee chairman of
Young Americans for Freedom. I
cannot accept his resignation from
the research directorship for he
has never had any connection
with this post.
His charge that YAF was on the
HUAC list that the ROTC stu-
dents must not join is ridiculous.
The list was prepared in 1959, by
the HUAC. YAF was founded in
1960 and the founder of the local
chapter, William Sikkenga, was a
member of the NROTC program.
YAF has not been, and is not
likely to be, added to the list.
I agree that YAF is not the
place for Steven M. Freedman;
perhaps he would like to found aa
chapter of the John BirchsSociety.
-William M. Altenburg, Jr.
Chapter Young Americans
University of Michigan
To the Editor:
THOSE of "liberal" persuasion
all over the country, and cer-
tainly here in Ann Arbor, are ex-
ceeding disturbed over the activi-
ties of the House Un-American
Activities Committee. In their in-
To The E6r«
cessant campaign for abolishment
of this body, they. rely in part on
the fact that in its fight against
Communism, HUAC has acted as
a quasi-judicial organ, casting
shadows of doubt on the innocence
of certain persons, rather than
remaining in its "proper" legis-
lative role, which "should" involve
gathering facts upon which Con-
gress may base appropriate enact-
And yet, these same "liberals"
express exultation rather than
dismay when the United States
Supreme Court steps out of its
certainly "proper" judicial role
and arbitrarily legislates matters
such as public school integration
and state voter apportionment is-
sues without authority from the
* * *
IT APPEARS that so long as a
decision suits the "liberals," they
worry little about the means by
which it is reached: but when an
"unfavorable" decision is made, a
thoroughly detailed examination
of the processes involved in its
formation miraculously appears.
I suggest, for the sake of both
consistency and preservation of
individual freedom, that all gov-
ernmestal decisions should be
made by orderly processes, and
that it is the duty of all of us to
examine and evaluate decision-
making processes of all kinds on
the basis of their validity within
the context of a democratic re-
public, whether the results of the
methods chosen be "good" or
"bad" according to our personal
-Henry R. H. McAllen, '64L
GOVERNMENT, even in its best
state, is but a necessary evil:
in its worst state, an intolerable
FREEDOM AND SECURITY:
The Jeffersonian Answer
Sorority Membersip Statements
'HE FIRST deadline for submission of sor-
ority and fraternity 'statements on member-
ip selection practices to Student Government
uncil-occurred yesterday. The rest of the sor-
ity deadlines will come in the next week.
Groups desiring an extension of the May
adline appeared before the Council Wednes-
,y. Only two sororities requested a longerx
nod of time. This would seem to ,indicate
at other sororities are prepared to submit
atements that will comply with SGC regu-
Panhellenic Association President Ann Mc-
illan, contends that "most sororities received
tification of the ,inadequacy of their state-
ents in March.",
NHIp IS,.of course, encouraging. It must mean
that most sororities are prepared to comply.
se next question is what kind of extenuating
'cumstances arose to force two sororities to
,k for extensions.
One sorority president implied .that one of
e reasons her group needed more time was
e confusion about what Council wanted in-
ided in the statement.
The focus of attention turned to Miss McMil-
n. In reply to a question as to what Panhel's
licy was regarding communication of infor-.
ation on the nature of statements, Miss Mc-
Mllan indicated that in the past Panhel had
ft much of the burden of responsibility on the
This statement, perhaps incautiously word-
as Miss McMillan later contended, appeared
be in direct conflict with what former Pan-
1 president Susan Stillerman had repeatedly
Ld Council. Miss Stillerman had assured the
dy' that she was -working closely with the
rorities and keeping them well informed. Her
atements pointed to the conclusion that
ere would be little question of the sororities.
ing their statements on time, if the individual
rority groups were willing to do the necessary
ATER Miss McMillan clarified her position.
She said that both points of view were cor-
ct. She emphasized Panhel's role of inform-
g sorority presidents as to the nature of
IC's requirements, but pointed out that it
the duty of each individual house to make
re it abides by the established procedure.
, new presidents, who were still unfamiliar with
details of their jobs.
To. rectify the situation -Panhel provided
p residents with all the information necessary.
Council President Steven Stockmeyer spoke be-
fore the sorority president's council. As a re-.
sult of this it appears that all but a few
groups will submit statements meeting the
O NE SORORITY president indicated, how-
ever, that the primary way she knew what
Council wanted was from past Council presi-
dent Richard Nohl's letter to her group which
pointed out exactly where the statement was
not complete. This
Something here does not quite jibe. Both past
and present Panhel presidents assure Council
that Panhel provided the sororities with all
the information they could possibly want.
