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February 14, 1964 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-02-14

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Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail",
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily ezpress the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in al' reprints.
The Lecture System:
Who Needs It.?
FAIRLY RADICAL CONCEPT of edu- through a whole semester this way, with-
cational philosophy seems to offer one out ever going to one class.
road away from some of the educational Lectures, and most recitations for that
matter, contain a great amount of built-
chaff at the University. in waste. They are an unproductive means
The idea: end lecture teaching alto- of developing the mind.
gether, put the lectures on tape in the
Undergraduate Library and let students THIS SUGGESTS the second problem.
take them as they will. The time saved The core of educational philosophy is
by eliminating lectures could either be the development of a free, independent
used for discussion sections or directed, human mind. Perhaps too few students
independent study. realize it, but this is why both they and
This theory attacks two problems of the University are here.
the educational process. The first is what But educational methods do little to
one dean has referred to as "sitting time." execute this goal. Most of the education
Students, in other words, get grades and here is "spoon-fed." Knowledge often be-
credits merely for being in attendance at comes unimportant in and of itself. The
a particular class; neither the grades nor degree is a material symbol, not an edu-
the credit correlate to the actual value cational one.
derived. This thought can be worked into A survey would probably show that
a cliche, but it is relatively valid, most students matriculate with an eye
(perhaps two eyes, and their parents four
CONSIDER: The student attends a par- as well) firmly fixed on that "extra $400,-
ticular class x number of days over 000 you can earn in your lifetime if you
however many weeks constitute a semes- stay in school."
ter. Preparing for the trimester, the Uni- The lecture system contributes to this
versity cut the number of weeks in the atmosphere by providing education with-
semester last term; all statistical indica- out challenge. It tends to discourage in-,
tors point to the fact that students didn't dividual initiative, replacing freedom with
suffer very very heavily, if at all. the security of direction.
Moreover, few students faithfully at-
tend all their lectures. It is relatively ELIMINATE the lecture system altogeth-
simple to borrow someone's notes. More er? It's a wild idea.
than one student has actually journeyed -H. NEIL BERKSON

Japan's Search for Markets


"You Can't Do This To Me!"

Daly Correspondent
T O K Y O0- Overshadowed by
French President Charles de
Gaulle's Asian maneuvering were
the Joint Japan-United States
economic talks of Jan. 27-28 held
in Tokyo.
The United States and Japan
have unique ties, rooted in their
long, historical friendship, their
mutual experiments in democracy,
and the impressive economic sha-
dow they cast over the Pacific.
Japan properly should occupy a
big place in the United States'
Asian policy. Her industrial power
is unmatched in the area and her
95 million citizens make her the
fifth largest nation in the world.
Thus she stands as the most logi-
cal counterpart balance to Com-
nunist China as a successful dem-
onstration of democracy.
* * *
States has been experiencing con-
tinuing difficulty in her Asian aid
program because of personnel
problems: it is quite difficult for
an American technician to appre-
ciate the weight of Asian patterns
of organization and behavior.
The Japanese, living in an Asian
environment, have a fuller under-
standing of the human elements
in foreign assistance. And the
Japanese economy is becoming
large enough these days for it to
expand its program of aid and
assume some of the American
* * *
AFTER the Occupational recon-
struction was completed in 1952,
the United States government
gave little attention to stimulat-
ing Japanese concern with Asia;
the Japanese have long recognized
the need.
Coupled with their desire to be-
come a first-rate power is their
development of the Pacific Com-
munity concept. This is primarily
a commercial concept which rec-
ognizes Japan's need to develop
her trade in Asia and consequent-
ly to build up the Asian countries
since their economies are current-
ly unable to support significant
The developing countries have
little capital. The European coun-
tries are concerned with their re-
gional progress and thus have set
up tariff walls which handicap
outside competitors. The Com-
munist bloc is concerned with in-
ternal development and has lim-
it-d foreign exchange so they have
not traded extensively with Japan.
The United States is one coun-
try which has kept its doors rea-
sonably open to Japan. Japan oc-
cupies second place in both our
imports and exports totals where-
a we take first place in both ave-
nues of her trade.
* * *
THE "reasonableness of the
crack in our trade door has been a
question under discussion for some
time. When President Kennedy
came into office, a careful scrutiny
of the Asian scene revealed a con-
siderable accumulation of resent-
ment in Japan against what was
considered as United States com-
mercial discrimination.
The concern of President Ken-
nedy that the United States' prin-
cijle Asian ally was being alienat-
ed by our trade policy was reflect-
ed in his dispatch of the first
American cabinet level United
States-Japan Committee on Trade
and Economic Affairs to Hakone,
Japan in November of 1961.
The recent conference is the
third one of ministerial status
that the countries have engaged
in. It was called "not as a forum
for negotiations to seek solutions
to particular problems, but to

