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April 01, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-04-01

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Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"'
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.


. ,
, ,

Negro Education:
Separate, Unequal

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Sigma Nu Receivership Move
Doesn't Change Basic Issue

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_, .

NATIONAL Sigma Nu surprised nearly every-
one on campus earlier this week by slapping
its University chapter into a receivership.
The action startled administration officials,
who cite no earlier precedent here; it surprised
members of the Committee on Membership in
Student Organizations, who had seen no evi-
dence in previous conversations with the house
president that the move would take place; and
it undoubtedly upset some students on SGC,
who thought they had a nice open-and-shut
case on the fraternity's bias clause.
According to the receivership plan, the Board
of Receivership, on authority from the national
High Council, will have the power:
"To veto rush prospects, veto bids to pledge
prospects, veto initiations, remove and/or ap-
point any chapter officers, impose probation or
suspension on any member or pledge, determine
the budget and expenditures thereunder, ap-
prove or disapprove activities of all types in-
volving the chapter within the limitations
established by the host institution,' and handle
all other management responsbilities not speci-
fically enumerated herein."
W HEN A NATIONAL takes the drastic step
of assuming direct authority over a chap-
ter's operations, you know the local is not in
the best of shape. Sigma Nu, says the statement,
is having troubles with "scholastics, local fi-
nances, poor morale, and lowered University
reputation," as well as its conflict with bias
clause regulations. The announcement could
have added that the chapter has been in trouble
with the police and University officials, and this
spring suffered a. disastrous rush, garnering
only three pledges.
After several years of this sort of thing, the
National finally stepped in to try to save the
chapter. It probably would have intervened even
without the current SGC airing of the. bias
B UT WITH its commendable efforts to help
out, the national p'ut the local into an even
more dangerous situation. A University regula-
tion provides that a student organization's
program and direction must be "in the hands
of student members."
On a strict interpretation of this rule, every
fraternity and sorority is in violation. Pledge
lists must go to the national for approval
(almost always rubberstamping), and sororities
must get two recommendations from hometown
acquaintances of the prospective pledges.
But these activities have never brought any
warning in the past from SGC or the adminis-
tration, although the membership committee
will soon be investigating the implications of
the sororities' recommendations system. Sigma
Nu's action, on the other hand, moves from the
traditional advisory nature into the actual
supervision of the local's operations.
Deducing from the facts of the case, it is
possible that the national could' soften the
receivership provisions, so that SGC would not
be tempted to withdraw recognition on the
"local control" issue.
BESIDES the impending moral and financial
shot in the arm, the Receivership Board,
through its chairman, Dr. Sidney Smock, tried
to help out the chapter in another way: by
asking SGC not to set a time limit for the
elimination of its bias clause, contained in the
national constitution.
)Norton Best Ase
THIS WEEK independent women will be
casting their votes for Assembly Association
president, choosing between Marge Bower and
Mary Beth Norton.
In past years the president has been chosen
by Assembly Dormitory Council representa-
tives. But this, year each woman will have an
Mindividual vote, by secret ballot. This year,
more than ever, women must know who and
what they are voting for.
Assembly in the coming year will need
to be an energetic body. It faces many prob-
lems. Co-educational housing probably the
most important.
The work of Assembly is not finished with

the statement that such housing will exist. It
will probably be the job of Assembly to imple-
ment these dormitories, transferring women
from the converted houses in Alice Lloyd into
Editorial Staff
City Editor Editorial Director
SUSAN FARRELL...............Personnel Director
PETER STUART.................Magazine Editor
MICHAEL BURNS............ Sports Editor
PAT GOLDEN .. ........Associate City Editor
RICHARD OSTLING ......Associate Editorial Director
DAVID ANDREWS ..........Associate Sports Editor
CLIFF MARKS ................Associate Sports Editor

