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February 16, 1964 - Image 10

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-02-16
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-+.."R ]rr- mr

The Jitichiga tbvi4
segments of the Universitycorn
munity -- administration, faculty,
and students - will gather at the
Michigan Union next weekend, Feb.
21-22, for the second Conference on
the University. The first Conference
was held in May, 1962.
By Peter Rosen-Runge ., .. Page 2-
By Philip Sutin ...........Page 2
By Kenneth Winter........Page 3
By Michael Sattinger .......Page 4
By Gerald Starch ..........Page 4r
By Robert Pike ........... Page 4 '
By Kenneth McEldowney ... Page 5
By David Marcus and
Edwin Sasaki .......Pages 6 and 7
By Alan Grass and
Daryl. Bern.............. Page 8
By Michael Rosen .........Page 9
By Michael Rosen ........Page 10
By George Allen.....Page 10
By Larry Phillips and
Gail Evans ............ Page 11

tImage aindI espolusibility, " art I

An Overall 'U' Philosophy

IS IT, in fact, the case that the Univer-
sity does or can have a general phil-
First, consider three possible descrip-
tions of the University, each to a varying
extent inspired by the opening reference.
(1) The Republic of Plato. By Univer-
sity I mean an ideal: a community of
scholars wherein resides the spirit of free
inquiry into the nature of the world and
the works of man. The dual aspects of
this inquiry are teaching and learning;
the common goals of teacher and learn-
er are truth and the enrichment of ex-
(2) Alexander Michigander and the
University of Michigan. By University I
mean the image of a state university
as it is publicized by the office of uni-
versity relations. The university is "a
public resource." It is a place where the
wisdom of the past is treasured, where
ideas for future progress are born, where
the leadership for tomorrow is shaped.
It trains the specialists our modern so-
ciety needs. It aids and attracts industry
and commerce, through research on
products, processes and people. It pro-
motes the physical health of the people
through medical training and research.
It trains the teachers of the state's chil-
dren and the public administrators of
our cities and state. Through military
and space research it helps to protect our
national security. It trains librarians,
musicians, painters, writers, conservation

officers and many more who contribute
to the cultural and recreational life of
the citizen. In short, the university is an
active force for the public good.
(3) The Academic Marketplace, (Theo-
dore Caplow.) By university I mean a
type of social institution, specifically the
large private and state institutions which
grant a doctoral degree.
The members of such institutions fall
into three general classes-students, fac-
ulty and administrators. In return for
cash payments, students receive instruc-
tion in certain skills, which in turn re-
quire the acquisition and organization of
factual knowledge.
After the student has taken the re-
quired number of courses and maintained
a certain level of competence, he receives
a bachelor's degree. A large number of
students leave the institution at this
point and take up various occupations.
In general, the manner in which the skills
and knowledge acquired in college are
applied in these professions is difficult
to determine.
THOSE students who remain in the in-
stitution beyond the bachelor's degree
either enter specialized training in a
professional school, or begin a course
of study directed toward the doctorate.
The most obvious outcome of graduate
schooling is that it enables the student
to join the faculty, and by and large,
this is the only way he can do so. The
functions of the faculty are therefore
mirrored in the training of the graduate

Image and Responsibility, Part II
The University, The State an Nation

THE UNIVERSITY receives an annual
appropriation from the state legisla-
ture to carry on the education of its
students, and also receives vast sums of
money for research from the federal and
state governments, and from private
These divergent functions of the Uni-
versity sometimes result in strange ano-
malies. Sponsored research has boomed
since World War II, doubling about once
every four years. In contrast, undergrad-
uate teaching and general University
operations are stagnating from inadequ-
ate legislative appropriation in recent
University appropriations have inched
up slightly since 1959 with increases
barely sufficient to meet faculty pay
demands. But this year, Gov. Romney's
budget recommends $44 million for the
University. If approved by the legislature,
this would be a significant $5.8 million
increase over this year's operating budget.
THE UNIVERSITY maintains a full-
time lobbyist in the state capital while
the legislature is in session, and Execu-
tive Vice-President Marvin Niehuss
spends much of his time in lobbying
activity. The main function of this lobby-
ing is to maintain good communication
with the legislature so that it understands
wrat the University is doing, and why.
The University is in a better position at
appropriation time if it is known to have
the interests of Michigan at heart.
The Office of University Relations
serves the communications need of a
large and sometimes distant organiza-
tion. It helps explain University actions
as well as attempt to create public opin-
ion favorable to it.
Under Director Michael Radock, this
agency has intensified its work on the
University "image." Instead of conduct-
ing mass public campaigns, the office is
primarily interested in reaching the opin-
ion leaders in the state. Its activities