deepen mutual understanding for
closer future cooperation." In this
spirit we find Secretary of Labor
Willard Wirtz playing "Go", a
game that faintly resembles chess
and which finds its origins in
China and its champions in Ja-
pan, with the Japanese Minister
of Labor.
* * *
HOWEVER, the exploratory na-
ture of the conference did not pre-
vent the particular issues that ex-
ist between the two countries from
coning to the surface.
Japan is striving to become a
first rate international power. To
this end she ha- promised to lib-
eralize all her tariffs.
The specific complaints she
raises against the United States
are restrictive trade practices, the
possible interest equalization tax,
the Buy America and Ship Amer-
ica campaigns and the fact that
the American market is so temper-
amental that the Japanese have
been "requested" by the United
States government to place volun-
tary restrictions on a number of
their exports to the United States.
The goods under such restric-
tions amount to about one-third
of Japan's exports to the United
States. They irclude textiles, um-
brellas, baseball gloves, sewing
machines, thermometers, and a
host of other goods.
* * *
AMERICAN diplomats are con-
cerned with explaining the need
for the interest equalization tax
that is likely to be imposed on all
United States capital exports. The
Merlin Jones," now showing at
the State Theatre, shouldn't be.
The third in what threatens to
be a long, long series, "Merlin
Jones" is contrived, banal, boring,
embarrassing, trite, overdone, mes-
sy, and worst of all, wasteful. "The
Absent Minded Professor," the first
in this shaggy series, was clever
and carefully conceived. Merlin
Jones is an abortion.
* * *
AS USUAL any talents that
Tommy Kirk or Annette Funicello
may have are effectively hidden
beneath a huge pile of poor script
and haphazard direction.
The one character who rises
above the mishapen heap of the
plot is that of Stanley. The actor
(not credited) outshines even an
old pro like Stu Erwin and easily
brings more laughs than Kirk. The
part is a minor one but by sim-
ple gestures and subtle voice in-
flections, the part becomes the one
shining moment in the film. Stan-
ley's swearing in the scene in
court is the funniest moment in
the film as well as the most mean-
The rest of the film, actually
two segments barely connected in-
to one flimsy whole, is of the cate-
gory of "Losers." The locale is un-
believable as either a high school
or college, the characters are so
stereotyped as to be grotesque and
the plot is out of an aged copy of
"Boys' Life."
* * *
WALT DISNEY, it can finally be
said, is only human. He, too, can
grow old and make mistakes. One
needn't follow his example, how-
ever, there are other theatres in
-Hugh Holland