Smock's statement, however, does nothing to
prove Sigma Nu's case.
For instance, he tried to explain away diffi-
culties in getting rid of the clause by appealing
to how "strongly embedded in the South" the
national is. Great. Except that less than one-
third of the chapters are in the South. Asked
how he could reconcile the two statements;
Smock had "'no comment."
He then continues his sympathy appeal with
a detailed account of how much the local has
done "to correct the difficulty" with the clause.
In 1950 the University Sigma Nu delegation
brought up a motion at the national convention
to eliminate the discriminatory provision. In
every year since then, the chapter at the local
level has voted in favor of removal, and did so
unanimously last month.
The Committee on Membership recommenda-
tion reads a little differently. The local has
attempted "to steer a middle course between
the non-discriminatory policy of the University
regulation and the discriminatory policy re-
quired by national Sigma Nu ... it has not been
identified strongly with efforts to amend the
SMOCK'S STAW'EMENT promises the local is
organizing its 90 alumni to back its plan
to bring before the convention this summer a
motion to delete the clause. Fine except it had
never given any indication of its plan during its
interviews with the membership committee.
Smock comes through with some details
about Sigma Nu's waiver policy-the local
would have "complete autonomy." Yet up until
this time the chapter has said it didn't know
what the waiver provisions were nor what it
had to do to get one.
The misleading implications in Smock's state-
ment, and facts the chapter either did not know
or did not reveal before "magically" springing
to light, simply do not create any basis for
SGC not to withdraw recognition.
If the local continues to be run by the Re-
ceiving Board, and not by the members, SGC
should withdraw recognition as soon as possible.
But for the bias clause, it shouldn't do so-yet.
SIGMANU probably deserves to be thrown off
more than any other fraternity. But it
shouldn't be penalized while other groups go
scot free for some time. Why should Sigma Nu
be barred when Lambda Chi or Trigon
still openly violate Regents Bylaw 2.14?
Before it kicks any house off campus, Council
should act against all fraternities and sororities
that discriminate. It should set the first day of
classes in the fall as the deadline for elimina-
tion by the groups of all written bias. The Com-
mittee on Membership should work through
this spring and summer to determine which of
the fraternities and sororities conflict with the
bylaw, instead of proceeding one by one. Then
SOC would consider the cases as they are
brought forth en masse by the committee. It
would view the cases individually, but not
take any action until all had been studied.
After that, it should go into the issues of
tangible but non-written bias, considering fac-
tors such as the recommendations system in
sororities and "gentlemen's clauses" in frater-
nities, both of which are sometimes discrimina-
torily applied.
And then perhaps some time we can say, with
some justice and honesty, the University has
become a little cleaner, a little higher.
Dmby Candidate
other houses and helping with the formulation
of new rules to govern co-ed living units.
Assembly will also help formulate policies
regarding women's hours (in conjunction with
Women's Judiciary Council) and the work to
be done on the Oxford Project living units.
These projects place before Assembly prob-
lems which must be faced with an energetic
attitude and full cognizance of exactly what
independent women want.
CONSIDERING these problems, it seems ob-
vious that Mary Beth Norton is the can-
didate most qualified to head Assembly.
As an ADC representative this year she has
shown a real interest in hard work. She has
tried to give more women Assembly represen-

tation through legislation and has instigated
action which tried to establish the validity of
personal evaluations used in the dormitories.
Miss Bower, on the other hand, has little
of this type positive action to her credit. She
has organized her committee of big-little sister
chairmen admirably. But she has not initiated
or even made her views known on controversial
issues throughout the year.
In a random sample of ADC reps, not one
remembered her ever saying anything at ADC
meetings. Although she is on the executive
committee and cannot voice her opinions by
vote, she does have the right to express them
in discussion. She has not exercised this right.
Now she hopes to be president, with all of the
power .and responsibility that goes along with



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C's3i4G,2 S toms os - it Eo
F Pa G.

ALtkVIMc-! D DNT Ru H ME!"