And now sororities came before SGC to ask
for extensions; at least one maintaining that a
certain amount of confusion still interfered
with the statement's completion.
Furthermore, if sororities had really under-
stood what Council required and knowingly
submitted statements which were inadequate,
the question arises whether they acted in good
faith. It would appear that the groups were
just trying to see what was the minimum state-
ment Council would accept. They soon found
out that mere lip-service to Council's regula-
tions was not going to be sufficient.
MISSSTILLERMAN says Panhel, under her
direction, "could not have given sororities
any more information than we did." She main-
tains that all along she stressed the importance
of understanding the regulations and filing the
statements early. She asserts that she cannot
allow Panhel to take the blame for "confu-
Confusion, if there was any, developed in
other areas, she contends. Certainly she does
have a point. Council itself must assume some
of the blame because the body has not taken
a consistent stand throughout the controversy.
The role of Vice-President for Student Af-
fairs James A. Lewis was not clear. When the
Committee on Membership spoke to the sor-
ority presidents last year, it did not explain
its position adequately and right up to this
spring even Council itself was not completely
sure what was meant by Stockmeyer's inter-
pretation of adequacy - quotation from fra-
ternal rouments alnng with the local's niter-
(Editor's note: This is the fourth'
in a series of articles analyzing
the issue of individual freedom and
By ROBERT SELWA
Daily Staff Writer
"I AM for freedom of religion ...
for freedom of the press, and
against all violations of the Con-
stitution to silence by force and
not by reason the complaints or
criticisms, just or Vnjust, of our
citizens against the conduct of
Thomas Jefftrson did not write
these words when all was right
and America at ease. He wrote
them in 1799-a time of war fever,
a time when Congress had just
passed the Alien Act to deport
foreign radicals and liberals,
propagandists and agitators, and
the Sedition Act to curb the "li-
centiousness" of the press.
Congress had thought the Alien
and Sedition Acts essential to the
security of the country. But Jeffer-
son thought differently. He. be-
lieved that the security of a body
politic rests upon the individual
liberty of its citizens.
TODAY' the issue is with us
again; and it is more pronounced.
Supporters of the Smith Act, the
McCarran Act, and the House
Committee on Un-American Activ-
ities deem these types of legisla-
tion essential to the security and
survival of an'America engaged in
a cold war with Communism.
What should today's Jefferson-
Jefferson, who not only wrote
the Declaration of Independence
but also led the pleas for, and
received, a Bill of Rights that
guaranteed free expression and
association and due process of law,
had the opportunity to do some-
thing about the issue. Elected
President in 1800, he promptly
free all the victims of the Alien
and Sedition Acts and devoted
his efforts,, as his first project,
to eradicating the intolerance
that had infected America.
He did this on the principle
that though the will of the major-
ity should prevail at all times,
will, "to be rightful," must be
reasonable., Ile said in his in-
augural address that the minority
possess equal rights "which equal
laws must protect, and to violate
them would be oppression.
"If there be any among us who
would wish to dissovle this Union
or to change its republican form,
let them stand undisturbed as
monuments of the safety with
which error of opinion may be
tolerated where reason is left free
to combat it."
*I * *
COMMENTING FURTHER on
the liberty-security issue, Jeffer-
son admitted that many Ameri-
cans genuinely fear that a demo-
cracy is too weak to preserve it-
self intact and. complete. He did
not subscribe to this fear; he felt
the opposite, that this "is the*
strongest government on earth."
The reason: "it is the only one
where every man . . . would fly to
the standard of the law, and would
meet invasions of the public order
as his own personal concern."
Are Americans no less, if not
more, law-abiding today than in
Jefferson's time? And if they, are
just as law-abiding, would not
this, in itself, be, a good guaran-
tee of national security?
"It is the people in reality that
rule; it is not a mere fraction of
them that usurps authority,"
Alex- McKay was to write 48 years
after Jefferson's address. "The
success of the American depended,
as it still depends, upon the char-
acter of the people."
And what is the character of
the American people today? Are
not most Americans peace-lov-
ing? Is it really possible that a
sufficient portion of them could
be so persuaded by Communists
to overthrow the government that
such overthrow would become im-
"On what, therefore, rests the
supposition so often hazarded by
parties in this country, that viol-
ence will be done, and that ere
long, to the Republic in America?"
