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April 06, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-04-06

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Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Teacher's Strike
Threatens Schools

)AY, APRIL 17, 1962


University Quality Transcends
Ideal of Low-Cost Education

IHE REGENTS are meeting in private today
to consider, among other things, the Uni-
versity's cash problems. They will consider
what alternatives the University will have for
raising money, in case state funds are in-
If the University gets the $4-5 million in-
crease it needs, especially for faculty salary
increases, everything will be fine--for perhaps
another year. But there doesn't seem to be
much chance of the Legislature's meeting the
University's needs this year, even if a series
of new taxes are passed.
The only other large source of cash for the
University's general fund is tuition. If the
state appropriation increase is anything less
than $4 million, there will almost certainly be
an increase in student fees for next year. Last
year, after the Regents had asked for a 25
per cent increase in the University's appro-
priation, the Legislature proceeded to raise
it one-half of one per cent-$147,000. If the
Legislature turns it back on the University's
future again this year, the Regents will have
to take action themselves.-
ONE QUESTION that they will have to re-
solve (which will probably be discussed
today) is whether or not the quality of educa-
tion at the University is more important than
its low cost. For most Regents, the decision
already seems to be for quality-as it probably
Butdstudents should not have to do more
than their share to provide quality. This is
everyone's responsibility. The Legislature in
the last several years has not carried its share
of the load. Since 1957, tuition has gone up
10 per cent for Michigan residents and 60
E LIBERAL'crepe hangers in the Washing-
ton press corps have been calling the Su-
preme Court's March 26 legislative reappor
ionment decision very bad news for the Re-
mblican Party. The liberal argument, also
oiced by Democratic officials, is that any
orthcoming reapportionment will take seats
away from Republicans representing rural areas
such as some parts of the Midwestern farm,
elt) and place them in urban areas tending to
o Democratic.
Conservatives widely agree that the Supreme
lourt's decision to allow federal courts to
niterfere in state election processes is wrong
rom the standpoint of constitutional doctrine.
hut from the practical political angle the
lecision is seen as rather a boost for the GOP
,nd not the severe setback envisioned by lib-
ral pundits.
[HE REPUBLICAN newsletter, Battle Line,
points out that the most under-represented
reas in the nation . .. are the burgeoning
uburban sections. Most of these areas tend to
ote Republican. "In the South," points out
attle Line, "the strong centers of Republican-
am are in the big cities plus their suburban
reas . . . And it is in the Democratic South
here under-representation of the metropolitan
reas is most pronounced."

per cent for out-of-state students. During the
same period, appropriations have risen 14 per
THIS YEAR, the Regents must ask the people
of Michigan to give their fair share of the
University's support, if the Legislature doesn't.
If there is a tuition raise, it should be applied
equally to all students. The last time tuition
went up-two years ago-in-state fees rose
12.5 per cent to $280 a year and out-of-state
tuition climbed 25 per cent to $750.
At that time, Regent Irene E. Murphy favor-
ed a 34 per cent raise in out-of-state tuition
and no increase for residents. Other Regents
also favor a greater proportionate increase
for non-residents.
Even if all students' fees were raised by an
equal per cent, this is not the same as raising
them by an equal amount. Two years ago, in-
state fees went up $30 and out-of-state tuition
rose $150. The ratio of non-resident to resident
fees has gone up consistently since 1949. In the
same period, tuition has been raised six times.
If the University must raise $2 million
through tuition this year, each student's share
would be decided by dividing the number of
students into $2 million. Such an action might
bring the problems of the University a little
closer to those who seem to be ignoring them.
r HE REGENTS might consider, however, in-
creasing graduate student fees more than
those for undergraduates. The University
spends four times as much on each graduate
as on each undergraduate, but in most cases
their tuition is the same. Graduates, it can
be said, aren't usually aided by their families
and often have families of their own to support.
But they also receive more loans and scholar-
ships and have better opportunities for em-
ployment. They are probably in a better
position to pay fees than are undergraduates.
Regent Allen R. Sorenson, who is probably
alone among the Regents in favoring every
possible compromise with quality before acting
against the principle of low cost, has taken
a position that is hard to criticize. But it
cannot apply to, the University as it does to
other public colleges in Michigan and other
The University is unique in providing low-
cost education with quality comparable to
leading private universities. The Legislature is
fond of comparing the University with other
Big Ten colleges. But the University is in a
league with Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Stan-
ford and wealthy California.
PEOPLE of the state and the Regents
have the option, certainly, of dropping out
of that league. And a university can get quite
exhausted trying to keep pace with universities
that charge twice as much per student and get
five times as much money from their alumni.
Only the state has the resources to maintain
both low cost and high quality at the Univer-
sity. Any forced departure from the low-cost
principle should be a temporary one-until the
Legislature opens its eyes.
And this departure, in the form of a tuition
increase, should at the same time correct in-
equities in the cost of education for resident
and non-resident students and graduates and

