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February 13, 1962 - Image 9

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Text
Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-02-13

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY

MurphyDescribes Deterrence Effects'

U' Faces Difficulties
Under Senate Aid Plan

By MARTHA MacNEAL
"Historical material studied at'
tanfard Research Institute ten-
tively indicates that deterrence
olicies can increase the chances
adverse effect and eventual
xplosion in international rela-
ons," Dr. Gardner Murphy, di-
ctor of research for the Men-
inger Foundation, said Friday.
Speaking on "Psychology and
iternational Relations" at a col-
quium sponsored by the psy-
iology department, Murphy cited
vo important new questions in
ds field: Do human beings re-
>ond only to fear and threat? If
e consider a theory of reward and
,nishment, what is a reward?'
"The path towards war can. be
lotted scientifically," he con-
nued,- "and choice points can
e demonstrated." The Institute
as studied the actual outbreak
f wars with control studies of
ireatening situations that did
ot lead to war, to find out what
!e signs of war are, and when,
nid in what form, intervention
ay be necessary.
Here the decision-making process
foreshadowed, with the pos-
bility that a gain for one side
ay not necessarily be a loss for
he other. Negotiations may reach
decision which is good for all
r most of the participants.
"Because of Berlin, nuclear test-

ing, disarmament, the East-West
balance of power and economic
changes in Europe and Asia, this
generation of psychologists will be
expected to know about interna-
tional affairs," Murphy emphasiz-
ed.
Many psychologists are engaged
in protest work to demonstrate a
behavioral background in inter-
national issues, but this political
role differs from scientific re-
search. Such action groups .might
be considered a moral expression
of political allegiance, where pure
classical research is undertaken
for its own sake. Most psycholo-
gists tend towards pure research,
he added.
Citing various aspects of work
in areas of international problems,
Murphy said that conflict resolu-
tion, studies of tension reduction
in small groups "requires a lot
of faith in oneself and his workc
in order tonbe useful." Oldest
historically is the definition, meas-
urement, and scaling of attitudes
through psychological assessment
of public opinion and propaganda.
The comparison of elite groups
in various countries, and of their
communication to their national
"grass roots" is a field of great
potential, Murphy zontinued.
Role playing, another method
of study, permits the psychologist

himself to act out a part. In this
way he becomes aware of prob-
lems through ego involvement.
"Role-playing is a way of putting
on special blinders, seeing through
special lenses,nso that the psy-
chologist learns to distort and
misinterpret experimentally,"
Murphy explained.
Slow education in reality, as
through UNESCO, college and in-
ter-American studies have become
inadequate because "nuclear war
possibilities are so desperately ter-
rifying that we need more spacixic
research programs."
Among his suggestions for such
programs, Murphy included the
application of the psychology of
stable systems to the military
threat, and cited new problems of
military accidents, the difficulty
of knowing what the Russian gov-
ernment is planning, and fallout1
shelters.
"For a long time, perhaps since
the Black Death, mankind has not
known what it is like to face
psychological terror on such a
large scale. .

"Perhaps the system is stable,"
he continued. "We cannot decide
what is normal and what is psy-
chotic. The psychosis of he ex-
treme rightists demonstrates a
get-it-over-with attitude which
may indicate that we cannot sup-
port suspense and uncertainty for
decades. War is so much more
real than peace."
"It may be impossible to do
very much. Everything is wound
up to maximum tightness so that
the situation seems to be a psy-
chotic prison from which there is
little chance of escape. You are
criticized if you want either to
lessen or to increase the pres-
sure."
As an alternative, Murphy offer-
ed the use of the concept of cycles
to get feedback data on leader-
ship and response. He, suggested
individual character studies at
summit levels, studies of attitudes,
moods, interpersonal relations, and
the personality and psychology of
political leaders. A corresponding
prediction method through anal-
ysis of social trends should be
developed, he urged.

It would be dificult for the
University to use the loans pro-
vided for in the Senate version of
President Kennedy's Aid to Edu-

cation bill, Vice-President in
Charge of Finance Wilbur K. Pier-
pont explained.
The University and other state
institutions avoid using loan
money for academic facilities
since they do not produce revenue
to repay the original loan.
The House version of the bill
allows for matching funds, funds
which both a university and the
government provide some of the
money, and grants in aid. Grants
in aid or gifts from foundations
usually support academic facility
construction.
Pierpont does feel that if the
bill passes, the University and
other state schools will benefit.
Amounts of money will vary de-
pending on certain factors which
the House and Senate will desig-
nate. These factors could include
such things as state population
size or size of the institution.