include a news service which relates the
day-to-day happenings at the University,
two FM radio stations, and various state
services which handle the University's
relations with Michigan groups.
However, some students and faculty
believe that public relations men are in-
capable of selling a product as intangible
as a good educational institution. These
individuals are disturbed when they read
pamphlets fro mthe Office of University
relations depicting the University, as ser-
vants of "Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Mich-
igander" typical middle class state resi-
It is significant that the Office of Uni-
versity relations has tried to change the
image of the University within the last
year. In the past the University has em-
phasized the need for more funds to meet
expanding enrollment and internal pres-
sure for faculty raises. But now the Uni-
versity is stressing the role research can
play in strengthening the state's economy.
At least in one respect, this marks a de-
emphasis on the purely educational func-
tions of the University.
The legislature's only hold over the
University is its power to appropriate
funds. It cannot dictate through legisla-
tion to another constitutional body, the
University. Nevertheless, this is an impor-
tant power and the legislature can in-
fluence University behavior.
RELATIONS with the federal govern-
ment are quite a difefrent matter and
are handled by different people. The
University is the fourth largest recipient
of federal research funds among institu-
tions of higher education."
Vice-President Ralph Sawyer handles
most of the University's Washington
contacts, and a steady stream of Uni-
versity officials and faculty commute be-
tween Ann Arbor and Washington.
The Office of Research Administration
under Director Robert Burroughs does
much of the technical work involved in
both research contracts and grants.

The relationship between the federal
government and the University is largely
defined by these contracts and grants.
The detailed documents specify the pur-
poses of sponsored research projects and
accounting and fiscal restrictions im-
posed on the University.
The University has refused to become
a manager for a federal research installa-
tion, such as the University of Califor-
nia's Los Alamos Laboratory. It attempts
to limit projects to those which will aid
the education of graduate students as.
well as further knowledge in the physical
sciences. It also has a strict policy against
doing applied research.
THE MOST pressing problem is failure
to resolve the sometimes conflicting
ends of defense sponsored research and
academic research. The University has a
firm basic policy, pragmatically applied,
and combined with the high number of
former academic scientists administering
federal programs, the possibilities of con-
flict have been mitigated as much as
The United States Congress has placed
ceilings on overhead costs which the Uni-
versity feels are too low. The University
stopped accepting defense department
grants last year after Congress set too
low a ceiling. The move cost the Uni-
versity $250,000. However, with the aid
of other colleges and universities, the
University is generally winning the bat-
tle of indirect costs.
Another University concern about Con-
gressional actions in the research area
is a House investigation of federal re-
search policies. However, University offi-
cials see no threat to the federal gov-
ernment's basic policy on research, and
are not particularly worried.
In other areas, the University has
been quick to take advantage of federal
programs, beginning with the Works
Progress Administration's funds to build
West Quadrangle in the 1930's. A new
windfall may come as the Senate
passes a college construction aid bill.

student. Faculty members teach, and so
do many graduate students (although
they are never given explicit instructions
in the area). Faculty members usually
engage in personal research or scholarly
work; graduate students often assist in
such work. Scholarly work (any activity
leading to publication in books, articles
or papers in academic journals) is an
extremely important activity for the fac-
ulty member, for his salary, rank, and
prestige are all related to the quantity
and quality of his output. (It is not
surprising, therefore, that there is an in-
creasing pressure to reduce faculty teach-
ing loads and increase the time allotted
for personal research.)
The function of the university admin-
istrator is to maintain the university as
a stable and viable institution. Since uni-
versities in this country are highly com-
petitive, growth in a university does not
normally mean change in structure or
policy, but rather expansion in terms
of facilities, personnel, and physical
HERE THEN, are three descriptions of
a university. Symmetry, if nothing
else, demands three views of the univer-
sity's philosophy.
(1) The general philosophy should be
a theory of inquiry, which clarifies and
illuminates the university's methods and
purposes. It should relate these purposes
to the highest purposes of human exist-
ence-the search for beauty and truth.
(2) The philosophy of the university
is a public statement of its goals with
regard to the community and state. In
developing such a philosophy the Univer-
sity must insure, through consultation
with businessmen, legislators, alumni,
etc., that it is meeting the real needs of
the citizens of this state. It is then in
a position actively to seek support from
the citizen for its activities.
(3) To give an account of the philoso-
phy of a university, we must first con-
sider the nature of institutional philoso-
phies. The primary purpose of the phil-
osophy of an institution is to explain,
justify, and rationalize its decisions and
policies. Initially, such philosophies may
precede the decisions which they ex-
plain; that is, they are genuine guides to
action. However, as an institution such
as the university endures and its future
existence becomes secure, predetermined
goals become replaced by tradition, and
decisions tend to be made in terms of
current pressures and conflicts within
and without the institution. In this situ-
ation the university's philosophy becomes
an ex post facto means of making curent
decisions appear reasonable and consist-
ent with previous ones. In a sense, an in-
stitutional philosophy is the conscious
image of itself couched in socially accept-
able cliches which serve to protect that
image from attack.
However, the university is not a homo-
geneous group of individuals. Students,
faculty, and administrators each have
their own self-image and these are not at
all times mutually compatible. Thus a
student may feel that he is, after all, the
raison d'etre of the university and is
somewhat surprised at the limited time
faculty members may have to help or
advise him. A faculty member may feel
that his research and administrative
duties (e.g., committee meetings) are his
most valuable contribution to the uni-
versity and finds student demands on his
time often unreasonable.
From such considerations it follows that
.any stated philosophy of a university is
of little value in analyzing university
policies. At best, the contradictions be-
tween what the institution preaches and
what its members do can serve as a guide
to the underlying tensions and pressures
which control the university's decision.
One should bear in mind that as none
of the parties are capable of raising all
the questions, it is impossible that either
singly or collectively they could have all
the answers.



