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February 09, 1962 - Image 26

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1962-02-09

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TED MADRAS 'U' Doctors Laud Television in Medical Educati(


The use of closed circuit color
television in medical education
here has received a vote of con-
fidence from doctors, nurses and
other health scientists at the Uni-
Playing an increasingly impor-
tant role in medical education
since 1950, closed circuit color TV
has been cited for its magnifica-
tion, realism, privacy and ver-
In ten articles appearing in the

current issue of the University's
Medical Bulletin, members of the
medical faculty and the Univer-
sity Television -Center reviewed
the advantages, disadvantages and
importance of closed circuit color
television to medical education.
Immediacy, Intimacy
In the opening article, the im-
mediacy and intimacy of television
was pointed out. Television can be
seen by a large number of stu-
dents at once more clearly than
minute and meticulous procedures

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can be seen when three or four
students are looking over the
shoulder of the teacher.I
Other visual and audio aids,
such as drawings, photographs,1
projection facilities with slides
and microphones lack the sense of
immediacy and intimacy of small'
group demonstrations that TV
Color broadens television's scope
of usefulness in medical teaching
by accurately reproducing color
changes of the various parts of
the body in health and disease.
No Replacement
But, the article states, TV is not
intended to replace the necessity
for continued direct communica-
tion in the lab and in the clinical
situation between the student and
the teacher.
For the future, lectures, demon-
strations and clinical conferences
will be transmitted by microwave
facilities to the hospitals partici-
pating in the undergraduate med-
ical education at the University.
Taping facilities will be used to
build a library of basic teaching
materials, though it is agreed that
taped recordings don't have the
educational value that live demon-
strations do.
Working Relationship
In 1950, a working relationship
between the medical school and
the Television Center began to
develop. Early in 1956, Dr. Harry
A. Towsley, the audio-visual co-
ordinator of the medical school,
and Prof. Garnet R. Garrison, the
head of the Television Center,
started to formulate plans :or the
use of television in the medical
school teaching program.
It was decided that color would
be essential because the subtleties
of color were often so important
in the instruction of medical stu-
Preparation and rehearsal for the
television presentations couldn't
involve too much time or be too
complex or the busy teaching phy-
sician wouldn't consider the use
of TV for instruction worthwhile.
Another problem was that of
operating expense. It was then
foreseen that' the medical school
would draw on the pool of skilled
personnel at the Television Cen-
ter. The highest quality profes-
sional equipment was decided on-

COLOR TELEVISION-A technician from the University's Tele-
vision Center works on a camera used to broadcast closed circuit
television classes for students in the Medical School. At present,
there are two operating rooms, four amphitheaters, four ad-
ditional classrooms and a regular TV studio in University Hos-
pital equipped to originate programs.

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meaning equipment easy to main-
tain and operate.
Four Color Cameras
The final selection of equipment
included four color cameras and
a black and white camera. At
present, there are two operating
rooms, four amphitheaters, four
additional classrooms and a regu-
lar TV studio in University Hospi-
tal equipped to originate programs.
The coupling of a color TV
camera to a microscope to present
a superior system magnification
and resolution, is being planned.
The graphic work for an educa-
tional television production should
be prepared by trained individuals
who know the exact techniques
and letter sizes to be used, ac-
cording to another article in the
Cluttered graphics are particu-
larly confusing on television.
Special care, therefore, is manda-
tory to insure simple clear graph-
ics. It is important for the il-

lustrator to work with both the
medical staff and the television
production men in order to obtain
the maximum correlation with the
text of the presentation, the ar-
ticle mentioned.
Another point is that color. TV
does not produce as clear an image
as black and white television does;
however, the artist can help create
the illusion of sharpness by using
contrasting color combination.
Invisibility Plague
An author of one of the articles
pointed out that demonstrations
without TV were plagued by their
general invisibility. Only those"
students at the front of the room
would have a good view of the
To alleviate this situation,
classes were divided into smaller
groups and each demonstration
was repeated. Visibility for the
students was increased, but so was
the time spent, by the instructors,
the effort and materials.
With television, these difficul-





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ties were overcome. TV gave th
best seat in the house to everyone
First Attempt
At first, an attempt was made
to hold the television demonstra-
tion in the same room as thc
students but technical difficultie
arose and broadcasting was don
from a separate studio. A tele
phone circuit was set up to allow-
direct communication between th
demonstrator and the students
Questions then could be aske
during the course of the proceed.
With superimposition of tw
different images on the tele.
vision screen, a vivid demonstra
tion, for example, of the beatIng
of the heart and the recordIng :
the electrocardiogram on a cath
ode ray oscilloscope, could be pre
View Problems
In the teaching of clinical med.
icine, television also alleviated th
observers' bad view of the pro
It was emphasized that, In sr
gery, a commentator familiar wi
the problems of the surgeon ani
the television director should serv
as a technical advisor and a mod
erator between the audience an
the surgeon. The loss 'of some per
ception of depth was not con.
sidered to be a crucial deficienc
for the students.
Mixed Reaction
In the field of psychiatry, th
reaction to closed circuit televisio:
in the Medical School was favor
able to enthusiastic. In interiew
ing patients for a class, the mo
obvious advantage is close-up ob
servation of the patient by Ian
at the same time.
Also mentioned was the fac
that a "current" patient gives tip
sense of immediacy and credibilit
that cannot be achieved by movie
or video tape.
Television also imparts to th
student a personal sense of re
sponsibility for the case. There
alertness and responsiveness to
clinical challenge when an inte
view is presented over TV. Tele
vision permits an active runnin
discussion by the lecturer an
class because questions need n
be censored for fear of upsettin
the patient.
Not for Office
But, it was emphasized, TV ca
never be used to demonstrate f
fice psychotherapy because priva
and confidentiality are at lea
two of its indispensable condition
Secret transmissions are invasor
of the patients privacy, being ur
ethical and illegal. Pre-eminent
TV can never replace first han
Television offers the answer I
the problem of magnification fc
group demonstration in the fiel
of oral surgery. Prolonged perio
of lecturing or of silent maneuve
though, will fail to cemet t
attention of student groups.
One problem encountered is -
heat generated by the lightir
for the color television facilitle
A color TV camera 'needs foi
times as much light as a blacK a
white one to present an adequal
picture. Air conditioning Pan ma
working on a television set 0
least bearable.
Sawyer Picks
Hess To Head
IST Project.
Prof. Robert L. Hess, forme
associate director of the Unive:
sity Institute of Science andTec1
nology, has been appointed dire
tor of Project Michigan, a r
search project currentlybeing e':
ried out at the institute.
Ralph A. Sawyer, vice-presilei
for research, announced the a
pointment on Jan. 23. Hess re
places Joseph A. Boyd who

Prof. Hess has directed the tect
nical program of Project Michiga
since 1968. The project, sponsori
by the U.S. Army Signal Corp
is now in its ninth year of lon
range research, aimed at advan
ing the Army's capability in con
bat surveillance and target ac
Prof. Hess, who -took his degre
at Michigan, receiving his Ph.]
in 1950, left a research positic
with Bell Telephone to join tl
Michigan faculty. He was appoin
ed professor of engineering m
chanics in 1958 and is current
on leave from his teaching duti<


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Eight years ago, scientistsi

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