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March 31, 1962 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-03-31

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Seventy-Second Year
"Where Opinions Are eS TUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail"
Editdrials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

State Senate Battles over Tax Question

JRDAY, MARCH 31, 1962


Forced Integration
Needed in the North

IIGHT YEARS AGO the Supreme Court de-
clared segregation in schools unconstitu-
mnal. The South has hardly begun to cooper-
e with the letter of the law and the North
L3 adopted educational policies inconsistent
th the spirit of the law. In one part of the
untry, there is no mixing of the races be-
use the law prohibits it; in the others, dis-
imination in housing makes it impossible.
It the results are the same-Negroes are
evented from going to school with whites.
This situation should not exist. Northern
n-integration is just as harmful to the
inority as Southern segregation. In its 1954
cision, the Supreme Court declared, "to
parate (children) from others of similar
e and qualifications solely because of their
ce generates a feeling of inferiority as to
eir status in the community that may affect
eir hearts and minds in a way unlikely ever
be undone." ,
The Northern Negro has the same feelings of
feriority because of de facto segregation as
es the Southern Negro because of de jure
gregation. An attempt to alter the situation
ould be made in the North as well as in the
Forced integration has, positive advantages
well. First, a considerable amount of early
ntact with another race helps to dispel
ejudical feelings. Second, facilities would
come truly equal if both Negroes and whites
tend the same school. In addition, whites
come aware that the only Negroes in the
>rld are not janitors, maids and garage

B UT THE OBSTACLES to change in the
North are different from those in the
South. The fight cannot be carried on in the
courts, because no laws requiring segregation
exist. The battleground for integration must bej
the community itself. And most communities
are opposed to integration in the schools be-
cause of the cost and the transportation prob-
lems involved.
The amount of money spent on integration
and the amount of "bussing" required depends
both on the city and the type of solutions
offered. In Chicago, a professor of education
at the University of Chicago urged that racial
quotas be set up for public high schools.
Robert J. Havighurst recommended that the
city school board require all public high schools
to admit no less than 20 per cent and no more
than 50 per cent Negro students.
In Detroit, the transportation problems would
be few and the expense would be small. This
is because the pattern of segregated housing
in Detroit often produces all-Negro neighbor-
hoods closely situated to all-white neighbor-
hoods. More Negroes could easily go to white
schools with little difficulty. And it is not
necessary to mix each. and every grade in
every school.
THE PROBLEMS of de facto segregation are
not without solutions that can work. Educa-
tien experts must get to work on the specifics.
And the difficulties and expense involved would
certainly be worth the correction of the social
injustice going on in every small Southern
town and every large Northern city.

Republican Regulars
Arthur H. Dehmel of Union-
Charles S. Feenstra of Grand
Lynn0.Francis of Midland
Clyde H. Geerlings of Holland
Clarence C. Graebner of Sag-
Perry W. Greene of Grand
Frederick H. Hilbert of Way-
Harold W. Hughes of Prescott
Harry R. Litowich of Benton
Carleton H. Morris of Kala-
Elmer R. Porter of Blissfield
Joseph R. Smeekens of Cold-
Lloyd A. Stephens of Scott-
Paul C. Younger of Lansing
GOP Moderates
Haskell L. Nichols of Jackson
Farrell H. Roberts of Pontiac
Stanley 0. Thayer of Ann
GOP Moderates
John W. Fitzgerald of Grand

William G. Milliken of Trav-
erse City
Thomas F. Schweigert of Pe-
John H. Stahlin of Belding
GOP Regular
Frank G. Beadle of4St. lair
The Democrats-1O
Charles S. Blondy of Detroit
Basil W. Brown of Detroit
Patrick J. Doyle of Dearborn
Raymond C. Dzendzel of De-
Garland Lane of Flint
Charles O. McManiman of
Stanley Novak of Detroit
Philip O. Rahoi of Iron Mt.
Stanley F. Rozycki of Detroit
George H. Steeh of Mt.
Vacancy to be Filled-
(Due to death of William E.
Miron, D-Escanaba)
Election-Monday, April 2
Kent T. Lundgren (R-Men-
Prentiss M. Brown, Jr. (D-St.
Vacancy not to be
(Due to resignation of Harold
M. Ryan, D-Detroit)

