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January 16, 1964 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-01-16

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Seventy-Third Year

Leisure with Learning
By Ronald Wilton, Editor

Funny 'Gold Rush',
Maudlin La Strada'

comillarat- ==ii - 1-

Truth Will Prevail"'
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in al reprints.

)AY, JANUARY 16, 1964


Daily Editorial Policy
Promotes Variety

THE DAILY STAFF has only one agree-
ment about editorial policy: the value
of disagreement.
Each editorial represents only the
opinion of its writer. The Daily as an in-
stitution never takes a position on is-
sues. Any writer on the staff is free to
express his own position on any issue re-
gardless of how any other staff member
might differ from him.
Occasionally, an editorial will appear
signed simply "The Senior Editors."
These are written only when the editor-
ial staff senior editors of The Daily,
presently numbering eight, feel there is
an issue of great importance which de-
mpnds immediate editorial reaction.
These editorials represent an' opinion
agreed upon by these eight, and other
staff members are free to disagree in
their own editorials.
pression of opinion is the Code of
Ethics. Imposed by the Board in Control
of Student Publications and revised from
time to time over the last 23 years, the
code forbids editorials which express ra-
cial and religious prejudice or which
comment on elections to the Regents. It
also demands that there be consultation
with the chairman of the board on edi-
torials dealing with the University ap-
propriation from the state Legislature.
The code-reprinted in full elsewhere on
this page-also discusses matters of good
taste, obscenity and the libel laws.
The code is the only limitation impos-
ed by the Board in Control. The Board
in Control has not through the years
exerted any active control over The
Daily's editorial policy although there
have been some heated disagreements
over other issues, sometimes erupting in-
to major campus controversies. The man-
agement of the paper is the responsibil-
ity of the student editors who have been
free to set policy as they please.
THE "OPEN FORUM" editorial policy,
with its signed editorials, is the edi-
tors' way of fulfilling their responsibility
both toward their staff and their public.
To the staff, the "open forum" shows a

faith in the individual responsibility of
the writer, regulated only by the Code
of Ethics, the libel laws and the discre-
tion of the editorial directors.
To The Daily's readers, the "open for-
um" expresses a faith in their intelli-
gence and ability to judge opposing ar-
guments. for themselves. The Daily's
motto is an expression of this faith:
"Where opinions are free, truth will pre-
vail." Certainly in a University commun-
ity, with one of the most literate publics
in the world, The Daily's faith is not ill-
This faith is carried over into the Let-
ters to the Editor column. While The
Daily is unable to print all the letters it
receives, approximately 80 per cent are
ultimately published. The Daily only
asks that letters observe the same re-
strictions placed on Daily staff members
and that they be reasonably literate. The
letters column is open to any non-staff
member Who cares to write. It is the only
open, public forum on campus with a
wide circulation that serves as a means
of increasing communication among the
various sectors of a widespread eommu-
IN ADDITION to staff writing and let-
ters to the editor, The Daily some-
times actively seeks outside writers to
present a particular position not found
among its staff members or letter writers
on controversial issues. The editorial
page also presents the columns of Walter
Lippmann and Robert M. Hutchins, the
editorial cartoons of Herblock and Maul-
din and the satirical commentary of
Feiffer's cartoon strips.
This diversity is aimed at stimulating
controversy and debate. It is based on a
faith in both the students who run The
Daily and the community that reads it.
Nurtured in an atmosphere of freedom.
and with each editor's sense of responsi-
bility as the major guide, University stu-
dents throughout 73 years have built the
finest college newspaper in the United
States and one of the liveliest editorial
pages anywhere.
Editorial Director