Peronists Surge in Argentina

Daly Staff Writer
FOR MANY YEARS the Southern
states have successfully block-
ed full scale integration with vague
claims of "separate, but equal
education." Southern legislators
conveniently ignore the fact that
Negro colleges and secondary
schools are really more crowded,
more inadequately endowed, and
worse situated academically than
white schools.
The Southern states have con-
sistently had less integration in
their colleges and public schools
than they have claimed. State in-
stitutions, on the whole, realize the
inevitability of integration, but
have kept it merely at a token
Only Mississippi, Alabama and
South Carolina have no integra-
tion in their state universities;
while Florida, Arkansas, Virginia
and North Carolina have kept it
to a mere two or three students
per institution.
the Negroes do not want integra-
tion because they can get as good
or better an education in their
own schools. At the same time,
these Negro institutions are fac-
ing many problems in overcrowd-
ing, discrimination in financial ap-
propriations and limited course
With higher education appro-
priations the Negro state college's
first battle begins with the appro-
priation of state and federal funds.
White institutions receive some 62
per cent of federal appropriations,
which are strictly allotted by the
state on the basis of race.
State legislatures cannot even
assure that funds specified for
Negro public school improvement
are really spent for that purpose.
With many rural white schools so
substandard, there is a tempta-
tion to siphon off the funds to
these white schools.i
A RECENT study by the Com-
mission on Civil Rights recom-
mended that the government give
funds to Southern legislatures with
the requirement that no discrimi-
nation in distribution take place.
Banning federal aid entirely to
states which discriminate in fed-
eral fund distribution would be a
drastic measure to be taken only
if all other methods of control
*. *
THE NEGRO grammar and sec-
ondary school meets a problem
in the lack of qualified teachers
throughout the South. Both Negro
and white rural schools have dif-
ficulty in attracting experienced
and qualified teachers. Most teach-
ers prefer the suburbs and upper
middle class neighborhoods to ru-
ral, backward communities. They
want better facilities and higher
pay offered in the progressive
urban areas.
A 1952 study revealed that in
only three Southern states were
Negro teachers paid more than
white teachers if they merited it
on the basis of training and back-
ground. The rest of the states had
varying gaps in salary equality,
with Mississippi offering white
teachers $1,991 and Negro teachers.
$1,019. This gap is gradually nar-
rowing some what in the rural
areas while in most cities it is
almost non-existent.
*' * *
that proportionally fewer Negroes
had the educational foundation
necessary for success at a "first-
rate" college. Their backgrounds

were inferior to those of white
students, and this difference helps
to perpetuate the problem of dis-
crimination and segregation at
higher levels of education.
Until the overall Negro public
school system is improved by forc-
ed integration in newly constructed
consolidated schools, there can be
little chance for more Negroes to
receive a top-quality education.
* * *
THE VERY existence of two
separate systems impedes the
progress of total improvement. The
insistence that separate systems be
maintained and that appropria-
tions be divided prevents one solid
system from developing. Without
a strong financial base and a
united system Negro and white
schools cannot begin to enlarge to
meet growing enrollments and to
raise their academic achievement.
In keeping schools segregated,
states have often caused drastic
overcrowding in Negro schools.
Boundary linesbecome illogical
and the Negro student is forced to
travel miles to enroll in a crowded,
understaffed Negro school. This
overcrowding leads to a high ratio
of students to teachers.
An estimation of the level of
education of many substitute Ne-
gro teachers in public" schools
compared unfavorably with white
teachers. In the 1952 study, Mis-
sissippi's white teachers had 37
years of college; while Negro
teachers had only 1.9. In advanced
states such as Florida, the level
was almost equal, and in Virginia,
Negro teachers were more qualified
than white. This upgrading in
teacher training is slowly taking
place in the cities, but once agan,
in the rural areas it is greatly
faces a problem when he tries to
get a high quality graduate educa-
tion in the South. Often public
Negro colleges are land-grant ag-
ricultural and mechanical institu-
tions which are limited in graduate
course offerings. The Negro can-
not gain entrance to the white
institutions, and if he is unable
to goNorth or get into one of the
private liberal arts colleges for
Negroes, he' may not get his ad-
vanced degree.
This results in the small number
of Negroes in professional levels
of employment. Somehow, either
through forced integration in state
schools or through federal scholar-
ships to Northern graduate schools,
the Negro must be permitted to
attain access to graduate educa-
* * *
ON THE WHOLE, the gaps
have been narrowing between
white and Negro educational fa-
cilities in the last 10 years. In
some urban areas, the difference
has all but been erased. However,
for the more backward rural areas
the distinction is obvious.
The state government must ap-
portion more for Negro schools and
to change public school token in-
tegration to a more substantial
The federal government must
enforce checks on pupil appropria-
tions and funds for land-grant col-
leges to make sure that the schools
are equalized.
The hollow cry of "separate, but
equal education" is turning sour
in the face of mounting facts and
figures. The whole improvement
of the Southern education system
hinges on the realization that in-
tegration is the key to improving
intellectualeand social achievement
for both Negroes and whites.



