THE MICHIGAN DAILY
r' ICIA DIY HRDA,3
ACCORDING TO THEMSELVES:
Red China'sEconomy Climbs Back Up
Groups See Open Shop Laws
As Important Election Issue
FRIDAY NOON LUNCHEONS
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This Friday-"HONEST TO
THERE IS A WORLD!"
Dr. Patrick Murray
By JOHN RODERICK
Associated Press Staff Writer
TOKYO--Natural disasters, mis-
management and a costly quarrel
with the Soviet Unionhave forced
Red China to re-arrange the pat-
tern of its economy. As 1963 ended,
it claimed it was on the way to
The new Chinese pattern is one
of "readjustment," of cutting the
suit to fit the now-scarce cloth-
in short, abandoning yesteryear's
ambitious* heavy industrialization
plan for a more modest campaign
to rescue agriculture from the dis-
asters of the 1959-61 period.
The Red Chinese say the period
of retrenchment and "going slow"
will continue through 1964 and
Twist of Fate
By a quirk of history, the new
Chinese economy is receiving im-
portant - possibly critical - help
from Western nations long de-
nounced as "selfishly imperialist"
From its establishment until
the showdown days of 1960, Soviet
Russia had been China's principal
economic benefactor. In the latter
year, Nikita Khrushchev demon-
strated his opposition to Chinese
Chairman Mao Tse-Tung's meth-
ods by slashing both aid and trade.
Reviewing China's new efforts
at self-help, President Liu Shao-
Chi said in September, "Our na-
tional economy has taken a turn
for the better all-round."
This declaration was followed by
later claims that the nation's to-
tal grain output for 1963 was ex-
pected to be. better -than 1962-
Western experts guess around 185
million tons-and that industrial
gains also had been scored.
Cotton, said the official Peking
Review, was up 20-30 per cent
over 1962, fertilizers 43 per cent,
insecticides 27.3 per cent, tractors
30 per cent, plastic goods 20 per
cent, cements 24 per cent.
Progress? Apparently, but since
no figures have been released on
Chinese production since the dis-
astrous days of 1959, the non-
Communist world has no basis for
More Trade with West
Less secret are the figures for
Chinese exports and imports.
These show a sharp drop in trade
with the Soviet Union since 1960,
an upsurge in exchanges with the
Out of a total China trade of
$2.3 billion in 1962, $1.115 billion
went s the non-Communist world.
Exports to the West totaled $589
million against imports of $526
million, a small surplus compared
with the $100 million deficit of
The outlook is for more and
more trade with the non-Com-
munist bloc, less dependence on
what China considers now politi-
cally unreliable nations of the
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Two of the nations engaged in
the scramble for more China trade
are Japan and West Germany.
They are interested in selling ma-
chinery, full industrial plants and
many of the articles needed for
the drive to improve agricultural
China has virtually shelved its
heavy industry program since the
debacles of 1959-61. But its pur-
chase of complete industrial plants
indicates that it has hopes of re-
suming it in the future.
Now, heavy industry's chief role,
along with that of light industry,
is to turn out the fertilizers, chem-
icals, machinery, tractors, clothes
and other items needed for a vast
army of agricultural workers..
China concedes that it will be a
long, long time before the country
can amass- the capital reserves to
pour into heavy industry.
Meanwhile, the near-starvation
of only a year ago appears to have
The Peking Review said that be-
residents in cities, towns and in-
tween January and August, 1963,
dustrial and mining areas ate half
as much pork again as they did
over the corresponding period in
1962, while peasants in the rural
communes doubled their consump-
Poultry, eggs and egg products
were rising, it said, and so were
the supplies of vegetables and
All this is a rosier picture than
that painted a year ago when
Premier Chou En-Lai admitted
that times were hard and feeding
everyone was a tremendous prob-
The Chinese are the first to
admit, however, that whatever
progress has been made is small,
that the future, though less bleak
than it looked 12 months ago, is
far from assured.
WASHINGTON - The 1 a t e
President John F. Kennedy's
emergency program to reduce the
number of school dropouts has
succeeded so far beyond original
expectations that the adminis-
tration is encouraging other
states and localities to finance
similar programs this year.
United States Commissioner.'of
Education Francis Keppel said re-
cently that he was "delighted"
with reports from the 63 areas
that took part in last summer's
program, the Washington Post
He added, however, that "we
never thought a single shot pro-
gram would solve the whole prob-
lem. We hope states and localities
will prepare their budgets with
the idea of continuing the pro-
gram of seeking out the drop-
outs during the summer and get-
ting them back in school."
An initial report on the drop-
out program showed that 51.1
percent of the high school drop-
outs contacted last summer had
returned to school in September.
Of those returning, 92.4 percent
were still in schiil by Nov. 1, the
T h e commissioner q u o t e d
George B. Brain, Baltimore school
superintendent, who said, "Per-
haps the major outcome is not
to be found as much in the
numbers as in the understanding
that dropouts are not beyond the
reach of school. The converse
seems true, too. School is not
sufficient for all youth."