Cam)pu4 Chnintent:.9t4e4(ecti'onI

WHAT IS IT like to be a student at
the University?
This is a question which the University,
as an administrative unit, should take
pains to answer, but doesn't. The Uni-
versity Committee on Student Counseling
Services coordinates the present coun-
seling agencies, but has not attempted
an overview of the student environment.
Counseling bodies here primarily seek to
aid the student with a problem. They
do not attempt to assess what is like to
be just an ordinary student among the
27,000 encamped here. Clearly, the Uni-
versity could improve the educational
experience here if it knew what the Uni-
versity environment is like and how the
students react to it.
The University environment is as di-
verse as the student population. Yet,
Michigan is not undertaking any study
of its environmental nature to try to
determine what the effects the campus
culture has upon the student or the stu-
dent upon the environment. However,
an individual University professor is con-
ducting such an environmental study
along with a corps of University re-
The current sociological research is
being conducted under the direction of
Prof. Theodore Newcomb. His chief re-
search assistant, Dr. Gerald Gurin of the
Institute of Social Research, says that
the preliminary impressions derived from
the study have shown that students
create their own environment. Faculty
and administrators have very little effect
on the student's life. He cited several
major environmental breakdowns or sub-
cultures created solely by students: po-
litical activist, artist, sorority, fraternity,
dormitory men, and dorm women, and
honors. These are the only sub-cultures
clearly deliniated in the preliminary an-
alyses. (The study includes freshmen
questionnaires, examinations, including

the Fricke test, and personal consulta-
The University faces environmental
problems primarily because of its size.
Gurin notes that the University environ-
ment is student-centered because the
peer group is the only group which is
close enough to exercise a great influence
upon student attitudes and behavior. His
study has also shown that students tend
to join one sub-culture and not venture
into others.
The enrollment boom, trimester, in-
creasing academic pressures, primacy of
research and the spiraling cost of edu-
cation are all factors which shape the
campus environment. Student organiza-
tions and student government have play-
ed an important part in student life here
in the past, but as academic pressures
increase extra-curricular interest has
decreased. The environment is effected
by policies of the Office of Student Af-
fairs. Women's hours, dorm living re-
quirements, apartment permissions and
many other factors shape the life of the
STUDENTS REACT very differently to
the various environmental stimuli.
Newcomb's study has been trying to
isolate causes for environmental and sub-
culture development. The researchers
have asked two basic questions in terms
of the identified sub-cultures:
1) Why do students choose one en-
vironment over another?
2) What effect does this choice have
upon the student?
THE BASIC purpose behind the Uni-
versity counseling services as spelled
out in a 1958 "Guide to the Resources
for Student Counseling and Advising at
the University," is that "the student's
social, religious, personality and health
problems are important with respect to
the full yield of the academic experience.
. . . Counseling or advising should be
realized at the University. Many edu-
academic community is best served by
cators and psychologists agree that the
creating small communities within the
large University. The proposed residential
college is this University's first step
toward organizing these groups. But is
the creation of such groups feasible? So-
ciologists Christopher E. Jencks and
David Riesman, reporting on Harvard's
residential houses, raise some serious
1. Students don't want to be patron-
ized by their elders For their youth and
2. Professors "distrust the dilettante
and the ruminative person." They want
"professional identities and would rath-
er describe themselves as chemists or
anthropologists or musicians than as
mere professors, or-still worse-'intel-
lectuals'." Thus, resident professors may
be in scarce supply.
3. There is no "model for the kinds of
relationships which the intellectual com-
munity muust encourage."
Bus Jencks and Riesman are optimistic.
They conclude that ". . . the houses have
done more to preserve intellectual and
humane qualities In the academic com-
munity than most educational ventures,
and they suggest further experiments
either at Harvard or elsewhere. Though
the houses are unique institutions they
suggest some of the problems and pos-