Daily Staff Writer
propriation from the state has
become the temporary victim of
the current battle over taxes in
the Michigan State Senate.
Sen. Elmer Porter, chairman of
the Appropriations Committee, has
announced that he will take no
action on any appropriations until
the tax issue is settled one way or
Sen. Haskell L. Nichols has serv-
ed notice that he willask to have.
Sen. Clyde H. Geerlings' Taxation
Committee discharged from fur-
ther consideration of all matters
currently before it Monday night.
It takes 18 votes to pull off such
a manuever, and Geerlings frankly
doubts Nichols can muster them.
day evening will be important,
since it will prove once and for all
whether there are enough votes to
pass an income tax. All proponents
of the income tax are expected to
vote in favor of Nichols' motion,
all opponents against it, because it
is essentially the income tax which
Geerlings refuses to report out
for debate.
In spite of Geerlings' confidence,
Nichols could succeed. This would
mean that al bills in the commit-
tee would come onto the floor for
debate, including the controversial
statewide income tax.
* * * -
THE ISSUE is basically partisan,
but a few Republican mavericks
have been muddying up the

waters. The Democrats-all 10 of
them-favor the enactment of an
income tax to provide the neces-
sary revenue to get the state out
of debt. The Republican Regulars
-all 14 of them-favor nuisance
taxes to accomplish the same pur-
The balance then hinges upon
the votes of the remaining eight
senators-seven Moderate Repub-
licans, who have wavered back and
forth on the tax issue, and Sen.
Frank G. Beadle, who is currently
working on an income tax proposal
of his own.
If the 14 Republican Regulars
can muster just four more votes,
they can block the Nichols maneu-
ver, proving that a majority of the
Senate is opposed to an income'
tax. On the other hand, If the
Democrats and the three Solid
Republican Moderates can come
up with five more votes, an in-
come tax could pass the Senate
Monday night.
THE BALANCE of power among
the Moderates lies with four sena-
tors who have been wavering on
the tax issue: John Fitzgerald,
William Milliken, Thomas Schwei-
gert and John Stahlin. In addition,
Beadle, who is normally a mem-
ber of the Regulars, could well be
coerced into backing Geerlings for
old times sake.
If any four of these five sena-
tors, the wavering Moderates and
Beadle, side with Geerlings, the
income tax issue is read. However,
since it takes 18 votes to discharge

the Taxation Committee, the Mod-
erate-Democratic coalition would
have to win all five of those votes.
Anything short of that would give
a victory to Geerlings by default.
* * *
AN UNKNOWN factor will be
introduced on Tuesday, when the
winner of a special election in the
Upper Peninsula will be sworn in.
The election Monday will be close,
but Republican Kent Lundgren is
given an edge.
Ludgren, a con-con delegate, has
not committedhimself on the tax
issue, but his UP Republican col-
leagues all oppose an income tax.
Should he side with Geerlings in
the future, the victory for the
Regulars would be even more de-
However, should Democrat Pren-
tiss M. Brown, a Democrat down
the line, win the special contest,
the Democrat-Moderate coalition
would be just that much closer to
* * *
ON THE SURFACE, it appears
that Geerlings will win. None of
the four wavering Moderates rep-
resent districts that sympathize
with the enactment of an income
tax, and Geerlings could make
things rough for them in the elec-
tion this fall, if he wished to.
Also, Geerlings' defeat hinges on
whether or not the Democrat coa-
lition can scrape up every Republi-
can who is undecided. And if the
Republicans can't always get these
GOP waverers, it won't be any
easier for the Democrats to pull
it off.


Faculty Turnover
And City Planning

Reapportionment Relief?