WILBUR K. PIERPONT
.. aid problems

I

TONIGHT

3 .1

Recording

erlin Crisis Expands Need
'ror U.S. Services Officers

T

A

P

(Continued from Page 1)
senior years. If they decide to con-
tinue in the service, they may ap-
ply for a direct commission after
raduatio, and serve two years of
active duty.
Womeni's Program
If .the women enter the Army
-ro ra~ E only after graduation,
ake 18 weeks of train-
nxi . , d two years of active
'er c".
T r'wn are commissioned
sec'ori i tenants (as are the
mer: ifr their tour of duty, and
pa sjwcialize in nursing, dietary,
T rap~v, administrative, personnel
and financial fields in the Wom-
en's Army Corps.
COAST GUARD - After four
months of training in the officer
candidate school at Yorktown, the
volunteers become commissioned
as ensigns and may enter either
:flight training or general duty.
h' +neal duty lasts for three
ears and canbe served either at.
ea or ashore.
Flight Training
Flight training, with applicants
with an engineering degree pre-
ferred, lasts for one year and is
tart of the Navy's multi-engine
training program. Then comes five
years of active duty.
MjiARINES-In the non-flying
sector of the Marines, the men go
through the "PLC" training pro-
gram for four months to become
infantry officers. Then three years
of active duty is set.,
In the Marine Aviation field, the
raining comes under the Navy's
air training. After this, the men
serve five years on active duty.
Navy Program
NAVY-After being accepted for
tirect commission or having com-
pleted four months at the officer
dandidate school in Newport, the
volunteers are commissioned as
ensigns.'
Then comes three years of active
duty, which may be spent afloat
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Post 20 wks. $1.79 ; 35 wks.
$3.15.[]; yr. $4.00 Q
Ladies Home Journal 5 mos.
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U.S. News & World Report
39 wks. $3.67 El
Reporter 10 mos. $3.27 E
E squire 8 ms. $2.00 El
- *' U. r LU T

as general line officers, or ashore
in the civil engineering, supply,
medical service or legal corps.
In naval aviation, there are two
programs. The first applies to stu-
dents who have completed 60
hours of college.. They spend four
months in preflight training; 18
more as cadets and 'then become
ensigns for three and one-half
years in active ditty.
Colege Graduates
For college graduates, four
months in preflight training are
required, plus 14 as cadets. Then
they are designated as naval avi-
ators and serve three and a half
years in active duty.
Women desiring to join the
Women Accepted for Voluntary
Enlistment Service must spend 16
weeks in officer candidate school.
These may' be taken either eight
between -the junior and senior
years and eight after graduation,
or all 16 after graduation.
The women then serve two years
of active duty, with most of their
assignments in administration,
personnel, supply, communications
and education.

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Your Future in Electronils at Hughes
As the West's leader in advanced electronics, Hughes is engaged in some of the most dramatic and
critical projects ever envisioned. Challenges for your imagination and development are to be found in
such diversified programs as:

I Project Surveyor (soft lunar landing) Communications Satellites
3-dimensional Radars Digital Computer Systems
Plasma Physics, Ion Propulsion Hydrospace Electronics
Solid State Materials and Devices Infrared
These are among the more than 500 outstanding programs now in prog-
ress at Hughes.These programs require the talents of E.Es and Physi-
cists who desire to work with professional scientists in research, de-
velopment and manufacture.
In addition, Hughes sponsors advanced degree programs for aca-
demic growth. These programs provide for advanced degree study
at many leading universities.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS and PHYSICISTS
B.S., M.S. and Ph.D. Candidates
Members of our staff will conduct
CAMPUS
INTERVIEWS.
February 27 & 28, 1962
Find out more about the wide range of
activities, educational programs, reloca-
tion allowances and progressive benefit
plans offered by Hughes. For interview
appointment or informational literature
consult your College Placement Director.
Or write: college Placement Office,
Hughes, Culver City, California.
An equal opportunity employer.

Creating a new world

with Electronfos

HUG HE S
S -- -- - 1
- -
HUGHES AIRCRAFT COMPANY

Our future is in the hands of men not yet hired

At Western Electric we play a vital role in
helping meet the complex needs of America's
vast communications networks. And a career
at Western Electric, the manufacturing arm of
the nation-wide Bell Telephone System, offers
young men the exciting opportunity to help us
meet these important needs.
Today, Western Electric equipment reduces
thousands of miles to fractions of seconds. Even
so, we know that our present communications
systems will be inadequate tomorrow; and we
are seeking ways to keep up ivith-and antici-
pate - the future. For instance, right now
Western Electric engineers are working on
various phases of solar cell manufacture,
miniaturization, data transmission, futuristic

engineers. If you feel that you can meet our
standards, consider the opportunities offered
by working with our company. In a few short
years, you will be Western Electric.
Challenging opportunities exist now at Western
Electric for electrical, mechanical, industrial, and chemi-
cal engineers, as well as physical science, liberal arts,
and business majors. All qualified applicants will re-
ceive careful consideration far employment without
regard to race, creed, color or national origin. For more
information about Western Electric, write College Rela-
tions, Western Electric Company, Room 6206, 222
Broadway, New York 38, New York. And be sure to
arrange for a Western Electric interview when our
college representatives visit your campus.

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