THE MICHIGAN DAILY
By ELLEN SILVERMAN
Approximately 70 University,
seniors concentrating in math,
physics, chemistry or biology took
a two-hour exam Tuesday which
will be used in the future to screen
peace corps volunteers.
The tests, developed by the Edu-
cational Testing Service, will ex-
amine basic knowledge in each of
these fields. From the results, ETS
hopes to be able to ascertain what
types of questions should be used
for corps testing.
The testing of University seniors
is being done with volunteers who
responded to requests from the
Bureau of Psychological Services
of the Institute for Human Ad just-
Of the 159 students asked, 78
responded favorably, 59 answered
that they did not care to take the
exams and only 22 did not respond
at all, Prof. John E. Milholland of
the psychology department, head
of the evaluation and examinations
divisions, said Friday.
"The purpose of these tests is
to get information about items for
the forms which are now being
processed. Seemingly good ques-
tions may prove to be too easy or
too hard and therefore will not
discriminate well," he commented.
University senior concentrates
were asked to take the test because
they are of approximately the same
ability of those who will take the
test for the corps.' Prof. Milholland
noted that the group which would
be given such a test by the corps
would probably be of college age
and perhaps recent graduates.
"From time to time we get re-
quests like this from national agen-
cies. We feel that it is one of the
public functions of the University
to do these sort of projects," Prof.
Lab To Use Teaching Devices
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By PATRICIA O'CONNOR
A "programmed learning" meth-
od of teaching languages will be
tested this summer by 25 Ann
Arbor junior high students under
the direction of Prof. Waldo E.
Sweet of the classical languages
"Programmed learning," which
seems to promise great advances in
language learning, differs primar-
ily from an ordinary language lab-
oratory situation since each stu-
dent sets his own rate of speed by
operating his own tape.
Students also remain in constant
touch with an instructor.
Prof. Sweet sees two of the ad-
vantages in the carefully prepared
system. First, the material is
broken up into small steps; each
step small enough to minimize the
chance of error. The student,
therefore, practices the correct an-
swer rather than an incorrect an-
Secondly, the student knows at
once, either by a mechanical con-
trivance like pullinga lever on a
machine or by sliding a mask in a
book whether his answer is right
or wrong. This eliminates the de-
lay imminent in a system in which
the student studies at home and
must wait until the next day's class
to correct his errors.
place on the university level in
the summer of 1960 and a few
University High School students
participated in a program last
semester. Some thought the pro-
gram very good, according to Prof.
Gerda M. Seligson of the Latin
"At the least, I would expect
that with programmed learning
students would learn twice as
much in half the time," said Prof.
Sweet in the publication, "Lan-
The program, as opposed to
straight text book learning, allows
for constant refinement since de-
fects which are seen may be cor-
This program offers an oppor-
tunity to observe the learning
process of academic subjects for
the first time in history, according
to Prof. Sweet. "This tool, aided
by our linguistic seience, will cer-
tainly revolutionize 1 a n g u a g e
learning and with it, language
teaching," he said.
Although preliminary tests on
certain programs have been very
encouraging, Prof. Sweet noted
that many of the conclusions are
based on miniature programs
By DEBORAH BEATTIE
which take perhaps half an hour
for the average student to com-
In the program this summer,
students will spend an hour a day
with Prof. Sweet in the Depart-
ment of Classical Studies and
three hours in independent study
in the University's Language Lab-
oratory where the material will be
The class will be continued in
the fall at Forsythe Junior High
School under the direction of Mr.'
William C. Dickerman of the
classical studies department.
In old Bavaria when the beer
tastes extra good, they lift their
steins and sing "eins, zwei . . .
g'suffal" (tastes so good you drink
it up-one, two.)
ems, zwei, g'suffa
brewed in the old Bavarian tradition.
DIST. BY ALL STAR BEv. CO., ANN ARBOR
Geyer Bros. Brewing Co.-Frankenmuth. Mich.
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AT A POPULAR PRICE
The combination of a phonetic
system of writing will introduce
the use of the vulgate and also
raise the importance of grammati-
During the present transition,
Communist China has many dif-
ferent written and oral forms.
Radio broadcasts are given in the
local dialect and then repeated in
Peking Mandarin to familiarize
the population with the "common"
Many publications are written
in a simplified character script
which reduces the number of
strokes, that is lines, in the char-
acter. However explanations are
often written in the older tradi-
tional characters as are books
dealing with traditional customs
and topics. .
Although the Latin alphabet is
used in some forms of communi-
cation such as telegraph, large
scale use has not yet appeared.
Prof. Chou said that she has been
unable to obtain complete works
in the Latin alphabet, although
parts of certain periodicals are
written in the Latin alphabet.
The use of the Latin alphabet
to improve literacy also has its
political repercussions, Prof. Chou
indicated. It is easier to lead a
reading public more easily than
an illiterate one and as the Latin
alphabet becomes more popular,
the difficulty in reading the simpli-
fed or traditional characters will
increase. This could lead to a con-
trol of reading matter.