Th e rrowingChoice

A COUPLE OF YEARS ago the Honors Steer-
ing Committee circulated a questionnaire
asking for comment on the desirability of
Eonors housing. The idea was presented with
profound ineptness, and Honors students voted
its down three to one. Now the proposal has
come up again, and many of the same objec-
tions are, being raised against it. It is time
these objections were given a critical scrutiny.
The main reason people oppose Honors
hiousing is that it smacks of elitism. Good
democrats allA students bristle at any proposal
which seems to accord special treatment to
people merely because they were born with
brains. Many students privately frown on the
whole concept of an Honors program but con-
ent themselves with the fact that Honors
students are, at least, unidentifiable in the
utside world. A scheme like Honors Housing
brings out this latent disapproval by making
Honors students conspicuous. It makes them
nto an aloof aristocracy. And this grates on'
he midwestern Populist bias.
ANOTHER OBJECTION some students have
to Honors housing is that it leaves the
door open to brainwashing. This is the fear
hat Honors housing would be a Brave New
world where students' values and beliefs would
be corrupted-the first step in the creation
f a class of Alpha's. Recent proposals that the
Jniversity "engineer" the extra-classroom en-
rironment of students are grist for this mill.
A final set of objections which hasn't come
ip yet but probably will are the petty com-
Ilaints from students who will be inconvenienc-
d if Honors housing is instituted. The plan to
)egin Co-ed housing next fall was torpedoed
>artly by objections of this sort-some girls in
klice Lloyd and the graduate students in East
quad didn't want to move. If Martha Cook is
xpanded and made into an Honors house as
>ne plan suggests,, there is sure to be protest.
The fact that there are objections does not
nean the whole idea should necessarily be
bandoned. Honors housing can be either
rood or bad, depending on the reasons for
which it is instituted.
I2HE UNIVERSITY should provide as many
alternatives as possible to the student who
wants to experiment with different styles of
ife. This means the University should remove
mpediments to experimentation by a student
with activities,, classes or housing. It should
educe residence hall contracts to one semester,
irculate information about various opportun-
ties on campus, and be willing to grant re-
earch or activities sabbaticals to students. The
University should also take positive steps to
reate new alternatives. Honors housing could
e one such step.
It is no secret that for most students Uni-
ersity Residence Halls are intellectual deserts.
lonors students are usually required to look
cf;r * *al D il

elsewhere for companionship. Some form into
small knots, like the mathematics students who
congregate in the South room of the MUG.
Others drift into student activities. Many just
do without intellectual relationships of any
sort. There is no question that some of these
students would prefer Honors housing to their
present alternatives. This new alternative
should be available to them.
The argument that the University should
not give special treatment to Honors students
does not seem tenable from this point of view.
Dozens of other groups get special treatment.
Sports enthusiasts benefit from the University's
sprawling athletic plant. The SAB was built
for the minority involved in student activities.
Graduate students can get, a carrell in the
library. To deny that academically oriented
students are entitled to some special facilities
is both inconsistent and faintly anti-intellec-
BUT OF COURSE this oversimplifies the
argument. I doubt that anyone would ob-
ject to Honors housing if it were just a neutral
service made available by the University to
students meeting certain prerequisites. The
issue is not the service but the intent. And the
intent may be so objectionable that Honors
housing should be rejected, or at least post-
poned° until the University has rethought its
For several years the University has been
ambivalent in its 'attitudes toward extracur-
ricular activities. A Student Activities Building
was erected and a Vice-President for Student
Affairs brought in as evidence of their impor-
tanance, and University announcements speak
yaguely of the enriching benefits of activities
if not carried too far. On the other hand, most
faculty members see them as little more than
distractions which interfere with the real busi-
ness of getting an education.
The latest indications are that the faculty
viewpoint is winning out. Participation in ac-
tivities is waning as the increased academic
demands of the classroom force students to
economize on their time. And judging from the
comments of some of its proponents, the pro-
posal for Honors housing is intended to add to
the progressively academic orientation of the
University. Many faculty members hope that
getting students into Honors housing will keep
them out of extracurricular activities.
neutral facility which a student joins if he
is so inclined. The pressure to sign up will be
considerable, and it will increase with time.
Students in the house will also be under pres-
sure-pressure to stay out of activities and
devote all their time to academic concerns.
The people who object to social engineering
have a point. Students in Honors housing,
finding extra-curricular activities impossible,
would undoubtedly come around to the view
that they are pretty unimportant anyway.
It is time that somebody decided if student
activities are worth saving. More importantly,
it if +;ma enmPannp examined. the idea that