Daily Staff writer
NEW YORK CITY'S teachers are
ready to strike for higher
wages this Tuesday.
The strike was called by the
United Federation of Teachers,
the designated bargaining agent
for all of New York's 40,000 class-
room teachers. Its negotiations
with the Board of Education have
broken down, the Board tenta-
tively offering to spend $27 mil-
lion on the entire public school
system, and the teachers demand-
ing $53 million for salaries alone.
* * *
IF THE STRIKE is held on
April 10 as planned, it will prob-
ably have very serious effects on
the school system. The Federation
is a strong organization and its
president, Charles Cogen, pre-
dicts that 30,000 public school
teachers will go on strike.
"It would cripple the school sys-
tem," Cogen said last 'Monday in
speaking of the announced strike.'
"There's no doubt about it."
However, a walkout would vio-
late the Condon-Waldin Act in
New Yorc State, which forbids
public employees to strike. The law
was in fact broken on November
7, 1960, when the Federation called
a strike which lasted one day.About
4,600 teachers, according to the,
Board's estimates, (or about 10,000
according to the Federation's),
participated. There was no attempt
to enforce the Condon-Waldin
* * .
THE LEGALITY of the strike is
not the only problem which makes
an agreement between the Board
of Education and the Federation
difficult. Whereas management
usually knows exactly what assets
it has in order to meet the de-
mands of labor, the Board has
only a vague idea of how much
money it can spend.
The Board takes orders from
the Mayor, and he must act with-
in certain limits set in Albany.
These limits were defined last
week when the New York State
Legislature voted an increase in
state aid to education that would
give the city $46,200,000 more for
1962-63. However, Mayor Wagner
has not announced his budget al-
locations for the city's depart-
ments. He saysthe will do this in
one or two days.
The Federation does not like
this secrecy. It insists that "there
is no reason why the Board should
not now be in a position . .. to
begin bona fide negotiations on
IN ORDER to detach himself
from the secrecy, Dr. John T.
Th eobald, Superintendent of
Schools, has said that he would
be glad to meet with the teachers
once he knows how much money
he has to work with.
But Bogen wants the Board to

play a more active role in the
fight for more money. He de-
manded that the Board "resign in
a body" if it could not obtain the
sum the teachers demand: $53
This sum is way above the
Board's expectations of what it
can offer. And not only is there a
difference between the size of -he
Board's expectations and the Fed-
eration's demands, but there is
also a difference in what the two
sums would cover,
THEOBALD'S tentative offer of
$27 million includes all educational
improvements. This would cover
expenses for teachers' assistants,
secretarial help, specialists in
guidance, reading instruction and
improved textbook supplies. By
stressing the lump sum, the Board
makes their offer to the teachers
seem greater than it really is.
On the other hand, the money
demanded by the Federation }s
for salaries alone. By isolating the
issue of paychecks, the teachers
make their demands seem smaller
than they actually are.
BUT THERE ARE other issues
in this school strike issue besides
legality, effectiveness and the dif-
ferences between the two parties.
A different question is whether or
not such a strike would aid or
hinder public education in New
York City.
According to the Federation, "It
is better that your child lose days
of schooling" now than to suffer
through his entire educational ex-
perience in a second-rate school
This claim is backed up by ex-
perts. Dr. Mark C. Schinnerer,
consultant to the State Depart-
ment of Education, has testified
that drastic salary increases are
essential to the improvement of
the city's deteriorating schools.
The suburbs, with ther higher sal-
aries and better, working condi-
tions, often lure qualified teachers
away from the city.
On the other hand, an educa-
tor's belief in civil disobedience
might not be appreciated by or-
ganized labor in general. Contempt
for lawV never contributed to a
reputation of responsibility.
But, the law was broken before
without penalties. And it is most
likely that Condon-Waldin Act
will not be enforced in this case
either, because such an action
would forever embitter the teach-
IT IS NOT only a prohibitive
law that must be considered here
but also a promise. After the 1960
shrike, the Federation saidi that
there would not be another teach-
ers' strike in the city.
And as April 10 draws closer
and closer, talk of a strike becomes
less hypothetical and more real.