However, the effects of literacy
are not predictable, she said. There
are bound to be some who want
more knowledge and will ask for
greater freedoms than allowed in
the present government.
The University awarded degrees
o 1,402 mid-year graduates, Sec-
etary of the University Erich A.
Degrees were conferred officially
at the Friday meeting of the Re-
ents. Last year, 1,362 degrees
Of 579 graduate school degrees,
here were 386 master's, 187 doc-
orates and six professional de-
rees. Including pr o f e s s i o n a I
chools, a total of 715 advanced
egrees were conferred.
Breakdown of the total by
chools and colleges was: the lit-
rary college, 220; the law school,
)5; dentistry school, 3; engineer-
ng college, 232; architecture col-
ege, 29; education school, 82;
usiness administration school, 94;
natural resources school, 26; phar-
nacy college, 2; music school, 29;
cursing school, 13; public health
chool, 3; social Wtork school, 10;
'lint College, 31; Dearborn Center,
4; and the graduate school, 579.
The medical school had no mid-
By DONNA ROBINSON
A new electronics device has
been developed at the University's
Cooley Electronics Laboratory
which will help keep communica-
tions secret, improve radio direc-
tion finding and aid air navigation.
The device, the result of a re-
search project sponsored by the
Signal Corps, is called a "discrete
frequency synthesizer" and was
reported at a recent meeting of the
American Institute of Electrical
Engineers by Prof. Thomas W.
Butler of the engineering school.
Eric M. Aupperle and David L.
Mills, also of the engineering
school, helped Butler with the
The synthesizer provides in-
creased secrecy by permitting both
the sender and the receiver to
change frequency rapidly, while
still keeping constantly in unison.
This is possibl because both the
sending and receiving stations
would operate on a computer-
produced sequence punched on a
card beforehand, Butler said.
These frequency changes would
appear completely random to any-
one without the key, and an eaves-
dropper would find it completely
impossible to keep up with the
Another advantage of this device,
and one especially useful in direc-
tion finding where several receivers
must be tuned to exactly the same
frequency, is that it can be tuned
precisely and automatically
through telephone cables.
The synthesizer also has several
advantages for air navigation. In
the system now in use, pilots fol-
low a series of radio beacons,
switching stations after every
checkpoint. The synthesizer could
make this operation. automatic,
again using the pre-arranged pro-
gram punched on a card, Butler
The pilot must also periodically
check beacons to the side of his
flight path for course corrections,
a process which would also become
automatic with the discrete fre-
In making these operations auto-
matic, use of this device would
alleviate crowded cockpit condi-
The National Science Foundation
has given the University $45,000 to
support research on the structure
of membranes in microorganisms.
This one-year project, part of a
continuing program, will be di-
rected by Prof. Philipp Gerhardt
of the medical school.
The purpose of the grant is to'
acquire an electron microscope and
equipment for slicing bacteria into
sections about a millionth of an
inch in thickness.
This new facility will be used to
study bacterial spores, resistant
bodies that withstand boiling and
necessitate measures such as pres-
sure-canning of foods.
The layered skins, or mem-
branes, of spores will be examined'
and, using other procedures, strip-
ped off for determination of chem-
Many Problems Remain
In Fight, Against Polio
Despite the development of the\
Salk vaccine, the Sabin vaccine
and the decline in the number of
polio cases reported each year
around the country, there still re-
main major polio problems which
are as yet unsolved.
Parents often conscientiously
see that their children get the
polio vaccine, but ignore shots
At the University's Clinical
Study Center, many skilled spe-
cialists over the past decade have
cooperated to develop new tech-
niques and special devices to per-
mit those incapacitated by polio
to lead more useful lives.
These very same techniques and
equipment are now being used
with great success in children who
have birth defects.
Each year thousands of babies
are born with significant malfor-
mations due to some form of po-
lio. Birth defects are the major
unsolved childhood medical prob-
Despite the fact that the Salk
polio vaccine has proved highly
successful in preventing the di-
sease, there is a need to know
how and when it can be used
most effectively in this case.
Dr. Gordon Brown, professor of
epidemiology at the School of
Public Health, is now trying to
find out just when to give the
Salk vaccine to the babies of vac-
It is a widespread practice, es-
pecially in the United States, to
immunize pregnant women with
the Salk vaccine. As a result, the
mothers build up resistance to the
polio virus while carrying their
The antibodies the vaccine pro-
duces in the mothers' blood-
streams pass through the placen-
ta into the fetuses. The babies
are thus born with protection, yet
although they are so protected
they are unable to build up a
permanent immunity to the di-
When the antibodies the babies
"borrowed" from their mothers
weaken, they are susceptible to
infection by polio.
It may be possible that a new-
er and more potent vaccine of the
Salk type may overcome the diffi-
culties of early immunization in
these infants. A study is now un-
der. way with just such a vaccine.