To the Editor:
IT IS WELL KNOWN, in and out
of Michigan, that this state is
having financial difficulties, and
that these difficulties are affecting
the University of Michigan. The
University is increasingly becom-
ing a rich vein for faculty recruit-
ers to explore-over and above the
usual competition for a good mind.
There has already been a notice-
able exodus from the faculty ranks.
Of the present staff one group has
already received tempting offers
but tentatively refused them large-
ly from a preference to live in Ann
Arbor. There is a second group
who also value their roots here but
are beginning to consider other
possibilities because of continu-
ously overdue salary increases and
the over-all tightness which af-
fects the facilities they need to
work with.
The factor I am pointing to in
this whole familiar picture is that
Ann Arbor as a place to live has
been a definite asset to the Uni-
versity. It occurs to me that Uni-
versity officials may be taking this
for granted because they live here
too, and so regard it as a "given."
The city of Ann Arbor doesn't
seem to have any understanding
or concern with this. They talk
"research center of the midwest"
on the one hand, and with the
other indulge in a commercial orgy
which reached a peak in 1961.
While presenting Ann Arbor as a
pleasant place to live, and using
the University to promote the idea
of a good research environment,
they are busily converting the city
into a "little Detroit" in the most
haphazard, unplanned, and taste-
less way possible. Rezoning com-
mercially and a preoccupation

with weighty and profitable pro-
jects such as liquor licensing seems
to absorb them to the exclusion of
any general, long-range planning.
Little, if any, consideration is
given to what kind of city will
serve us best in the long run.
Only one example, but a classic
in its way, is the limited access,
divided "bypass" highway which
will slash through the northwest
residential section of Ann Arbor
next year if the strange "mar-
riage" between our overwhelming-
ly Republican city government
and Democratic Mr. Mackie of the
State Highway Department con-
tinues. The location of this high-
way was conceived some 20 years
ago; consequently it now goes
through one of the few "un-
touched" corners of the city. The
general fact that this is a pleas-
ant, middle income housing area
should be argument enough; the
additional point here is that this
area is heavily populated with both
staff members and students of the
I recommend, therefore, that the'
University show some interest in
the environment it thrives on. A
few more shopping centers, ex-
pressways, and "blob" restaurants
and Ann Arbor will be no different
from any other chromium-plated,
discount-facial-tissue city in the
country. It certainly cannot enjoy
the reputation of being a uniquely
pleasant place to live, a reputation
it undoubtedly has among people
who haven't been here recently.
-Torry Harburg
gLetters to the Editor should be
typewritten, doubiespaced and lim-
ited to 300 words. Only signed let-
ters will be printed. The Daily
reserves the right to edit or with-
hold any letter.)

dissenting opinion, Mr. Justice
Frankfurter called the decision of
the Supreme Court in the Ten-
nessee apportionment case "a
massive repudiation of the ex-
perience of our whole past in as-
serting destructively novel judicial
Coming from him, the most
learned of the judges, and support-
ed by Mr. Justice Harlan with h;is
great legal wisdom, this strong
language is enough to give pause
not only to the layman but to the
judges who will for a long time to
come be working under this new
find it useful as a beginning to
fix in mind the facts of the
case which was started on its
way to the Supreme Court by a
group of citizens of Tennessee.
The heart of the complaint was
that the constitution of Tennes-
see has been violated over a period
of half a century, and that they
are unable to obtain a remedy
from the Tennessee courts, the
Tennessee legislature, or by an
election under the existing ap-,
The constitution of Tennessee
says that there are to be not more
than 99 members of the House of
Representatives and 33 members
of the Senate. The General Assem-
bly, which is the name of the
whole legislature, is to allocate, at
least every ten years, the seats
among the counties or districts
"according to the number of quali-
fied voters in each."
ALTHOUGH that is what the