tax is designed to erase the cur-
rent deficit in the United States
balance of payments through dis-
couraging United States firms
from investing overseas. Also the
United States was interested in
boosting Japan's Asian aid activi-
The concerns of both sides were
clearly presented and met with
mild assurances.
Walter Heller, chairman of the
Cooncil of Economic Advisers to
to the President, stated the im-
r. oving United States balance of
payments situation might allow
the United States to drop the in-
terest equalization tax by the end
of 1965.
Secretary of Commerce Luther
;:odges assured the Japanese that
the United States would take ap-
propriate measures to meet the
prblem "if the Japanese economy
faitered, contrary to expectations."
He also stated that the United
States is willing to discuss the
vloluntary restrictions in the econ-
o'mc talks this May. This indicat-
ed a change in the United States
position since the United States
formerly contended that these
taxes were in Japan's best inter-
ests and refused to discuss them.
*. * *
THE REACTION of the press in
Japan was generally realistic.
"The Yomiyuri Shibun" com-
plained of United States protec-
tionism and its dogmatic adher-
ence to across-the-board tariff
lowerings. "The Mainichi Shim-
bun," a second leading daily, re-
iterated this view but pointed to
the balance of payments crisis of
the two countries as limiting any
bold steps.
This paper came out with the
additional request that the Japan-
ese government come to the next
conference with a more Independ-
ent economic policy. It chided the
Japanese government for its re-
action to the United States inter-
est equalization tax, and suggest-
ed that Japan's real need was to
develop more diversified markets
and thus be able to face the Unit-
ed States on equal terms in future
Of particular interest in the
light of Chou En-lai's statement
of Feb. 5 that China would adhere
to the principles of the United
Nations Charter were two state-
ments Secretary of State Dean
Rusk made in an interview with
the Japanese press. It is almost
possible to read into Rusk's words
the beginnings of a more concilia-
tory official policy toward Com-
munist China.
"The United States remains
loyal to commitments to China.
When mainland China has a gov-
ernment which is prepared to re-
nounce force to make peace, and
to honor international responsibil-
ities, it will find us responsive.
"The American people' have
deep sympathy for the plight of
the people of the Chinese main-
land, with whom we had close and
cordial relations for a century and
a half."
* * *
OF PARTICULAR interest in
the light of Chou En-lai's state-
ment of Feb. 5 that China would
adhere to the principles of the
United Nations Charter were two
statements Secretary of State
Dean Rusk made in an interview
with the Japanese press. It is al-
most possible to read into Rusk's
words the beginnings of a more
conciliatory official policy towards
Communist China.
"The United States remains
loyal to commitments to China.
When mainland China has a gov-
ernment which is prepared to r
nounce force to make peace, and
to honor international responsi-
bilities, it will find us responsive.

o,,a .

1rsT ia .
k r



Neutrality Impossible
In Viet Nam



Setting Priorities
Philip Sutin, National Concerns Editor

- r
.. " t X11 k t.


THE INDIVIDUAL with a general back-
ground is needed more than ever; yet
today's educational trends work toward
increasing specialization. While the vast
amount of knowledge makes the "univer-
sal man" impossible, a general under-
standing of the sciences, the social sci-
ences and the humanities is needed for
the nation's educational, business and
political leaders to use this country's re-
sources effectively.
These leaders today must allocate funds
and manpower among expensive, but
highly competitive enterprises. Setting
priorities is not a simple issue. There are
no easily comprehensible yardsticks to
use, and often administrators and legisla-
tures let technicians make the decisions,
abandoning all attempts to comprehend
their significance.
Unfortunately, endeavors such as space
research, medical research and higher ed-
ucation are as expensive as they are com-
plex. These fields also have complex sub-
divisions and need scarce resources, which
must be carefully allocated.
made. Is high energy physics as impor-
tant as nuclear engineering? Should more
research effort be placed on heart disease
or cancer? Which should be stressed, en-
gineering or the social sciences? Ulti-
mately, the general public has to make
these decisions for it elects the legisla-
Editorial Staff
Editorial Director City Editor
BARBARA LAZARUS ........ ..... Personnel Director
PHILIP SUTIN ............. National Concerns Editor
GAIL EVANS ...,........,....... Associate City Editor
MARJORIE BRAHMS .... Associate Editorial Director
<sLORIA BOWLES..................Magazine Editor
MALINDA BERRY ................Contributing Editor
DAVE GOOD....................... Sports Editor
JIM BERGER ....,........... Associate Sports Editor
MIKE BLOCK .., . .... . ........ Associate Sports Editor
BOB ZWINCK............ Contributing Sports Editor
NIGHT EDITORS: H. Neil Berkson,- Steven Hailer,
Edward Herstein, Marilyn Koral, Louise Lind, An-
drew Orlin, Michael Sattinger, Kenneth Winter.
Butcher, John Bryant, Laurence Kirshbaum, Richard
Business Staff
ANDREW CRAWFORD, Business Manager
PETER ARONSON..............Advertising Manager
LEE JATHROS............ ..... Accounts Manager
JUDY LEPOFSKY.......Associate Business Manager
RUTH SCHEMNITZ ................. Finance Manager
JUNIOR MANAGERS: Jay Gampel, Judy Goldstein,
Barbara Johnston, Sydney Pauker, Alex Weinberg,
Jon White.

