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January 29, 1964 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1964-01-29

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)

Seventy-Third Year
- EDITED AND MANAGEID BY STUDENTS OF THE UNrVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
-_ UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
"Where Opinions Are Free STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG., ANN ARBOR, MICH., PHONE No 2-3241
Truth Will Prevail",
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in al, reprints.
WEDNESDAY, JANUARY 29, 1964 NIGHT EDITOR: H. NEIL BERKSON

TUTORIALS FOR FRESHMEN:
Igniting the Spark of Curiosity

A

I

Johnson Administration
Heads Toward Disaster

ONE SIMPLY fails to see why virtually
the entire nation continues to heave
great admiring sighs at the thought of
President Lyndon B. Johnson. We are ask-
ed to believe that the Texan is a super-
human force and that his efforts thus
far have been letter-perfect, when in
fact they result in a horrible debacle.
To be certain he took the reins with a
firm hand after those grim moments in
November, but his control has been any-
thing but firm. A review of some of the
events of his short regime should illus-
trate:
1) A CRISIS exploded in Panama over
the matter of flag-flying in the
Canal Zone, a really insipid argument
that even so eminent a liberal as News-
week's Emmet John Hughes admits could
have been greatly aided by the presence
of an American ambassador on the scene.
None was in evidence.
2) In a flurry of press releases, John-
son would have the nation believe that he
has made great strides in saving money
by cutting his proposed budget for fiscal
'65. As became very evident under the
Kennedy administration, budget propos-
als often do not reflect actual expendi-
tures which have a way of running much
higher. So while Johnson's budget may
have been cut, it remains to be seen
whether the actual spending will in fact
go down.
3) French President Charles de Gaulle,
who was supposed to have had such
fine rapport with LBJ right after the
Kennedy funeral, has gone and recogniz-
ed Red China, an action which may well
upset official United States policy toward
Peking and which, no matter how you
slice it, is a slap in the face for the Unit-
ed States, calculated, planned and quite
deliberate.
4) Indonesian President Ahmed Sukar-
no threatens to destroy the fledgling and
staunchly pro-Western Federation of Ma-
laysia, in spite of Attorney General Rob-
ert F. Kennedy's improbable efforts to
settle the problem.
5) The United States consul in Zanzibar
was arrested at gunpoint and nearly ex-
terminated for no apparent reason, when

that little nation suddenly fell into Com-
munist hands. And incidentally, Kenya
and Tanganyika are tottering.
6) Cambodia's Prince Norodom Sihan-
ouk has become openly hostile to the
United States, again with little apparent
cause, and almost as openly cordial with
Peking.
HERE'S MORE if one cared to go on.
But the point is clear. Perhaps Lyndon
B. Johnson is not responsible in any way
for many of these problems, but he is the
leader of the United States and as such,
on his shoulders falls the mantle of pre-
serving this nation's integrity, both here
and abroad.
It would appear that the President has
not done that. In fact, in those terms he
has done quite poorly. The international
situation has steadily declined since Nov.
22, and the domestic situation certainly
hasn't improved.
Many of our liberal pundits bemoaned
the choice of LBJ as the number two man
in 1960-many who today are the loud-
est singers of his praises. Yet first im-
pressions are often the best, and per.
haps such is here the case. Those column-
ists virtuously cited Johnson's "shady as-
sociates" in 1960, and today we find his
explanation of the gift stereo from Bobby
Baker and the insurance advertising on
his TV station quite unsatisfactory.
THIS IS NOT TO SAY that President
Johnson is not working for what he
believes to be the best interest of our
nation. Undoubtedly he is. The point
rather is that Lyndon B. Johnson is not a
second Thomas Jefferson. He is a politi-
cian pure and simple-and one need not
listen to Republicans to find that out.
Liberal Democrats denounced him thor-
oughly-and sincerely-in 1960.
Therein, one must suspect, lies the best
portrait of the President-one painted
by his own partisans, at a time when they
spoke out of thought and not out of awe.
Lyndon B. Johnson is far from perfect;
he is not a god. And the sooner we assess
him objectively, the better will be the
chances for a fair choice in the coming
election.
-MICHAEL HARRAH