Daily Staff Writer
tina's current political crisis
seems to be just about anybody's
guess. One thing is certain: the
working masses of Argentina are
no longer willing to support a gov-
ernment based on the elaborate
conciliatory maneuvering of Ar-
turo Frondizi in an effort to main-
tain a delicate balance between
conservative millitary elements
and Peronista demands.
Ex-president Frondizi was very
wrong in assuming that the for-
mer dictator's ghost was gone for-
ever when he decided to allow the
names of Peron followers on the
ballot in this month's elections.
Thirty-five per cent of the vote
in the provincial elections went
to Peron supporters. Because of
splitting in the other parties, the
Peronistas won 44 of 86 congres-
sional seats and 9 of 14 provincial
governorships, including vitally
important Buenos Aires province.
* * *
THE ELECTION was free and
democratic. Before the election,
Frondizi had promised that Peron-
ist candidates would be allowed to
take office if they were elected.
After the returns came in, Frondizi
promptly ordered military inter-
vention to annul the Peronist vic-
tories in five of the provinces, jus-
tifying his move on the basis of
a constitutional provision that
such intervention is permissible if
the republican form of government
is threatened.
The definition of "republic" has
varied throughout history to in-
clude everything from oligarchy to
popular democracy. In any case,
to the
Theatre Program ..
To the Editor:
versity's new Professional Thea-
tre Program with Judith Ander-
son's performance Thursday night
has given great satisfaction to all
of us connected with this project.
We are especially grateful for
the support given so promptly by
the students of the University,
since this program has been es-
tablished first of all for their
pleasure and benefit.
It is a remarkable statistic that
the audience which filled Hill Aud-
itorium practically to capacity was
60 per cent students who had
taken advantage of the special stu-
dent discounts. It was a thrilling
experience for the artists as well
as for the management when those
students responded to Dame Ju-
dith's "Medea" with a standing
,All of us connected with the
creation of the Professional Thea-
tre Program are keenly aware of
the support which The Daily has
given to us in this formative per-
iod, and we intend that the Pro-


a "republican" government is
based on the will of a certain
designated electorate. In Argen-
tina it was Frondizi himself who
allowed the Peronistas to consti-
tute part of the electorate. Thus,
his excuse for intervention is du-
bious at best.
IN PROTEST, one million Pe-
ronist workers left their Jobs in
a general strike, whileias many
refused to join them. Posters sup-
portinng Andres Framini, head of
the 146,000 member textile work-
ers' union and Peronist governor-
elect of Buenos Aires declared that
the Argentine crisis demonstrated
again that "force is the only
method reactionaries can use to
defend their privileges."
Argentina's conservative military
was, of course, scandalized. After
a brief interval of confusion, ru-
mor and uncertainty, the military
leaders duly deposed Frondizi and
seemed undecided about what to
do next until former senate presi-
dent Jose Maria Guido reversed
his former position of loyalty to
Frondizi and took over.
The country is now under mar-
tial law under the Comites plan
which makes all persons regarded
as extremists or subversives sub-
ject to arrest. Yet the New York'
Times cites an "air of public de-
tachment from the political crisis"
in Buenos Aires.
* * *
THE TWO MAJOR questions are
these: first, should the election be
respected? and secondly, what does
"Peronism" mean in modern Ar-
Frondizi's government, by per-
mitting Peronist votes to be cast
in the election, took upon itself
the responsibility to abide by the
decisions of the electorate. The
people of Argentina were given a
chance to voice their will freely.
The invalidation of the election
is likely to produce a dangerous
disillusionment with democracy
that could intensify, rather than
discourage, a turn towards Peronist
* * A
IF THE PEOPLE discover that
"democracy" will not permit them
to exercise their will, why should
they fear dictatorship? It is this
bitterness towards democratic pro-
cedure that is probably the great-
est disaster resulting from the
election aftermath.
Even some anti-Peronist con-
servative parties asked that the
election results be respected-but

