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February 08, 1964 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1964-02-08

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Seventy-Third Year
Truth Will Prevail"
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in at; reprints.

The Education School's .Golden Mean'




Federal Aid to Students
Deserves Resurrection

an effort .to speed the tax-cut bill
trough Congress, have mistakenly beaten
>wn two amendments to the bill dealing
ith financial aid to college students.
The first proposal, from Sen. Abraham
ibicoff, was outvoted, 48-45. This amend-
ent would allow parents to claim a tax
edit of up to $325 annually against
itlays for each child's college tuition,
es and books.
The second proposal, defeated on a 47-
vote, was sponsored by Sen. Winston
routy. His idea was to allow a working
idergraduate student to deduct up to
200 a year and a graduate student up
$1500 from his taxable income to cov-
tuition, books and supplies. Currently,
ch students are only allowed the usual
00 deduction.
Prouty's measure was especially good
cause it would allow a working student
much as an extra $150 for use toward
.s education. (This figure is derived from
ie fact that after a $600 personal de-
action, a student is paying about 20 per
nt tax on his income over that figure.)
fered various excuses for their opposi-
:n, but their objections are question-
First, many congressmen point to the
ational Defense Education Act, which
ovides federal loans, as a good means
r students to finance their education.
ne factor they seem to overlook, though,
that these funds are primarily for
ospective engineers and teachers. Don't
udents in other fields have financial

Second, the Treasury was strongly
against Sen. Ribicoff's proposal because it
would cause an ultimate revenue loss of
about $1 billion and thus make the over-
all tax cut too large. Ironically, there
are some economists today who still feel
the tax cut is too small. Also, Great Brit-
ain, which recently proposed its own tax
cut, has set as lost revenue a higher per-
centage of its GNP than the United States
THIRD, Sen. Wayne Morse has promised
hearings for his Senate education sub-
committee to consider proposals for fed-
eral college scholarships to freshmen.
However, other students than freshmen
have financial difficulties. But there is
even a bigger problem. In 1962 such a
measure was passed by the Senate, yet de-
feated in the House. Anything on this or-
der involving the federal government is
bound to get smacked down in the House'
Finally, both proposals bring to light
the whole argument concerning federal
aid to education. To dispel one argument,
these proposals cost no extra money for
implementation. But the most important
argument opponents use against federal
aid to education is that the government
will tend to control the schools' curricu-
However, this argument is fallacious
because the school or the board of trus-
tees can then refuse the federal aid.
Such was the case several years across the
country with the NDEA loyalty oath and
disclaimer clause.
ing more students every year from ob-
taining the education they want and de-
serve, it is time that the government be-
gan taking directly constructive steps in
this area.
President Johnson wants the tax bill
sent through Congress immediately; thus
he opposes any amendments which might
bog the measure down. But one cannot
help but wonder if these two proposals
didn't deserve more consideration than
just the President's mere opposition.
After all, in the long run the worst that
could happen is that some students would
have an easier time making it through
college. A secondary effect might be that
more people would have a little more
money in their pockets to pump into the
economy; and it seems that's exactly
what the tax-cut bill is intended to do.

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third
in a three-part series on the educa-
tion school. Today's article views
the school's curriculum in compar-
ison with programs of other educa-
tion schools.)
school has chosen a golden
mean in curriculum planning for
undergraduates. It has steered
clear of the course which profes-
sionally-oriented teachers colleges
have taken. Yet it still is not trav-
eling very far along the path of
the liberal-arts centered programs
of private colleges and progressive
state universities.
The middle way has resulted in
a watered-down and uninspiring
curriculum, bearing marks of both
systems but lacking the merit
which, exclusively, either one has.
While smaller state universities
and teachers' colleges have been
emphasizing teaching methods
and the liberally-oriented private
schools have stressed the role of
the teachers as transmitters of
knowledge and critical attitudes,
the University's school is trying
at once for both goals-but not
very hard for either one.
It is usually acknowledged that
a major problem of the school's
undergraduate curriculum is that
taking a course in educational psy-
chology is futile without simultan-
eous or prior experience either in
laboratory projects or actual
teaching. The University's educa-
tion school has failed to come up
with any viable solution to this
pressing problem. But other insti-
tutions, going in either of the two
philosophical d i r e c t i o n s, have
curbed the difficulty.
For example, the University of
Pennsylvania's program in educa-
tion falls under the direction by
the College of Arts and Sciences
and the Graduate School of Edu-
cation. Supervised teaching is
taken concurrently with a seminar.
In addition, an earlier course
considers the nature of the adoles-
cent student and includes class-
room observation.
The funds for small seminars
combined with student teaching,
and for the valuable classroom ex-
perience with a psychology course