By KENNETH WINTER
GENERALLY SPEAKING, a de-
termined enough student can
get just about what he wants from
the University. Somewhere on
campus, there is a person or a
book with the answer to virtual-
ly every question man has an-
swered.
Despite the numerous excep-
tions to this generalization, the
University's achievement in mak-
ing knowledge available is remark-
able. Unfortunately, recognition of
excellence in this function fre-
quently leads to complacency, to
the feeling that if the University
just makes the knowledge avail-
able, it has done its job.
The catch is that knowledge is
worthless if nobody wants it
enough to seek it, and the behav-
ior of most University students,
when not being shoved by grades
and credits, indicates their desire
for it is low.
** *
AS ANY FRESHMAN orienta-
tion speaker will tell you, this is
not because of a lack of intellec-
tual potential. The problem is that
few students are convinced that
an education-as opposed to sim-
ply a tolerable grade-point and
a diploma - is worth the effort
needed to achieve it.
This attitude isn't hard to un-
derstand. The pre-college school
system teaches that learning is so
worthless that one must be paid
for doing it with grades, credits
and various other threats or prom-
ises.
Parents and the rest of the world
go along with this viewpoint, their
primary concern generally being
with the economic potential of
their children's education. And the
nation's image of the intellectual
is still far from its image of the
ideal individual.
THE UNIVERSITY does little
to change the resulting attitudes
in its students. Consequently much
of the teaching it does is wasted.
and the phenomenal amount of
education that motivated students
could get on their own is seldom
attempted. Yet the hard-headed
attitude that the University's func-
tion is only teaching the motivat-
ed, not motivating the unmotivat-
ed, still dominates. And, ironical-
ly, the idea of devoting time and
effort to measures specifically
aimed at eliminating this wasteful
apathy is itself viewed as waste-
ful.
Clearly, if anything can be done
-even if it requires some sacri-
fice of the instructional function
-it should be done. But, given
the attitudes of entering students
and the finite resources of the
University, can anything be done?
* . *
THE TWO BASIC approaches to
motivating students, almost direct
opposites of one another, have
not met with much success.On
the one hand, there are attempts
to force students into contact with
education, in hopes that this ex-
posure will lead them to like it-
such as distribution courses,
grades, tight academic standards
and class - attendance require-
ments. When the authoritarian
approach occasionally suoceeds in
forcing some facts into the student
during the course, once it is over
he is even more eager to escape
the scholarly prison.
The libertarian approach, on
the other hand, recognizes the per-
ils of forced-fed education, aban-
doning artificial motivators and
leaving the student free to pursue
the education best-suited to his
needs. The problem here is that
this system works only with stu-
dents already motivated; others,
given the choice, simply avoid in-
tellectual effort altogether.
Another alleged panacea is clos-
er contact between students and
faculty; some of its advocates ex-
pect virtually magical things to
happen when a student and his
teacher are freed from the tradi-

tional bonds to seek truth togeth-
er. In fact, even now both stu-
dents and faculty pass up numer-
ous opportunities to get together,
and many of the encounters which
do occur are something short of
scintillating. Still, the method
sometimes works; the idea must be
to increase the proportion of suc-
cessful meetings of student and
professor.
Finally, the influence of stu-
dents on one another is an impor-
tant key to motivation: whatever
two students have in common they
are likely to talk about; what-
ever they discuss is likely to be-
come interesting. Thus proposals
such as the residential college hope
to harness this herd instinct by
giving students chiefly academic
things-classes, teachers and fields
of study-in common. But again,
this attempt may not succeed; per-
haps student-group opinion isn't
changed that easily.
THUS, once this University
makes the important decision that
motivation is of critical import-
ance, its next step must be to find
fruitful combinations of the var-
ious devices mentioned here which
maximize their benefits and mini-
mize their pitfalls. For example,
one promising idea would work
something like this:
First, many "recitation" and
"discussion" sections, which in fact
are nothing more than little lec-
tures, would be turned into large
lectures.
The teaching fellows and in-
structors thereby freed would par-
ticipate in a non-departmental
program of unique tutorials for