'HE FIRST semester under the
new trimester seriously cut
down the amount of leisure time
available to most students, espe-
cially in the last few weeks of
classes. Although this might have
had adverse psychological effects,
it probably resulted in education-
al benefits to the individual stu-
This was not brought about so
much by the extra time spent hit-
ting the books as it was by the de-
crease in leisure time. It is a para-
dox of our educational system that
when students are at leisure to
read what they want, to meditate
and to strike off in any direction
they want, they are disinterested
and devote less time to learning
and absorb less than when under
constant pressure. One of the
great failures of the American
university is its inability to relate
the process of education to the
student's leisure time.
AN EXAMPLE of this is provid-
ed by some students returning
from vacation. They brought back
with them a new complaint about
the trimester system, one which
is startling as well as unexpected.
The complaint is that Christmas
vacation is too long.
For the first week, these stu-
dents said, they lounged around
and decelerated the pace of their
lives drastically from the peak
reached during finals. The other
two weeks were spent in an almost
desperate search for something to
do. Leisurely reading was tried but
discarded; too much reading had
been done during the semester.
Opportunities to travel were
grabbed at. Since most other col-
leges resumed sessions at least a
week before University students
were scheduled to return, there
were few opportunities to do

things with friends. As one friend
of mine who came back early put
it, "I just got tired of my parents.""
It's interesting to speculate
about the causes of this boredom.
One possibility is that the high
pressures many students were un-
der last semester, especially during
the latter half, accustomed them
to living at an intense pace from
which they could not completely
recover in three weeks. In past
years students were studying for
finals during Christmas vacation
and thus the pressure level never
really descended very far from
what it was during school. In some
cases, as students realized how
much catching up they had to do,
it may have increased.
I THINK this solution is logical,
but that ittserves only as a rein-
forcement to the main cause of
the more basic problem which lies
in the nature of the educational
system and the University experi-
The University is oriented to-
ward specialization. The distribu-
tion requirements notwithstand-
ing, the combination of require-
ments in the field of concentra-
tion and the necessity for cognates
channels a student's academic ac-
tivities in one direction. This is
especially true during the last two
years. There are opportunities for
electives, but many of these are
used to accommodate courses
which will result in a good grade
and which, since they involve little
work, can relieve the pressure in
the concentration courses.
The courses that a student does
take for enjoyment, interest or di-
versified knowledge should be the
most enjoyable part of the aca-
demic experience; often it is not.
The classroom experience limits
the amount of work the student
can do on his own. Assigned books

TheCode of Ethics


WE HAVE BEEN on publi
about five years that1
brewing in Panama and tha
come necessary to readjustt
between the Canal Zone, wh:
ed States controls, and the
Dr. Milton Eisenhower r
to his brother, the President,
in 1962 President Kenned
IPresident Chiari that a discu
many United States-Panami
lems would be carried on by
representatives." These pr
concerned both with the syr
tion of "sovereignty" and a
very tangible problems of
ployment, business relations]
economic-operations of the ca
The fact is, however, th
the intentions of President
and of President Kennedy
been carried out.
ma resembles that in Alg
so, let us say, that at Suez,9
which the two AmericanE
must solve is essentially dif
both. For the Panamanians
dress their grievances, whic
symbolic and substantial, wi
ring even greater troubles
mand that we withdraw, as
have done in Algeria and the
French in Suez.
The Panamanians want a
the arrangements under t
treaty. But they want us to
continue to operate the can
This is a crucial fact in
negotiations. Theoretically,
four ways of dealing witht

A Joint Venture
by Walter Lippmnann
.c notice for Canal has been nationalized by Egypt.
trouble was There is no reason to think that the
t it had be- Panamanians have the technical and fi-
the relations nancial resources for such a huge un-
ich the Unit- dertaking.
Republic of
THIS BRINGS US to the fourth solu-
eported this tion, which would be to negotiate an
in 1958, and agreement for what Dr. Eisenhower de-
fy promised scribes as "a joint United States-Panama
assion of the management" for which we would "train
anian prob- gradually" Panamanian personnel.
V "high-level Such a program of training could and
roblems are should be based upon a generous review
mbolie ques- of the economic relations between the
lso with the Canal Zone and the Republic. At pres-
wages, em- ent, Panama receives an annuity of a
hips and the little less than $2 million; Dr. Eisenhow-
nal. er would increase this to something like
at somehow $5 million or more.
have never ON THE ISSUE which has caused the
violence and the bloodshed of the
past few days, there is no honorable po-
UN in Pana- sition for the United States except one of
eria and al- firm and unequivocating observance of
the problem
governments an agreement about flags which symbol-
fferent from izes the titular sovereignty of Panama.
cannot re- The fundamental thing that can be
ch are both said and needs to be taken to heart is the
thout incur- statement of William Howard Taft, made
if they de- in 1904 when he was the secretary of war
the French and in charge of the Canal Zone:
British and Article III of the treaty of 1903 "is
peculiar in not conferring sovereign-
revision of ty directly upon the United States,
he existing but in giving to the United States
stay on to the powers which it would have if it
al. were sovereign. This gives rise to the
the coming obvious implication that a mere tit-
there are ular sovereignty is reserved in the
the Panama Panamanian government. Now, I
agree that to the Anglo-Saxon mind