%%I (Par1 I

Burden on Wrong Shoulders


Five Week Grades: E

'ARLY REPORTING of freshman scholastic
progress is a good idea. Freshmen need to
ow how well they're doing and they need
know as soon as possible. The sooner a
st year student is able to spot flaws in his
idy habits and problems he is encountering
specific courses, the easier it will be for
n to correct these flaws and deliberately
idy harder for more difficult courses.
Also, early report of scholastic achievement
rts a freshman's parents and his counselors,
ose who should be able to help him in his
ort to do well. These are the best reasons
y five-week grades are given.,
However, many professors negate the sup-
sed purpose of five-week reports by giving
e same mark, usually C, to every freshman
dent. Others give C's to most students,
'ing accurate grades only to those who are
ling. What effect does it have on the student
o is doing A work and gets a C when he
covers that the student 'who sits next to
n, who, got a D on the one bluebook, also
s received a C? As one girl recently put it,
onestly it's so discouraging and unfair."
.t has been said that uniform grading of
s good for students because it frightens them

into really working. However, the above-average
student is discouraged and invariably feels
that he is the victim of an unfair system.
The below average -student is given a false
sense of success by the "gift." It is difficult
to see how the system could benefit anyone
but the actual C student, who would have
been graded this anyway.
WHY, THEN, do so many instructors prefer
uniform grading to honest appraisal on
five-week reports? Some have not yet, given
examinations and seem to have no choice but
to grade all "average." Others feel that work
done in so short a time is not indicative of a
student's achievement and it is better to mark
uniformly than purport to estimate his pro-
gress. Many professors, who haven't given
more than one exam in the five-week period,
view the system as a ludicruous ritual with no
worth - at least the way it is presently set
up. In short, faculty who give the same grades
to all students must feel that an honest ap-
praisal of scholastic achievement after such
a short time is impossible or improbable.
Which arrangement is more destructive to
the student: the lack of discrimination in
grading or the too-short time period which
will result in marks often poorly arrived at?
IDEALLY, the freshman pre-grading ought to
notify the student, his parents and his
counselor of his actual academic achievement.
The grades should not come out so soon after
the start of the semester that they are almost
Perhaps the sanest solution is to extend the
grading neriod to the eighth weer At this


Daily Staff Writer
(Fourth of a Series)
IN CONSIDERING any restruc-
turing of a state financial sys-
tem it is necessary to consider
who will bear the burden of the
Often, two taxes which appear
different actually taxdthe same
source. Often it is said that the
sales tax is actually a tax on per-
sonal income. Both taxes, in ef-
fect, are two sides of the same
coin-you tax the person either
coming or going.
* * *
RESEARCH into who bears the
burden under different types of
tax systems has been conducted by
Prof. Richard A. Musgrave of the
economics department.
He notes that the tax burden
may be passed on to people within
the state or to people who live in
other states.
For instance, the effects of a
state corporate income tax would
be as follows: companies might
pass part of the burden on to
consumers in the form of in-
creased prices. However, small
companies which have to compete
on the national market could not
afford to raise prices. On the
other hand, companies which set
the national standard, such as
automobile companies, can afford
to raise their prices. Their market,
however, is a national one and
most of the tax burden would be
taken up by car buyers in other
* * *
IN A CERTAIN sense, there is
justice in this, since those Michi-
gan companies whose products
have national consumption can
now make the people who enjoy
the fruits of Michigan labor add'
to the coffers of the state Legisla-
In this respect, Prof. Musgrave
has shown that a corporate income
tax whose burden is passed on to
the profits will be borne by the
19 per cent of the people in the
state. If the tax burden is shifted
to the consumer, 33 per cent will
be borne within Michigan.
In other taxes the percentages
are as follows: alcoholic beverages,
100 per cent; cigarettes, 9 per
cent; personal income, 88 per cent;
sales and use, 81 per cent; busi-
ness activities, 74 per cent; pro-
perty, 71 per cent; intangibles, 61
per cent; automotive, 66 per cent;
and corporate franchise, 21 per
It is obvious, that a tax on
corporate income would be a very
advantageous tax if the in-state
citizen is bearing too much of the
tax burden. This tax would be
very effective, therefore, in con-
junction with a personal income
PROF. MUSGRAVE'S study also
indicated that much of the state's
financial burden is borne by the
lower economic classes.
All of the state's present taxes
are regressive. The lowest eco-
nomic classes pay five times as
much saes ax n(when maanar