There is also increasing practice
of combining the Salk vaccine
with the regular triple baby shots
against diptheria, whooping cough
According to Dr. Virginia Ap-
gar, research director for the Na-
tional Foundation, there probably
will be no one vaccine for birth
No one has any idea what
causes some 60 per cent of birth
defects, but probably 10 per cent9
may be related virus infections ina
the mother during pregnancy. S
Dr. Brown is attempting to find '
out what effects virus infectionsV
of the mother may have on thet
unborn baby. Through the coop-
eration of the Department of Ob-
stetrics and Gynecology, volunteer'
mothers are examined during theira
pregnancy for any evidence of vi-
rus infections and their babies are
then carefully examined to detectS
any abnormalities at birth.
The study is designated to learnc
which viruses are potentially dan-u
gerous and those which are harm-s
less. Only- when the field is nar- 1
rowed down can any real progresso
Other virus studies are beingn
carried out from finding some
drug, chemical, or antibiotic
which may modify or preventd
many forms of virus diseases tot
a new means of labelling virusest
called the fluorescent antibody
technique-a method of early and 1
accurate diagnosis of many dif-r
ferent virus diseases.
Research is also being carried
out on the actual effect of viruses
upon cells which they invade.
The technique of tissue cultures
is one of the advances in research
now used extensively at research
centers throughout the world. It
opened the door to the study of
many virus diseases, including vi-
rus pneumonia, influenza, measles
and mumps. Now a simple test
tube of tissue culture can be sub-
stituted for living humans or ani-
mals in widely varying lines of
The University-Community will
hold a mass meeting for those in-
terested in peace action at 9:00
p.m. today in Rm. 3532 SAB.
The Peace Center is an ad hoc
committee of ,students and mem-
bers of the community which is
attempting to raise questions on
peace and disarmament at every
Last semester the group was en-
gaged in organizing, collecting re-
sources, formulating plans for
distribution of literature, and dis-
cussing plans of action for this
The group also cooperates with
other individuals and groups in-
terested in the peace movement.
Five area centers are now work-
ing with a grant from the Ford
Four of these centers, the Chi-
nese, South Asian, Near and Mid-
dle Eastern, and Russian were es-
tablished last May, while the
Japanese center has existed for a
number of years.
From the $3 million grant which
was given for support of area
and international studies, $2.3
million was designated for sup-
port of the area centers. The
Japanese, Chinese and Near and
Middle Eastern centers received
support for ten years, the Russian
and South Asian for five years.
William D. Schorger, director
of the center for Near and Middle
Eastern studies, points out that
the grant is important because it
makes possible the addition of
needed members to the staff and
permits support for advanced
study on a graduate level.
"The area centers try to pick
up on inducement fellowships stu-
dents who are just beginning their
graduate studies and have not had
an opportunity to prove them-
selves on a graduate level.
"The centers provide students
with advice on current political
situations which would affect
the possibility of accomplishing
worthwhile research in particular
areas," Prof. Schorger said.
The Chinese, South Asian, Near
and Middle Eastern, and Russian
centers at present do not offer
special courses. The theory behind
this, Prof. Schorger explains, is
that a student, in order to be.
properly trained for a professional
career, must be trained in a reg-
ular discipline such as political
science or economics as well as in
the language and the civilization
of an area. This instruction is nor-
mally offered in a regular depart-
"The centers work to coordi-
nate the programs between the
departments and may encourage
the offering of certain courses in
the regular department. Organiz-
ing programs across department
lines and directing students to the
necessary training for specializa-
tion are primary objectives of the
centers," Prof. Schorger concludes.
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flash light batteries)
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201 So. Main at Washington °
Potential Factors of Tension in Inter-cutural
Dating, Courtship, Marriage
Sponsors: International Student Association
University Christian Federation, International Comm.
you can't find it
TiII you've tried
Ann Arbor's busy and
WHEN: FEBRUARY 22, 1962
WHERE: Undergraduate Library, Multi-Purpose' Room
"WORKSHOP ON SEX ETHICS"
Sponsors: Office of Religious Affairs
WHEN: FEBRUARY 23, 1962
WHERE: Michigan Union, Rooms 3 K, L, M, N.
DILEMMA IN INTERNATONAL
DATING, COURTSHIP, MARRIAGE
WHEN: FEBRUARY 23-24
WHERE: Drake House, Walled Lake, Michigan
SKI BLACK MT.
Near Rogers City
Just Off US-23 North
or All the Remaining Weekends
ou will be able to ski at new low
conomy rates at our fine Black
Aountain Area '''
Individuals ... $8.00
ow fees and two nights lodging of
loss A motel.
mall extra charge for roll-away
eds. For reservations just drop a
ost card to Rogers City Chamber
SEE: Ecumenical Campus Center
536 Thompson St. NO 8-6076
Discussion: Trends of Social Customs in Various
Countries. Problems of Multiple Standards of Dating,
Courtship, and Marriage.
LEADERS: Dr. and Mrs. DAVID MACE