tors, governors and presidents that make
many of the financial decisions.
But few people are properly prepared to
make these choices. For many years Con-
gress has blindly appropriated money
for research, trusting the government to
spend it wisely. Now, Congress is investi-
gating research and still finding itself
baffled and removed from effective de-
cision-making participation.
NEITHER THE PRESS nor higher educa-
tion are helping prepare leaders and
citizens for this task. The press, the mass
educator of the public, has only recently
come awake to the world beyond sex and
city hall. Good science and education re-
porting is only in its infancy.
Few undergraduate institutions have a
general program and these may no longer
be sufficient to prepare students for grad-
uate school. Most institutions have distri-
bution requirements, then rigidly place
students within majors.
UNFORTUNATELY, the University falls
in the second group. Aside from dis-
tribution and cognate requirements, not
enough is being done to provide, interested
undergraduates with the broad education
needed to make them well-informed deci-
sion - makers. Further, the University
forces all undergraduates into a mold
whether the student wishes to specialize
or not.
Some attempts are made to present a
broad intellectual picture in college hon-
ors classes. Courses like Revolutionary
Ideas in Science, Psychology and Litera-
ture and General Systems explore the in-
teraction among disciplines and help pro-
vide some of the necessary background.
But this sort of course is not enough. A
full honors program should be available
to help train decision-makers in the un-
dergraduate years. It should provide the
necessary background in a wide variety of
disciplines and some sensitivity about
their interaction and the choices that
have to be made between them.
THE PROGRAM need not include many
new interdisciplinary courses, but a
selection of currently offered honors and
regular courses. It should also include a
seminar or senior thesis that would force
the student to think interdisciplinarily
and consider the relationship between a
broad range of disciplines.
Some degree of specialization must also
be included, for eventually the student
will have to fit himself in one discipline
and begin advanced education in his
chosen field. However, under such a pro-

To the Editor:
ROBERT Hippler's Feb. 13 edi-
torial on Viet Nam neutrality
contains some curiously muddled
comments. For example, he states
that the Van Minh coup "prevent-
ed what probably would have
shortly occurred-a general rebel-
It would be fascinating to learn
what Hippler thinks has been tak-
ing place in Viet Nam these past
several years if not a general re-
bellion? With Battalion-size guer-
rilla units wandering about pretty
much at will, drafting the young
men, levying taxes and coman-
deering food under the noses of
the official government, you've got
something more than a gang war.
SECOND is Hippler's repeated
concern that Viet Nam is not be-
ing governed "democratically."
Without researching the mat-
ter, I'd hazard the guess Viet Nam
has never been governed demo-
cratically, so this would appear
entirely extraneous to the present
state of insurgency. It's a fair
guess that North Viet Nam is not
being governed democratically,
either, but it is apparently not
tottering on the brink of coilapse.
What the country is indeed up'
against is the highly effective type
of assault deve oped by Mao Tse-
tung, And against this type of as-
sault, there is no neutrality.
-William Bender
Negro History... .
To the Editor:
IT IS OBVIOUS that Mr. Thomas
and cohorts have not thoroughly
studied the contents of the pro-
gram which they are so ready to
blast. They would notice that Na-
tional Negro History Week is
sponsored by the only four Negro
Greek organizations on this cam-
pus. The members of these groups
have known Mr. Thomas person-
ally and thus were a bit surprised
if not incensed to be stabbed in
the back with such dogmatic cries
as "Aunt Beulah" or "Uncle.
If his interest is the advance-
ment of the Negro; he should wel-