prior to teaching, are available be-
cause the school offers fewer un-
dergraduate courses than the Uni-
versity's education school. Thus,
a smaller undergraduate education
curriculum, with the emphasis on
liberal arts before graduate work,
permits a better program. .
Pennsylvania's approach is
much better than the University's.
For while a great variety in under-
graduate education courses is de-
sirable, the University's school is
spreading itself thin, and diluting
the quality of these courses. Like
Pennsylvania, the state service role
of the graduate program is vital.
Pennsylvania has recognized that
something must go - and a few
core courses are preferable to un-
substantial courses.
* * *
ANOTHER approach to the
problem of combining teacher
preparation courses with practical
experience is suggested by .West-
ern Michigan University. Western
offers a highly intensified course
on "the problems of teaching",
with-laboratory experience to un-
derclassmen. It is part of a plan
to encourage undergraduates to
specialize early and begin teaching
at the beginning of their college
While Western's aim is opposite
to Pennsylvania's either plan of-
fers a means to unify studies and
laboratory experience.
BEYOND THIS issue, there are
a few other major ways in which
the University's education school
is lacking in its undergraduate
program while other schools, be-
cause of a more defined philosophy
of education, offer stronger cur-
The University' of California at
Berkeley, for example, provides
service to the state by offering a
special undergraduate program for
"those preparing to engage in
school administration or supervi-
sion, to become principals or sup-
erintendents of public schools or
to teach in teachers' college de-
partments of education."
Berlkeley assumes that a differ-
ent academic background than the
regular teacher preparation is nec-
essary for ambitious students who
want to assume positions of lead-

ership in education. Although the
University places this training in'
the graduate program, the success
of the Berkeley venture perhaps
indicates a misplacement. How-
ever, because of the anti-speciali-
zation trend in the undergraduate
curriculum, such a program could
hardly be offered at the Univer-
sity's education school.
Yet it would beef up the under-
graduate program and attract stu-
dents who consider themselves too
ambitious for the regular teacher
preparation program. Many of
these people are no doubt lost to
another discipline by the time
they reach the graduate level. A
plan with more early specializa-
tion, such as Berkeley's, would
strengthen the University's educa-
tion school.
TAKING AN opposite approach,
but resulting in similar ends, the
University of Chicago maintains
a special curriculum "for students

who wish to study education as an
important field of human thought,
inquiry and knowledge." Thus,
while Berkeley is offering earlier
specialization to attract and de-
velop leaders in the field of edu-
cation, Chicago is giving a broad-
er philosophical experience. But
both have given attention to devel-
oping the potential of promising
The University's e d u c A t i o n
school, beginning to plan a full-
scale honors program, should note
the Berkeley and Chicago plans.
It should not, however, try to do
what both plans are accomplish-
* * *
THE EDUCATION school has
aimed for both ends in the past
and the time has come to make a
For example, even with the Uni-
versity's new mental retardation
project, Eastern Michigan Univer-
sity offers more extensive oppor-

tunities for teaching experience in
special education. Even with the
University's attempt to educate
liberally elementary school teach-
ers, it cannot compete with the of-
fering of the University of North
Carolina, which places great stress
on general education through low-
ering methods requirements.
Berkeley's program for training
students to assume leadership
posts is stronger than anything
the University has but anti-spe-
cialization here will not permit
such a radical plan.
With the funds the education
school is increasingly funneling to
expensive graduate curriculums,
what remains for use on under-
graduates should be carefully
spent. There is nothing that the
undergraduate curriculum requires
but direction-precisely what it
now lacks. Whether it goes the di-
rection of Berkeley or Chicago is
not of as much consequence as
that it goes in some one direction.