By NEIL GILBRIDE
WASHINGTON (R) - What is
the philosophy behind "right-to-
work" laws now on the books in
20 states and being actively push-
ed in 30 others?
The question, likely to be a hot
issue in the 1964 presidential elec-
tion, gets some sharply differing
"The freedom of the individual
worker," the National Right To
Work Committee replies.
"Evil anti-unionism," retorts
"The government at any level
should stay out of it," says the
National Council for Industrial
The right-to-work laws ban
union shop contracts, under which
a worker must join the union af-
ter he is hired.
The issue has cropped up in the
political views of such Republican
presidential possibilities as Sen.
Barry Goldwater of Arizona and
Gov. Nelson Rockefeller of New
Former President John F. Ken-
nedy and. Secretary of Labor W.
Willard Wirtz opposed right-to-
work laws and the Labor Depart-
ment has filed a federal court
suit against the right to work
The committee has countered
with a demand for a congressional
investigation of what it called a
conflict of interest by Wirtz in
assisting a campaign to repeal
Arkansas' right-to-work law.
The votes of millions of work-
ers could hinge on the issue in
The Labor Department has es-
timated that more than 70 per
cent of firms with 1000 or more
employes have union shop agree-
ments in the 30 states that still
"It's going to be a hell of an
issue if the Republicans take
Goldwater" as their presidential
nominee, says John M. Redding,
director of the Council for In-
The 20 states with right-to-
work laws affect an estimated 20
million workers. About 48 million
live in the 30 states that don't
Oppose Federal Law
Both Goldwater and Rockefeller
say they oppose a federal right-
to-work law, and Rockefeller add-
ed that he and the New York Re-
publican Party are opposed to such
a law in their state. Goldwater's
Arizona is one of the 20 states
that have such laws.
Goldwater has called for "an
open shop in all states" but at
the same time advocated giving
the states "the right to declare
for a union shop."
A bill he introduced in January
would outlaw compulsory union
membership except in states which
already have, or subsequently pass,
laws permitting the union shop.
The Right To Work Committee
is an educational organization
which maintains that it will not
endorse any candidate in the
However, several "Goldwater in
64" signs are prominently dis-
played on its office walls. There
are none for Rockefeller.
Four states have passed right-
to-work laws since the Right To
Work Committee began operations
in 1955-Utah, Indiana, Kansas
and Wyoming, the latter last May.
States which had such laws be-
fore the formation of the national
committee are Arkansas, Florida,
Arizona, Nebraska, Georgia, Iowa,
North Carolina, South Dakota,
Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, North
Dakota, Nevada, Alabama, South
Carolina and Mississippi.
Industrial Peace Council Direc-
tor Redding points out that a
number of the other states have
repealed such laws in recent years
-New Hampshire, Maine, Dela-
ware, Louisiana, and Hawaii while
it was still a territory. The Loui-
siana law was only partially ie-
pealed, he said, and still applies
to agricultural workers.
Age for Voting
WASHINGTON (P) - A pres-
idential commission: has re-
cently recommended that all
states consider lowering their
minimum voting age to 18 years.
The 11-member commission
cited as the major argument for
18-year-old voting was the be-
lief that by the time people reach
21 they are "so far removed from
the stimulation of the educational
public affairs has waned."
The report surmised that
many people never acquire the
habit of voting because they fail
to start voting right after gradu-
ation from high school.
In Lansing, Representatives
Harry DeMaso (R-Battle Creek)
"and Paul Chandler (R-Livonia)
introduced a bill to amend Michi-
gan's constitution to allow 18-
year olds to vote.
"There is intellectual dishonesty
toward youth, and basic democrat-
ic inconsistency where a govern-
ment calls upon young men and
women to assume some acts of re-
sponsibility-such as military serv-
ice-but denies them a voice in
shaping policy," the two said.
"The three-year waiting period
between high school graduation at
18 and the start of voting privi-
lege at 21 does little to improve
citizenship," they asserted.
E. LIBERTY NEAR MAYNARD
SERVING THE NEEDS
OFM U-M STUDENTS
FROM TWO MAJOR
THE BELL TELEPHONE COMPANIES
SALUTE: TOM HAMILTON
"I've known quickly on every job what was expected. Then
it was pretty much up to me, with help as needed," says
Northwestern Bell's Tom Hamilton (B.S., Business, 1960).
Tom is Manager of his company's Clinton, Iowa Business
Office, and has a staff of seven to help him service his
35,000 telephone customers.
Tom's promotion resulted much from his impressive
records in two other company areas. He had been an
Assistant Marketing Promotion Supervisor helping develop
sales promotion when he was selected by his company to
attend the special business seminar at Northwestern
University in Chicago.
Then, as Communications Supervisor in Ottumwa, Tom
was both salesman and supervisor - two other salesmen
worked under him. On this job he showed the versatility
that paid off in his Clinton promotion.
Tom Hamilton, like many young men, is impatient to
make things happen for his company and himself. There
are few places where such restlessness is more welcomed
or rewarded than in the fast-growing telephone business.
BELL TELEPHONE COMPANIES
S. UNIVERSITY AT E. UNIVERSITY
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