come steps toward achieving this
on every level.
After all, the sponsors of this
week are University students. And
thus, we approach the problem in
an academic manner. If this is
above Mr. Thomas' comprehen-
sion, he should at least attempt
an understanding and toleration
of our efforts though he might not
agree with the method. For surely
we have done the same with him.
-Sharon McCrary, '64
-Laura Mosely, '64
-Carol Claytor 65
To the Editor:
STUDENT Government Council
is not a student government. It
derives neither power nor author-
ity from the students, but both
from the Regents. It is an arm of
the Regents, and the Regents are
an arm of the state.
It is for the Regents to free the
students-then the students can
form a government if they decide
to. Until then, the forms and trap-
pings of representative democracy
are empty, and it might be fun to
brai4 them around a May-pole
and see what happens.
Vote for the candidates who will
make a cairival of SGC: that is
all it is woth. If they give, up the
carnival, don't vote.
-Robert L. Farrell, Grad.
Defense ,.
To the Editor:
READING Michael Hyman's re-
view of 'Wuthering Heights,"'
we feel an obligation to defend
Emily Bronte's version of the
novel. The public should not be
led to believe that her contribu-
tion to English literature was just
another maudlin love story. We
would agree that the movie might
be charming to someone who was
unaware of the extreme emotion-
al impact which the novel con-
veyed, but to anyone acquainted
with it, it was a poor representa-
tion indeed.
The film perhaps succeeded in
presenting a brief synopsis of the
plot, but it completely failed to
represt'nt fairly the strong, violent
passions which are the very core
of the novel. Miss Bronte inten-
tionally exaggerated these aspects.
To omit them is to lose the very
essence of the novel and the
meaning she wished to convey.
MR. HYMAN praises the film
for being "undeniably, unavoid-
ingly, unashamedly romantic." It
was-just that. Unfortunately, it
was the film director's romantic-
ism, not Miss Bronte's. Here is
just one example of how poorly
the film "adheres faithfully to
the book."
In the movie, Catherine dies in
Heathcliff's arms after a tender
romantic scene. In the novel, this
scene takes place earlier, and
Heathcliff is not present when
Catherine dies. Upon hearing of
her death, he utters, "May she
wake in torment . . . Where is
she? Not there, not in Heaven."
He dashed his head against a
knotted tree and, splashed with
blood, looked "like a savage beast
being goaded to death with knives
and spears."
This is hardly the civilized
Heatheliff of the film.
THE MOVIE'S gravest fault, in
our opinion, is exactly that it does
not present "the powerful drama"
which, as Mr. Hyman says, is in-
herent in the novel. Whereas Miss
Bronte's version logically implies
an extended period of time be-
tween Catherine's apparent re-
versals of strong emotions about.
Heathcliff and Edward Linton, the
movie has her fluctuate from one
extreme to the other as much as
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UNTIL recently music was as much at the m
of fashion as women's hats. Styles changed i
slowly in music, but old music, out-of-style m
with few exceptions, was just as dead as the h
gear in a Salvation Army Store bin.
About seventy-five years ago musical schc
in Europe, and later in the United States, be
to recover the enormous repertoire of music
the past. It was one thing, however, to deci'
the old notations, publish the music in mo
scores, and gather whtever could be found inc
temporary sources about performance practice
was entirely another to bring the music aliv
performances for the musical public at large.
THE UNIVERSITY Musical Society is brin
back to Ann Arbor perhaps the most succe,;
group of performers of old music there has
been, the New York Pro Musica under the di
tion of Noah Greenberg. The Pro Musica's g
artistic and commercial success is a matter of
peccable style.
It maintains the highest standards of authe
city and technical finish. The most essential
ment of an authentic performance, however
that the music should be as lively and vivid t4
as it was when it was new. The Pro Musica si
from this axiom. Its performances are always
On the basis of size and function, this Pro
sica will present an array of music divided

ng the Music of the Past

strumental music carried these compositions. But
some kind of plan or principle was required to
span the length and to bear the weight appropriate
to sacred music.
The earliest composer represented in the Pro
Musica concerts, Guillaume Dufay (d. 1474), re-
tains a principle of composition worked out in
the Middle Ages. The time-span of the composi-
tion is divided into a few segments by means of
a long and distinctive rhythmic pattern presented
in one or more of the voices of the composition. A
few repetitions of the pattern constitute each seg-
ment of the composition. The pattern as a whole
may be augmented or diminished, but the relation
of its parts will remain unchanged.
* *
THE REPETITIONS of the pattern, however,
can scarcely be heard. It is too long and involved,
and the pitch pattern of the melody is very often
contrived to run counter to the rhythmic pattern.
Here the religious function of the music, as op-
posed to the social function of secular music, is
evident. One might even suspect that Dufay ad-
dressed his music to an omniscient Intelligence,
as well as to a mortal audience.
The difference between fifteenth-century sacred
music and that of the early Baroque could scarcely
be greater. In the sacred concertos of Schein, to
pick the most spectacular examples, the principle
of contrast served to hold large compositions to-
gether. "Concerto" originally meant the deliberate
employment of instruments together with voices.

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