(EDITOR'S NOTE: Below is re-
printed a copy of The Daily's Code
of Ethics. Originally passed by the
Board in Control of Student Pub-
lications in 1940 and revised from
time to time since, these are the
only restrictionse outside of legal
limitations on publication--the
laws of libel, obscenity, etc.--im-
posed upon The Daily.)
newspaper with a dual respon-
sibility. As the newspaper of the
students of the University of
Michigan, The Daily must serve
these students by reporting cam-
pus, local, and world news as com-
pletely and accurately as possible.
As a newspaper published under
the authorization of the University
of Michigan, The Daily must have
at heart the interests of the Uni-
versity and refrain from such un-
warranted action as may compro-
mise the University in the eyes of
the public.
The position of The Daily as a
representative of a free press shall
be preserved and promoted by the
editors through responsible and
considered use of their duties and
The editorial page of The Daily
shall be open to all points of view.
Intelligent editorial expression by
all members of the staff shall be
encouraged and means provided
for comment by the public. Free-
dom of expression grounded on
fact shall be the editorial policy of
The Michigan Daily. All material
on the editorial page shall be
signed by the writer.
Anything published in either the
news or editorial columns shall
conform to a standard of good
taste commensurate with The
Daily's place as a leader in the
field of college journalism.
The following list of operating
principles shall be used as a guide
to the specific implementation of
the above code. Both the code and
the list of operating principles
were revised by The Daily staff of
1963 and approved by the Board in
Control of Student Publications.
A. Criteria for publication of
editorials shall include good taste,
good writing, logical thinking and
regard for the facts.

B., No editorials shall embrace
personal attack on the characters
of individuals.
C. No editorial shall take sides
in elections to the Board of Re-
D. Before editorials discussing
state appropriations to the Uni-
versity are published, the editor
shall consult the chairman of the
Board in Control of Student Publi-
cations or, in his absence, the sec-
A. Good Taste
1. Sex crimes, suicides or violent
crimes may be reported if in the
public interest to do so.
2. Items of a pornographic na-
ture shall have no place in The
3. No writer shall express racial
or religious bias in any story or
editorial, nor shall there be any
racial or religious bias in adver-
B. Operational
1. Crimes involving members of
the faculty or students shall not
be reported without first notifying
the proper University authorities
whenever possible, except as such
crimes are a matter of court rec-
2. Members of the staff shall
at all times be encouraged to take
advantage of the facilities of the
University and the broad experi-
ence of faculty members in writing
articles of a comprehensive, inter-
pretive nature.
3. The news columns of The
Daily shall be open to campus
news of legitimate interest and
shall afford all campus organiza-
tions news space within the con-
fines of good journalistic practice.
4. All interviews with faculty
shall be checked with the inter-
viewee, either personally or by
phone, before they are published
unless the writer is specifically ex-
cused by the interviewee.
5. Names of business establish-
ments (local or out-of-town) in-
dustries, firms, or brand names
shall not appear in The Daily news
or editorial columns unless their
news value is of sufficient signi-
ficance to justify their publication.