THIS STATE, therefore, has
failed. Not only is the tax system
inequitable, but the tax mess has
created a situation whereby the
state can not afford to supply
services to those who need them
most. This is a double regressivity
and Michigan is one of the few
remaining states to maintain it.
Often a state finds itself in a
financial mess due to necessary
spending in key areas. However,
Michigan finds itself in dire finan-
cial straits even though it has cut
basic welfare and educational
spending to the bone.
* *
THERE IS NO reason why a
state of this size, one of the
fastest growing states in the na-
tion and one of the most pros-
perous, should not be able to meet
the basic requirements set out
in the country's constitution --
namely, to provide for the health,
education and welfare of the
There is no reason that the
University should lose faculty men
just because of the state's shaky
financial situation.
There is no reason that the
state schools for the blind and the
deaf and the state rehabilitation
institute should not be able to
take all the people within their
charge. A failure here, is a failure
with a person's life.
* * *
ULTIMATELY,the solution must
be a personal income tax, as the
keystone in a completely revised
taxation structure.
A new system should create
some degree of progressiveness
which will alleviate the great fi-
nancial burden placed on the lower
economic classes and yet produce
enough revenue to offset the re-
duction of tax base and provide
for the state's expanding needs.
Controversy now ranges over
whether this type of structure can
be obtained through the use of a
graduated personal tax or a tax
based on a flat rate with adequate
* * *
REPEATEDLY, legislative tax-
study commissions have emphasiz-
ed that a graduated income tax is
unconstitutional. The new con-
stitutional convention, a suppos-
edly non-partisan affair, has act-
ed like the Legislature and refused
to incorporate the necessary con-
stitutional provisions for a grad-
uated personal income tax into tne
new document.
However, on the state-wide level,
a flat-rate personal income tax
can provide relief for lower-middle
income groups by allowing large
personal exemptions.
THE SYSTEM works as follows:
Assume that we have a two per
cent rate and an execption of
$1,000. If you have an income of
$1,000, you are exempt and pay
no tax. The effective rate is zero.
If you have an income of $2,000,
you are taxable on $1,000. Your
tax is $20 and your effective rate
is one per cent. If you have an in-
eomfl m n n on v mr. + a.hi n-

be to bring in the same amount of
money. However, by increasing or
decreasing these two factors you
can control the degree of progres-
sion and establish an equitable tax
* * *
HERE IS a plan which is not
only constitutional, but represents
a feasible nucleus for a new state
tax structure.
If a tax of this type is initiated
in conjunction with a corporate
income tax designed to pass the
tax burden on to citizens in other
states through the use of partial
exemptions for companies that are
forced to compete on the national
market, the state will never again
have a financial crisis of the type
it is now experiencing.
Indeed, if the income tax is
correctly designed, there should be
no further need for a state retail
sales and use tax.,
The Business Activities Tax
could be removed in a similar
The property tax could be ex-
tended to include automobiles.
* * *
THESE FEW STEPS represent,
the core of a practical plan to
solve the state's financial prob-
lems. All can be legislated and
acted upon by the people in the
coming election.
'The enactment of a plan similar
to this one would wipe out the
so very permanent "temporary"
measures that characterize the
state tax structure.
Unfortunately, this is a rational
plan, and rational plans are no-
toriously unsuccessful in the Mich-
igan state Legislature. ,
There is no getting around the
fact that the Legislature is made
up of politicians whose interests
are not those of the people. How-
ever, if political pressure for a
rational plan is put on the sena-
tors and representatives they will
suddenly appear to be very ra-
The future of the state, there-
fore, lies in the hands of the
Legislature. And nothing less than
a concerted pressure on the part
of the electorate will save this
state from ultimate financial