Members Uphold Fraternities



FTER WAITING for 81 days, including
holidays and Sundays, one wonders
by one of the elevators in South Quad-
ngle is still broken. Maybe the elevator
as originally put out of order by some
ckless students dropping a plank down
e shaft. But since whatever happened
as way back in November, no one cares
Regardless on whomever's shoulders the
ame rests for the original breakage or
e inordinate wait, it is now time for
iswers to why it isn't fixed. In fact-as
no one else has asked it-why?

Impressie Finale.
THE 1964 Festival of Contemporary Music came to a close last night
with an impressive and ambitious program.
The program began with Bartok's "Divertimento for. String Or-
chestra." Composed in 1939, it is a bridge linking Bartok's middle, more
experimental, period with his later romantic period.
Although the orchestra under director Josef Blatt lacked vigor and
precision ensemble work at the beginning, it soon settled down into a
well-disciplined group. Especially well done was the arch-formed middle
movement in which a powerful climax was attained.
THE "CONCERTO for Violin and Fourteen Winds" by Josef Blatt
followed, with Ronald Pepper ably performing the difficult solo part.
It was filled with invigorating rhythms and soaring, rhapsodic violin
solos. But the orchestration was heavy and the completely tonal ending
of the first movement was surprising in light of the work's essentially
chromatic nature. The wind ensemble performed flawlessly.
The program continued with "Espana en el Corazon" for soprano,
baritone, chamber chorus and instrumental ensemble by Luigi Nono.
The work complains of the bitterness and agony of war, and consists
of two outer movements, subdued but pleading in nature, which sur-
round an explosive and moving middle movement which utters a pow-
erful oath against human conflict.
The vocalists, sometimes singing and sometimes speaking rhyth-
mically but without relative pitch, were excellent, as was the chamber
ensemble, in creating a mood of bleakness and futility.
The program concluded with "Five Movements for Orchestra" by
Prof. Leslie Bassett. A continuum of sound whose generating force
is uncovered in the third movement, the work contained brilliantly
performed brass solos, and the orchestra as a"whole reached new
heights in this dramatic and moving composition.'
-David Andrew

To the Editor:
LLOYD GRAFF, on Feb. 6, pre-
sented to The Daily his thesis
that "It takes a man to quit pledge
follies." To substantiate his posi-
tion, he discusses everything from
"fun things" and other "valuable
things," to being "cool" and "in"
to vomiting. We are told that the
fraternity system is dying; that if
a fraternity tries to "become liber-
al" (by pledging "different" peo-
ple), it must "face disaster."
This is the meat of Mr. Graff's
logical deduction. To this may be
added generous proportions of
fat ("The farce of Rush," the
"folly of pledging," "arbitrary
black-balling," etc.).'
Presumably, beneath the distor-
tion of his sarcasm, there are seri-
ous criticisms directed against the
fraternities which must be an-
swered if the system is to survive
as a respectable member of the
academic community.
* * *
THE implication that the sole
desire of a fraternity mnan is .to be
"cool" may be taken as an exam-
ple. If, being "cool" means a man
should not throw his food at din-
ner, then we must plead guilty.
Nor do we believe it Is necessary
to dress in levis, sweatshirts and
tennis shoes to prove that we are
men. Also endorsed are washing,
combing and shaving. Individual-
ity, we believe, is a product of the
mind, and is not inconsistent with
civilized personal habits.
If being "cool" means getting
along with other people, we must
admit that we believe this is an
important part of college life. The
fraternity man cannot isolate him-
self within the impersonal shell
that is often a product of a large
university. He must meet many
different people, under many dif-
ferent circumstances: at parties,
at TG's (dated and stag), in rush,
in campus affairs, in the everyday
activities of the fraternity. If this
is striving to be "cool" we must
plead guilty,
H 0 E V E R, if being "cool"
means getting drunk, organizing
sweat sessions, encouraging con-
formity and forbidding dissent,
we plead our innocence. A man
who drinks moderately and is able
to continue as a human being may
be respected, though not on these
grounds alone; .a man who gets
drunk is never esteemed, but con-
sidered irrational and immature.
We do believe in, certain pledge
duties (a fraternity is not just a