freshmen. Any first - semester
freshman could elect a tutorial,
for which he would simply re-
ceive three credits, and no grade
whatsoever.
* * *
THE GOAL of the tutorial would
be not to teach the student any
particular subject-matter, but to
provoke him to develop broader
and more coherent academic
goals than those with which most
freshmen enter. Unlike other
courses, the tutorial would not be
an end in itself but would seek
to kindle the curiosity which
would make the subsequent im-
personal, information - providing
courses not only bearable but ex-
citing.
More specifically, a tutorial
would at first consist of regular
meetings between a freshman and
his tutor, paired as well as possible
by similarities in interests and
personality characteristics. The tu-
torial might start with discussions
of the student's reasons for at-
tending college, his attitude to-
ward education, his personal inter-
ests, and other relevant subjects.
From these discussions, hopefully,
would emerge subjects which, with
a little prodding, the student
would want to explore more deep-
ly. This might lead to his writing
a paper, taking self-imposed
exams, or possibly even tackling
some research. Or they might just
talk all semester, assuming the
tutor was convinced that doing
so was beneficial. The critical
point is that imposed assignments
would be virtually eliminated, giv-
ing the student the rewarding ex-

A
r1
t1

INDEPENDENT STUDY SHOWER PANTY
... which do University students really prefer?

perience of undertaking his own
projects on his own initiative.
* * *
EQUALLY IMPORTANT, the
tutorials would give freshmen a
personal tie to the academic side
of the University which freshmen
-especially unmotivated ones-al-
most totally miss in introductory
courses. This tie is particularly
crucial during the first months of
University life, when so many at-
titudes are formed and hardened.
The program would have to be
skillfully administered. Some de-
vice might be introduced to keep
students from simply signing up
and collecting three free credits,
though letting a few get away with

this would be worth it if the plan
fulfilled expectations for the oth-
er students involved. The tutors
would have to be chosen very care-
fully ;for sensitivity, enthusiasm,
broad knowledge, and an under-
standing of the tutorial's objec-
tives. Otherwise the program could
do as much harm as god.
Freshman tutorials, the propos-
ed residential college and other
motivator-boosting ideas do not
claim to be sure things. They need
to be proven in action. What the
University needs is the vision to
admit it has a motivational prob-
lem, the imagination to devise pos-
sible solutions, and the courage to
try them out.

ASIAN COMMENTARY:
Japan Faces the Dilemma of China

1

By WILLIAM CUMMINGS
Daily Correspondent
TOKYO--The recognition of Red
China by France is judged by
many observers as the most signi-
ficant diplomatic maneuver of this
decade. Few countries are observ-
ing the act with more caution than
Japan.
France's recognition will shake
the foundations of the cold war, a
war- which has created many
schisms in Japan's political and
diplomatic worlds.
* * *
THE TWO major parties are di-
vided over the two-China question.
The opposition Socialist Party
(who received over one-third of
the votes in the last election) takes
the stand that Communist China
should be recognized as the only
official Chinese government.
The ruling Liberal-Democrats
(who received 56 per cent of the
votes) is currently encouraging
private trade with Communist
China, and has allocated generous
loans to support this trade. How-
ever, this party has not demon-
strated any intention of recogniz-
ing Communist China up until
the present.
THE REASONS for the policy
are manifold. For one, the Liberal-
Democrats do not wish to yield to
Communist China's insistence that
it is the only Chinese government.
Up until this time, all governments
which have recognized Communist
China have not been able to main-
tain full-fledged embassies in Na-
tionalist China.
The original plan called for
France to recognize Communist
China followed by Nationalists
breaking relations with the de
Gaulle regime. However, events did
not work out that way. The Na-
tionalists, heeding strong Wash-
ington suggestions, did not break
relations with France, but was
content to denounce the new ties
to mainland Chinese.