Next 'Challenge'
Shows Promitse

To the Editor:
ISS GOLDEN'S observations in
Tuesday's "Overtime" reflect
some perception into the problems
that Challenge faces and a genuine
concern over the condition of the
organization. However, that she
did not consult any Challenge per-
sonel before writing her article
or before sending it to press has
resulted in some misunderstand-
ings that warrant correction and.
To begin with, whereas Chal-
lenge cannot boast of overwhelm-
ing response, this semester's at-
tendance cannot properly be diag-
nosed as a symptom of "withering
on the vine." True, there have
been instances of scant participa-
tion that have left the organizers
less than satisfied. But Dr. Harold
Taylor's audience of 300 and ,the
160 who attended "The University
as a Community" discussion in-
dicate something more than Miss'
Golden's grim report.

But accepting the fact that Chal-
lenge has not enjoyed the popu-
larity accorded Diag twist eon-
tests and the like, the article's
suggestions offer nothing new in
the way of improvement. Most
certainly, there is reason to re-
vivify the structure and activities
of Challenge, and Miss Golden un-
doubtedly wants to',help. But, 'a
person in every housing unit .. .
is not an untried idea. The tre-
mendous amount of energy and
thought, which Ralph Kaplan has
poured into Challenge, has as-
suredly included attempts of that
Finally, this reader would like to
acknowledge Miss Golden's fore-
cast that next spring's "The Chal-
lenge of Changing Morality" uill
not "woo the campus away from
the Undergrad on a steady basis."
There is, after all, quite a bit of
justification in regarding mid-
terms and papers above any extra-
curricular activity.
But, whereas next year's plan-
ners do not intend "enticement"
with a theatrical sex ethics pro-
gram, Challenge '62-'63 will oper-
ate with considerable thought and
preparation behind it, offering a
fruitful examinnation of issues
which have a great deal of rele--
vance to every student's searching
-Ron Newman,'63
Raid ...
To the Editor:
THE "well trained guerrilla
units" which were dispatched
from Helen Newberry Residence on
Monday evening were not seeking
revenge for last week's panty raid.
It may ,be noted that the first
stage of the invasion included a
raid upon Betsy Barbour Resi-
dence, who I am sure was not
offensively involved in last week's,
+o ,..4. r


The Daily Official Bulletin is an
off icial publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
General Notices
AAUP Members and Other Interested
Members of the Faculty: The local
chapter of the American Association of
University Professors will meet at 8:00
p.m. Thurs., April 19, in the West Con-
ference Room, Rackham Bldg. A panel
will discuss "The Impact of Year-Round
Operations on the Faculty." Partici-
pants will include Prof. Stephen H.
Spurr, who is studying the details of

final day for DROPPING COURSES
WITHOUT RECORD will be Fri., April
6. A course may be dropped only with
the permission of the program adviser
after conference with the instructor.
Approval for the following student-
sponsored activities becomes effective
24 hours after the publication of this
notice. All publicity for these events
must be withhelduntil the approval
has become effective,
April 20-Folklore Society, Concert
with Jesse Fuller, Union Ballroom, 8
April 23-Women's League, Installa-
tion Night, Rackham, 7 p.m.
April 22-Folklore Society, Concert
with Bob Dillon, Union Ballroom, 2:30
April 21-Folklore Society, Workshops,
3rd floor, SAB, 10:30 a.m.
nw 1

Editorial Staff
City Editor Editorial Director
AN FARRELL ...............ersnnel Director
'ER STrUAR m ImA m ..a..zin Editor

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