those results were not respected,
and democracy itself is not likely
to be respected much longer.
PERONISM in Argentina today
is a curious phenomenon, if it is
to be understood as literally con-
nected with Peron himself. His re-
gime from 1946 to 1955 was char-
acterized by far-reaching economic
gains for workers which eventually
bankrupted the country and led to
his! ouster by the military. Yet be
wads completely inconsistent politi-
In his "election" he managed to
split nearly all parties into fac-
tions either strongly for or strongly
against him-including socialists
and Communists. He seemed to be
a member of all parties and of
Basically, he supported only
self. When he saw bankruptcy ap-
proaching, he courted foreign in-
vestment as earnestly as he had
opposed it before. The military and
the working class, traditional po-
litical enemies, both supported his
rise. He modelled himself after
Mussolini, but declared he would
avoid the Italian dictator's mis-
takes. His labor campaign was
headed by Fritz Mandl, an ex-
Austrian munitions magnate and
a Fascist.
Under his rule, the Communist
vote was only 30,000 of ten million,
while before the party was out-
lawed by Frondizi, its vote rose to
800,000. He is probably more Fas-
cist than anything else, and it is
significant that he has spent his
exile in Franco's Spain. Yet the
rich hated him.
* *' *
THE NEW YORK Times reports
that Peronistas in Argentina have
asked that Peron be recalled from
Spain for the presidency in 1964.
Interviews quote Argentine work-
ers as remembering "the good old
days" of welfare under Peron,
all undone by Frondizi.
If the current Peronist move-
ment does not represent, as it
seems to, a movement of the left
in Argentina, it is a betrayal of
that left. Some Peron-type socio-
economic legislation is a legitimate
desire, but the confusion of Peron
himself with the need for reform
is tragic.
Certain forms of the old "Peron-
ism," introduced under sophisticat-
ed and far-seeing leadership, could
prove helpful in Argentina, but
confused and headstrong neo-
Fascism would be disastrous.

Modern Band Music
To Be Displayed



A T 3:00 today in Hill Auditorium
the University Symphony Band
will present a program of music
which has been composed within
this generation.
The music written for the sym-
phonic band has tended to be of
a conservative nature rather than
reflecting the various new trends
of contemporary composition. One
reason is that this is a relatively
young medium. The rise of in-
strumental music in the public
schools and colleges of this coun-
"try has created a demand for a
symphonic band literature.
Since we do not have profes-
sional 'bands as we do orchestras,
publishers have schools as their
best customers for band music.
Publishers are wary of the market
for fear that there will be no
niarket for innovative music, and
innovative composers are wary of
entrusting their works to non-
professional groups.
This leaves an opening for the
more conservative composers who
are attracted to the symphonic
band medium. The works on this
afternoon's program are some of
the best within this framework.

home with this work. His music is
structurally and dramatically sa-
Because Hindemith is European,
this work does not have the same-
ness of sound which characterizes
so much of American symphonic
band literature. Hindemith's Sym-
phony in B Flat has the stamp of
his own personal style.
,THE OTHER non-American
composition on the program is the
Toccata for Percussion by Mex-
ico's prominent composer Carlos
Chaves. In the relatively small
literature which exists for per-
cussion ensembles, this work' is
firmly established.
Percussion also figures prom-,
inently in Vincent Persichetti's
Symphony for Band, also to be
featured. This native composer's
works have become widely per-
formed in the schools of America.
Gunther Schuller's Symphony
for Brass and Percussion demands
virtuoso playing from the per-
formers. Schuller is himself a
French horn artist.
He has also been heavily involv-
ed in "third stream music," an


The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3564 Administration Building
before 2 p.m., two days preceding
General Notices
Applications for German University
exchange study are available at the
Scholarship Office. 2011 SAB. Applica-

Michigan's Stanley Quartet with Gil-
bert Ross and Gustave Rosseels, violin-
ists, Robert Courte, violist, and Jerome
Jelinek, cellist, assisted by Clyde
Thompson, double bass. Grace-Lynne
Martin is guest soprano. Open to the
public without charge.
Nursing 101: April 2, 1962, "Prelude
to Sophomore Year" with Barbara Horn,
chairman. M5330 Medical Science Bldg.
at 3:00 p.m.
Lecture: John L. Ackrill, Brasenose"
College. Oxford, England, will discuss
"Aristotle's Distinction Between Activ-
ity and Change" on Mon.. April 2 at

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