ASIAN LEADERS-Red Chinese Premier Chou En Lai, Nationalist Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek
and Japanese Premier Hayota Ikeda are all major figures in the diplomatic problem of recognizing Red
China. Ikeda, who has recently promised a "realistic policy" toward Red China, is faced with the
opposition of Nationalist China in any attempt to recognize the mainland government.

CITYSCOPE:
Nobody Understands

IT IS QUITE POSSIBLE that only 66
persons in the Ann Arbor community
really understand why they committed
an act of civil disobedience last fall. If
this is the case, then those 66 persons
seem to have wasted a tremendous effort.
The 66 defendants failed to convince
the city to pass a stronger fair housing
ordinance. The reasons why they failed
are there, but cannot be readily seen. The
statements the defendants delivered were
received like an empty oil drum receives
a pin.
These persons were willing to pay the
penalty ($10 or 30 days) for breaking
Ann Arbor's loitering law. They broke the
law for only one reason; to instill in the
Ann Arbor community the need for a
more meaningful housing law. They were
appealing to a higher moral law, one not
set up by men. They had their "day in
court" recently and tried to explain their
motivations for going outside the law by
sitting-in past closing hours, on City
Council's meeting where the city's hous-
ing ordinance was being discussed.
One of the defendants said he violated
the law because he was forced to live with
his conscience. Another said he violated
the loitering ordinance not maliciously
but in the cause of justice. These and the
rest of the demonstrators had the same
reasons for pleading nolo contendere and
putting their names in permanent police
files.
HOWEVER, one fears that they did not
make their point plain enough to the
court, to the people of Ann Arbor, to
UniVersity students, to other civil rights
activists or possibly to even themselves.
Municipal Judge Francis L. O'Brien
summed up the court's thinking on the
matter at the second day's session. "Those
who choose to violate the law must also
- -.n _ w~n a +ato harrYlAiP ,, $

"If we choose what laws to violate, more
injustice will prevail from it." The dem-
onstrators chose a minor law to violate
and only time will tell whether or not
"more injustice will prevail from it."
We must be careful here to avoid end-
less philosophical arguments dealing with
the demonstrators' right to break a minor
law for want of a higher law. The fact
remains that the court looks down upon
civil disobedients, even when the demon-
strators say they cannot live with their
consciences under the present system.
THE PEOPLE of Ann Arbor, that is the
permanent residents and families, have
become accustomed to a lot of hullabaloo
with the presence of the University. They
see the demonstrators marching, protest-
ing, sitting-in, singing "We Shall Over-
come," and everything else which draws
the picture of protest.
However, what these Ann Arborites
don't realize is that 90 per cent of these
people are not young, sophomoric ideal-
ists. Most of those few who do attend
the University are over 20 years old or
are graduate students. Several are Uni-
versity instructors.
But to Ann Arborites these demonstra-
tors are just college students who have
found a cause to back.
These defendants have repeatedly tried
to get across to the Ann Arborites,
through letters-to-the-editor, through
demonstrations and finally through open
and public trial. It is doubtful the Ann
Arborites read past the first paragraph in
the local paper's report of the trial.
THIS LEADS to another area of failure
for the 66 persons. They certainly do
not have effective communications with
the student population. Certainly there

Franco-Red Chinese relations
became strained on the second day
when the Communists demanded
that France should break relations
with the Nationalists. The French
refused.
France is avoiding a humanitar-
ian issue which Japan refuses to
blind itself to. France is not in-
sisting that Communist China
recognize the autonomy of Na-
tionalist China. Japan follows
Canada's example on this score
in insisting that a statement in-
suring Taiwan's freedom be a part
of the peace terms. Apart from
the humane concern, there is an
important practical reason for
Japan's postponement of recogni-
tion.
TWENTY per cent of Japan's
gross national product comes from
foreign trade so she feels especial-
ly obligated to walk cautiously in
international diplomacy. Much of

this trade is with the United
States, and any quick step by
Japan might anger red-happy
United States senators into de-
manding the execution of an im-
mediate trade barrier.
The fear of Communism in the
United States is not equalled, how-
ever, by fear of the present re-
gimes in Taiwan and the Republic
of Korea.
The desire of Japan to establish
healthy relations among all Asian
countries is her most important
concern. She is slowly losing her
foothold in the European market
because of the Common Market's
tariff structure and increasing, in-
ternal competition. Furthermore,
there is no immediate prospect of
substantially increasing her busi-
ness with the United States.
* * *
NEW MARKETS must be found,
and Japan is looking to Asia for
prospective customers. The Asian