are not as much fun as those read
because one wants to read them.
Usaally a student is forced to do a
paper on one aspect of a course on
the general theory that everybody
should at least know a lot about a
little part of something.
WHAT THIS all adds up to is
that tne student tends to use his
leisure time as an escape from the
academic activities rather than as
a supplement to them. The pace,
pressure and cotent of the class-
room all serve to alienate the stu-
dent from any education outside.
The student comes to a university
for an education. The University
educates in the classroom.
The University does little to dis-
courage the idea that the student
is here to gain the coveted bache-
lors degree which is today's key to
success. What should be a time of
sampling at leisure one's desire
from the accumulated store of
man's knowledge and creativity
becomes a four year maze leading
to success, to be crossed in the
easiest way possilble.
WHAT NEEDS to be done is to
relate leisure time to academics by
letting the student undertake aca-
demics at his leisure. This can be
accomplished in several ways.
Courses that are at present giv-
en for three hours credit can be
upgraded to five. The student
would come to class two or three
times a week and the rest of the
time he could do reading at his
leisure and desire within the con-
tent of the course.
For example, a . student taking
an American literature course of
this type would go to class to learn
about the specific authors the pro-
fessor wants to concentrate on.
The rest of his time could be spent
outside reading whatever Ameri-
can authors he wanted. Assuming
that written examinations and
grades are still considered neces-
sary, the class could be asked to
discuss certain specified charac-
teristics of the authors they have
Reading courses should be made
an integral part of each depart-
ment. Each semester a certain
number of teachers would be freed
from teaching in the classroom
and would form a departmental
pool offering non-classroom work
for credit. The student could eith-
er concentrate on a specific in-
terest ofa field or else, especially
if it were a field he was not con-
centrating in, he could sample a
broad overview of the literature
available as his interest directed as
opposed to those of the professor
in the classroom.
This would do away with the
introductory courses which seem
to operate on the principle that
professors have found the amount
of information and type of content
that are absolutelynecessary for
appreciation of the subject.
* *
THE MOST ideal solution would
be the furthest out. It would in-
volve the creation of a course
which could be labeled Leisurely
Learning 101. Each department of
the University would select from
its reading course pool one or two
professors who would also be part
of a college pool. This would en-
able students to select, for exam-
ple, samples of world literature
that he wants to read, study the
architecture of traditional African
buildings as a reflection of kinship
structure, contemporary civiliza-
tion or any combination of sub-
jects in whatever form they de-
These are not the only alterna-
tives, there are undoubtedly more
and better ones available. The
problem must be recognized and
discussed. At present the Univer-
sity is not fostering in the student
an interest in and a desire to
If one of the above alternatives,
or a similar one were adopted then
vacation periods would not be bor-
ing, the pace of academic life
would relax, and the student

would have time to reflect that he
is here for educational purposes
and not to get a key to tomorrow.
We might even find ourselves
enjoying our academic activities
without having to cast around des-
perately for diversions.

WE MAY need a tax cut, but,
what we need even more is a
drastic revision of our whole ram-
shackle tax structure.
Taxes should reflect and pro-
mote sound public policies. The
real property tax, which is the
main support of local, municipal
and county governments, reflects
and promotes almost every un-
sound public policy imaginable. It
encourages urban blight, urban
sprawl and land speculation. It
thwarts urban rehabilitation, con-
struction, investment in building
and improving homes and orderly
THE REASON is that the tax is
based on the market value of the
property. Raw- .land has ,a lower
market value than any other kind
of real estate. The man who buys
raw land and does nothing with it
pays comparatively little in taxes.
The more he puts into it, the
higher his taxes. He is penalized
for making raw land into a farm
or a place to live. The more he
spends on the farm or on his
home, the more he is penalized.
The man who lets his property
run down will pay lower taxes
than the man who keeps his up.
This is one of the causes of urban
The speculator drives the pro-
spective buyer in search of cheap-
er land farther and farther from
the center of town. This is one of
the causes of urban sprawl. The
speculator, by forcing up the price
of land, puts a premium on
squeezing the most housing into

the smallest area. This is one of
the causes of suburban slums.
- -k *
THE TAX system almost com-
pels the buyer of land to become
a speculator. If he improves his
land, his property tax will rise.
If he improves it, and gets any
revenue from it, his property tax
and his income tax will rise.
If, on the other hand, he sits on
the land, does nothing with it and
finally sells it at a great profit,
he will pay little by way of prop-
erty tax and will be taxed on the
profit at the favorable rates ap-
plied to capital gains.
The profit will result from the
growth of population and the de-
velopment of the community. The
speculator can take no credit for
it. His efforts, energy and sacrifice
did not produce it. He is like any
other monopolist who corners a
good thing. All he has to do is to
wait until those who need what
he has will pay his price.
* * , '
THE REMEDY is absurdly
simple. It is to take the tax off the
improvements and put it on the
land. The owner would then be
taxed on what the community had
done for him in raising the value
of his land. He would not be pun-
ished for what he had done to
build up the community by using
his land.
If the tax were on the land and
not on the improvements, the in-
centive to gamble in land would
be removed. We might then hope
for sound utilization of our living
and working space, a commodity
that is getting scarcer every day.
(Copyright, Los Angeles Times)