MacKay asked in 1898. "Unless
the people car be persuaded to
do violence to their feelings,
tastes, habits and association,'and
to adopt institutions incompatible
with their position and circum-
stances, there is no fear of de-
mocracy in America.",
* * *
THIS IS the Jeffersonian posit-
ion-that "the good sense of the
people" serves as "the best army"
-that the remedy for subversion
is to set the subverters right as
to facts, pardon and pacify them
that the rights of the whole
can be no more than the sum of
the rights of the individuals-and
that although liberty is a "bois-
terious sea," it, coupled with edu-
cation and a dispostion of the
majority for peace and order, is
the only sure guarantee of nation-
Jefferson recognized that where
there is free discussion there will
be strife. But, he maintained that
differences of opinion, when per-
mitted to "purify themselves" in
the open marketplace, will be "as
passing clouds." Love of order and
obedience, to the laws "are sure
pledges of internal tranquility,"
and the elective franchise "will
peaceably dissipate all combina-
tions to subvert a Constitution dic-
tated by the wisdom, and resting
on the will of the people."
In short, the United States can
be both free and secure in Amer-
icans, in governing themselves by
majority rule, desire both freedom
and security and are willing to,
sacrifice neither for the sale of
* the other.
IN TURKEY, where the sole
nod of the despot is death, insur-
rections are every day events,"
Jefferson pointed out in 1787.,
"Compare again the ferocious de-
predations of- their insurgents,
with the order, the moderation
and the almost self -extinguish-
ment of ours..
"Educate and inform the whole
mass of the people. Enable them
to see that it is their interest to
preserve peace and order, and they
will preserve them."
The Jeffersonian argument is a
noble and moving one. It deserves
special attention in America to-
day because of its repudiation of
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Communist and fascist countries.
In the movies, "Question 7," one
East German remarks:
"A man has a right to speak
"Once," his fellow East Ger-
* * *
THE POINT is that in totali-
tarian states freedom of associa-
tion and of presenting opinions
are viciously repressed by the
government. To the extent that
our government represses through
legislation-even legislation that
apparently has the approval of
the majority of the people-we
become as East bormany-or Yug-
oslavia, or Soviet Russia.
We become as the Communists
of foreign countries when we re-
press the Communists who belong
to our Country. And at the same
time we repudiate democracy's a-
bility to preserve security, as seen
A Summing Up
(Continued from Page 2)
lowing the ceremony, diplomas may be
called for until 9:00 p.m.
Student Accounts: Your attention is
called to the following rules passed by
the Regents at their meeting on Feb.
28, 1936: "Students shall pay all ac-
counts due the University not later
than the last day of classes of each
semester or summer session. Student
loans which are not paid or renewed
are subject to this regulation: however,
student loans not yet due are exempt'
Any unpaid accounts at the close of
business on the last day of classes will
be reported to the Cashier of the Uni-
"(a) All academic credits will be
withheld, the grades for the semester
or summer session just completed will
not be released, and no transcript of
credits will be issued.
"(b) All students owing such accounts
will not be allowed to register in any
subsequent semester or summer session
until payment has been made."
* Students: If you need to order a
transcript without grades for the pres-
ent semester, call in person at 515 Ad-
min. Bldg., not later than May 30, 1962.
*-Does not apply to students in
June 16, 1962
To be held at 5:30 p.m. either in the
Stadium or Yost Field House, depend-
olude about 7:30 p.m.
All graduates as of June 1962 are
elegiible to participate.
For Yost Field House: Two to each
prospective graduate, to be distributed
from Tues., June 5,, to 12:00 noon on
Sat., June 16, at Cashier's Office, first
floor of Admin. Bldg.
For Stadium: No tickets. necessary.
Children not admitted unless accom-
panied by adults.
Academic Costume: Can be rented at
Moe Sport Shop, North University Ave.
Assembly for Graduates: at 4:30 p.m.
in area east of Stadium. Marshals will
direct graduates to proper stations.
If siren indicates (at intervals from
4:00 to 4:15 p.m.) that exercises are to
be held in Yost Field House, graduates
should go directly there and be seated
Stadium: Enter by Main St. gates
only. All should be seated by 5:00 p.m.,
when procession enters field.
Yost Field House: Only those hold-
ing tickets can be admitted owing to
lack of space. Enter on State St.,
opposite McKinley Ave.
'Graduation Announcements, Invita-
tions, etc.: Inquire at Office of Student
Commencement Programs: To be dis-
tributed at Stadium or Yost Field
Distribution of Diplomas: If the exer-
cises are held in the Stadium, diplomas
for all graduates except the School of
Dentistry, the Medical School, and
Flint College, will be distributed from
designated stations under the east
stand of the Stadium, immediately aft-
er the exercises. The diploma distriou-
tion stations are on the level above the
If the exercises are held in the Yost
Field House, all diplomas except those
of the School of Dentistry, the Medical
School, and Flint College, wvill be dis-
tributed from the windows of the Cash-
ier's Office and the Registrar's Office
(Continued on Page 5)
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