PREVIEW-

A Festival of Contemporary Music

countries' friendship is necessary
for the establishment of sound
trade relations.
Recent relations with the Re-
public of Korea are poor and those
with Nationalist China even worse.
The Nationalist Chinese nearly cut
off diplomatic relations with Japan
and are considering suspending
trade because of the hand Japan
played in the repatriation of a
Communist exile. But the present
tension is deep and is built on a
long history of complaints by the
Nationalists of Japan's trade with
China.
The tensions demand that
Japan approach the current tur-
moil with great caution. Prime
Minister Hayato Ikeda's policy
speech of Jan. 21, opening the 46th
ordinary Diet session maintained
this spirit. He said:
"That only a strip of water sep-
arates Japan and the China main-
land, and that this vast area con-
tains a population of more than
600 million are hard facts of life.
On the other hand, the question of
the Communist regime is an inter-
national question for international
consideration in such bodies as the
United Nations. Taking cognizance
of these facts, I wish to evolve ju-
diciously together with the people
a realistic policy to deal with this
question."
IKEDA and his government are
well aware that France's recogni-
tion will be followed by that of
many African nations and that
eventually the act will become a
matter of course. Japan will have
an advantage in two ways during
the ensuing flood. It will allow her
to stabilize her de facto commer-
cial recognition of Communist
China through the diplomatic ges-
ture, and it will aid in creating a
more balanced range of interna-
tional opinion about Japan in the
Orient. The latter is especially im-
portant for Japan.
Cl1icheos.
WE ARE a nation devoted to
cliches, for we are enchanted
by labor-saving devices and the
nlirhp s +h orrrno Pf. Ihnrontrirn

(EDITOR'S NOTE: David Sutherland, who will be
conducting in the Contemporary Music Festival, is a
graduate student and teaching fellow in the music
school.)
By DAVID SUTHERLAND
FROM ONE point of view, the Fourth Festival of
Contemporary Music - a series of five concerts
presented by the School of Music beginning today
at 8:30 p.m. in Rackham Lecture Hall-represents
a luxury. A festival, if it is really to be a festival,
ought to provide an escape from the working rou-
tine; therefore, a festival has to be a luxury.
Music, which in the first place is a luxury for
almost everyone except musicians, could not exist
in America without popular support. What sustains
popular support is the standard repertoire of opera,
symphony, solo recital and chamber music. These,
then, are the routine media of the professional
music world. One of the essential functions of the
School of Music is to provide training for the pro-
fessional world as it is today.
Today's festivals, however, may be tomorrow's
routines. Through the Festival of Contemporary
Music, the music school may thus provide training
for a future scarcely imaginable in the present

temporary compositions in the Festival is the old-
est, "The Unanswered Question" (1908) by Charles
Ives. In this score, Ives introduced an element of
chance, the very element which has provided the
present-day avant garde with the means to mount
an attack on the foundations of Western music.
The opposition of order, form and control, on
the one hand, and chance, on the other, is a cru-
cial issue among composers today. On February 1,
Ernst Krenek, guest composer-lecturer for this
year's Festival, will discuss "Measured Order -
Unmeasured Chance," after the performance of his
"String Quartet No. 7" (1944) by the Stanley Quar-
tet and his "Sestina for Voice and Instrumental
Ensemble" (1957) with Janice Harsanyi as guest
soprano. Krenek will conduct the program.
The "Sestina" takes its name from the form of
the original German poem which the author wrote
on the subject of time, order and chance. From the
serial structure inherent in the medieval poetic
form, the composer has derived the entire struc-
ture of the music.
Other highlights of the Festival include per-
formances of works by music school faculty mem-
bers. "Concerto for Violin and Fourteen Wind In-

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