IT HE TRAMP is back in town.
Charlie Chaplin, master of
comedy and one of this country's
greatest artists, is on view tonight
and tomorrow at the Cinema
Guild in "The Gold Rush".
Chaplin is that rarest of phe-
nomena - the artistic genius who
is loved by the masses. His humor
has a simplicity that can be ap-
preciated by the least sophisticat-
ed viewer and a complexity that
delights the erudite.
THE ESSENCE of Chaplin's art-
istry is two-fold: his intricate
comic method and the sympathy
which his character evokes.
His gags are simple and direct--
snowballs in the face, cliff-hang-
ing, and falling pants. Yet, they
are generally part of a long se-
quence of gags intricately strung
together. For example, Chaplin
dances, his pants start to fall, he
grabs a rope and ties them up, the
rope is a dog's leash and the dog
is dragged onto the dance floor, a
cat appears and the dog drags
Chaplin off the dance floor.
Chaplin's style of comedy is
strangely difficult for modern
audiences who are accustomed to.
the isolated gag style of comedy.
Chaplin elicits a sustained chuckle.
CHAPLIN can also be painfully
obvious: snowball's strike the
house, Chaplin thinks someone is
knocking at the door, opens the
door and SPLAT, right in the face.
But when The Tramp gets a
snowball in the face it is different
from when Harold Lloyd gets one.
Through a host of subtle man-
nerisms - the sad facial expres-
sion, the splay-footed walk, the
tip of the bowler, the twirl of the
cane -- Chaplinhas created in
The Tramp a truly unique char-
acter who engages our sympathies.
Harold Lloyd created a more
sympathetic character - the sin-
cere but hopelessly bumbling little
man overwhelmed by the world's
complexity. Chaplin marks the
consummation of the art. He is at
once helpless and irrepressible;,
his face manifests the former and
jaunty twirl of his cane the latter.
We cannot laugh at the Tramp
without a slight feeling of sadness.
-Sam Walker

of the neo-realist tradition and
his early films-before "La Dolce
Vita"-show it. But despite simi-
larities between Fellini and, say,
the De Sica-Zavatinni team, their
intentions are quite different.
Fellini, however, makes no at-
tempt at the slice of life. He is
concerned with creating a myth-
ology - with heavily Christian
IN "LA STRADA" a girl, per-
haps retarded, is sold by her
peasant mother to an itinerant
carnival strong man, Zampano (a
dubbed Anthony Quinn)'. The
story is episodic-the girl becomes
part of the act, they travel across
a depressing Italian landscape.
Zampano is totally. without feel-
ing for Gelsamina.
The two encounter an aerialist,
Nazarreno (a dubbed Richard
Baseheart) who can't resist mock-
ing Zampano's stupidity-perhaps
it's a perverse attempt to im-
pose some lucidity. The strong
man finally kills the aerialist-
clown, abandons the girl.
* * *
NAZARRENO'S name, I take it,
indicates his role in the film. He
preaches a Christian ethic: every-
thing in the world has a pur-
pose: Gelsamina's place is with
Zampano because if she won't
stay,. who will? Fellini tries to
demonstrate the redemptive pow-
er of punishment. Long after the
abandonment, when the strong
man learns of Gelsamina's death,
he gets very drunk, goes to a
beach, and begins to weep.
For my taste, however, "La
Strada" fails. Fellini's use of a
Christian myth and Baseheart's
teleological message are not re-
sponsible. One need not accept a
world-view intellectually to find
it artistically convincing as myth.
The fault lies with Fellini's in-
ability to resist sentimentality, and
here for all their divergences he
and DeSica are quite similar, in
"La Strada," for example, he re-
lies too heavily on Massina's mim-
ing and the orchestral swell of
her motif.
David Zimmerman

Property Tax Ca'uses
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