constitution says, ;there has been
no reapportionment since 1901. In
the intervening 60 years the legis-
lature has rejected all bills to
carry out the mandate of the con-
stitution requiring a reallocation
every 10 years. In Tennessee only
the General Assembly can pass
the legislation to carry out the
law of the constitution.
But the legislature, as now con-
stituted, will not pass these laws.
It nullifies the constitution, and
no majority of the voters in Ten-
nessee can make it obey the con-
stitution. Fifty representatives
elected by one-third of the voters
control the Lowpr House and if
there were a reapportionment ac-
cording to the Tennessee consti-
tution, 17 out of these 50 would
lose their seats.
Inside of Tennessee there is no
remedy and the state is in the
grip of a self-perpetuating rural
S* * *
THIS SITUATION, which exists
in several other states, means that
there is no legal remedy for a
very serious wrong. It is a very
serious wrong that in the Ten-
nessee Senate 20 out of the 33
members are elected by 37 per
cent of the voters, and that in the
House of Representatives 63 mem-
bers out of 99 are elected by 40
per cent of the voters. It is a
serious wrong because such a state
legislature is not and cannot be
sufficiently interested to deal with
the mounting problems of the
growing cities.
* *, *
MR. JUSTICE Frankfurter's
comment on this crucial point is
that "there is not under our con-
stitution a judicial remedy for
every political mischief, for every
undesirable exercise of legislative
power. The Framers carefully and
with deliberate forethought re-
fused so to enthrone the judiciary.
In this situation, as in others of
like nature, appeal for relief does

not belong here (that is, in the
Supreme Court). Appeal must be
to an informed, civically militant
If there is no judicial ,remedy
for a serious wrong affecting the
welfare of the urban masses, and
if, as is in fact the case in Ten-
nessee, relief cannot be had from
the electorate, however informed
and civically militant the majority
may be, what happens then? If
all the doors are closed, how do
the city people of Tennessee get
relief? It is always a dangerous
situation when the doors are clos-
ed against judicial or public or
political relief and against peace-
ful change.
* * *'
WHAT HAS actually happened
is that the six justices, the rmaj or-
ity of the court, have opened a
little the one door of Federal jgdi-
cial relief. They have opened it
only a crack at the moment but
there is no doubt that the two
dissenting justices are, fully jus-
tified in warning the country that
if the door is opened wide, the
courts may become dangeroilpy in-
volved in state politics all aver the'
nation. This would be an appailing
thing to contemplate, to have Fed-
eral judges drawn into becoming
the arbiters of the political af-
fairs of each state.
think, that we must not do again
what was done after the 1954
decision in the school segregation
case. We must not leave the ap-
plication of' the new rule to hap-
hazard local law units.
There must be national leader-
ship this time, and it should come
from the President and from the
Republican and Democratic lead-
ers. The burden of working. uut
the strategy and the tactics of the
movement for fairer and more
realistic representation should be
on the politicians and not on the
(C) 1962, Now York Herald Tribune, Inc.

a- - -
-- p

Miscast 'Majority'
Still Comic
ALEC GUINESS, looking about as Japanese as Winston Churchill,
and Rosalind Russell, looking about as Jewish as Pat Suzuki, ooze
across the screen for two hours and 15 minutes of sometimes-amusing
silliness called "A Majority of One."
In short, Russell, as a little Jewish lady who's never been west
of Flatbush Avenue, goes to Japan and "discovers that all men are
brothers under the skin. After convincing foreign-service oriented
daughter and hubby, she and Guiness walk off into the sunset clutch-
ing a bottle of Sake and a box of Smith Brother's cough drops.
Plagued by such troubles as an oily Japanese houseboy in a leather
jacket and a baseball cap, who drinks Cokes while reading comic
books, love and inanity eventually score a dual triumph. The film's
brightest moments come when it tries to be funny with such lines
as "you're so bigoted you won't even eat a piece of bacon."
* * * *
WHILE THE HUMOR is often pointed, the moral is insipidly
presented. Brotherly love is a tried and true theme for a movie and
that's the big problem. It is presented in a trite and maudlin manner.
Inspired by the financial success of the French New Wave, the
producers couldn't justify filming a movie that is merely funny. Bells
ring and trumpets sound as Miss Russell profoundly pronounces to
her "enlightened" children, "Now who's bigoted?" But the movie is
redeemed by the fact that the dialogue is only occasionally interrupted
hb the nlot


S+* V1 s
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