an aid to, not a substitute for, decision From 30 t
making on the part of the student. . . ." are self-refe
Major counseling agencies available ment office
to aid the student with a problem are halls and t
the following: can refer sti
1) Counseling division of the Bu- The clinic c
reau of Psychological Services. leave school
2) Bureau of Appointments and mental dist
Occupational Information-The bu- ally pull a si
reau's chief functions are to provide
placement services for students and THE COU
alumni and to make available career sionally c
counseling. istration an
3) International Center - There and the en
are three full-time counselors at the problems, c
International Center to help foreign Broedel in
students with inter-cultural adjust- that much
ment problems. area and t
the Univers
rjHE MOST comprehensive counseling Certainly,
agencies are the counseling division of an increaser
the Bureau of Psychological Services and making is c
the Mental Health Clinic. Confusion often
arises concerning the functions of these tion quicke
two agencies. The counseling division has under incre
two main purposes: 1) to train psycholo- fects of th
gists in clinical psychology techniques important c
and 2) to aid the normal, healthy student answer. Dux
with identity problems. The counseling mester, visi
division can see a limited number of peo- increased b
ple and consequently there is always a ment went
waiting list. During Oct
The Mental Health Clinic, on the other per cent o
hand, is strictly a service agency. It must sons for thi
find time to see every student seeking plex. Dr. D
help. About 7.5 per cent of the student clinic, attr
population is treated annually. This fig- more wides
ure has remained fairly constant over ability of s
the past few years. There is a certain extensive r
amount of overlap between the two agen- explanation
cies, but only the Mental Health Clinic Counselin
gives temporary treatment to the ser- with indiv
iously mentally disturbed. Staff members Newcomb's,
of both groups are quick to emphasize ing the Un
that they do not indulge in much long- demic area
term counseling or intensive psycho-ther- for the Uni
apy, which they consider outside the goals, it m
bounds of the University's counseling re- and what t
sponsibility. are upon t2
sibilities in that immensely complicated The cha
undertaking, the creation of an intel- munity cai
lectual community." the daily e
their stude:
THE BALANCE between research and sor may c:
teaching exerts considerable influ- students, s
ence on the academic community. Many subject ma
of the University's departments, faced a way as
with state funds which are inadequate broad a pi
to support even normal growth, have ligations d
turned to Federal support to build up academic
their staffs. But much of this Federal from amor
money is earmarked for research, not sibilities dc
teaching, so that faculty members must Finally,
divide their time between their depart- student h
ments and the institutes, laboratories, munity? T
or centers in which they conduct their exchange
research. sororities,
The divison of a faculty member's units? The
time between teaching and research is ishingly fe'
changing, however, and the trend is away primary a
from teaching; research funding at the inquiry be
University is increasing at a considerably Even at
higher rate than support for teaching, or four suc
although some of the research money has notable su
been used indirectly to subsidize teach- Attempts t
ing. But the trend cannot continue with- have typic
out drastically affecting the whole struc- indifference
ture of the academic community, for it cause the
is clear that the University is gradually often made
becoming an institution for the perform- pursuit of
ance of federally-supported research. Do extends nc
the administration and facuulty have an Yet respor
obligation to encourage or discourage of an. aci
this trend? What can be done? large part,



WHAT FACTOR transforms a school
into an academic community? It is
cooperative inquiry. Our discussion will
assume that an academic community
is characterized by intellectual exchange
between faculty and students.
What are the conditions which permit
and encourage vigorous intellectual ex-
change in the academic community? One
of these is academic freedom. In com-
menting on the plight of many state
universities, Frank Pinner notes that,
"It is not likely that an academic com-
munity will come to exist so long as
studuents, faculty, and administration
feel that they are ruled by regulations
not of their own making." He insists
that "the academic community needs to
be protected from the dictation of the
Most of us would probably agree with
Pinner. However, in insisting on this
freedom, does not the academic com-
munity accept the obligation to lead the
people? To what extent is this Univer-
sity free from external regulation? Is
some amount of external regulation nec-
essary and desirable? How is the Uni-
versity meeting its obligations to the
ANOTHER condition for vigorous co-
oera inquiry is not presently


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