club), but very little physical haz-
ing continues to exist on this cam-
pus and group hazing is virtually
a thing of the past.
We adhere to certain basic prin-
ciples of society but not to the ex-
clusion of free thinking. Within a
fraternity a man has the oppor-
tunity to express freely his opin-
ions, however "different" they may
be, without fear of ridicule or dis-
tortion. Ideas may be reinforced or
extinguished by the group, but
they are not ignored. The analogy.
of a proving ground may not be
. We respect Mr. Graff's views of
fraternity life, but we cannot agree
that a brother is any less a man
simply because of his affiliation.
--Joseph C. Nelson, '65
President, Tau Kappa Epsilon
Friends . .
To the Editor:
HAVE ALWAYS looked upon
The Daily as a responsible stu-
dent newspaper, but I was ap-
palled at the bias in Lloyd Graff's
editorial Thursday.,
I have experienced all three
typeshof living mentioned byhMr.
Graff. (I would like to add that
I am from 12,000 miles away and
had no knowledge at all of what a
fraternity or quadrangle was prior
to my arrival here two years ago.)
I was put into a quadrangle on my
arrival and I found that the
pranks and drinking practices
which Mr. Graff attributed to fra-
ternity men more resembled those
of the quadmeri. Seldom a weekend
passed without someone coming
back drunk and fun for the boys
consisted mainly, of splashing
water undernothers' doors. More
unfortunately, I found the men
very cold and unreceptive, and the
atmosphere not at all conducive to
good study.
Next, I turned to apartment liv-
ing, and, like so many other for-
eign students, found myself asso-
ciating with, my countrymen only
and not learning anything about
the people here first hand.
* * *
IT WAS with the determination
that I not conclude my stay here
without making some close friends
that I turned to a fraternity as a
last resort. Here, I find the matur-
ity, the close friendships, the give-
and-take of life that was mitigated
in the quadrangle, and the sharing
of different cultures and broad-
mindedness which impresses a for-

eign student so much. The men ac-
cepted me in spite of color and re-
ligious differences, and hazings
anduseless learnings were un-
Firm friendships were formed
during pledgeship, and the help
given me in adjusting to the way
of life in the United States will
forever be appreciated. Lack of
space forces the seniors to move
out to make room for new mem-
bers. One learns to respect other
people's rights and to acquirea
sense of public duty. The frater-
nity has changed my impression of
Americans from one of coldness
to one of sincerity and warmth.
It is unfortunate that Mr. Graff
has not known these important
qualities which so best typify the
image of American college stu-
dents in the eyes of people over-
-Yee Ching Chen, '6SBAd
KIRA KURASA t A has in
A"Throne of Blood," at Cinema
Guild tonight and tomorrow, not
merely adapted hakspeare's
"Macbeth" to a medieval Japanese
environment; he has Improved on
The verse which makes the ori-
ginal a great play has of course
no echo in Kurasawa's scenario.
But instead of the melodramatic,
even unconvincing -declinerof
Shakespeare's anti-hero from
patriot. to assassin, we now have
a process of grim inevitability.
And Lady Macbeth's sudden in-
sanity is no longer the obscure re-
sult of a cumulatively nagging
conscience: she Is instead driven
mad by the agony of delivery and
the stillbirth of the infant to
which she had in part pinned
her ambitions. The plot is greatly
condensed, and many of Shakes-
peare's s t y 1 is t i c irrelevancies
pruned out.
* * *
THIS IS not Kurasawa's great-
est film. It is occasionally marred
by his own stylistic mannerisms,
by an over-repetitive use of a
strong visual image and by a too
overt derivativeness. He has a
habit of cutting away from ex-
treme and breathless tension to
extreme action; he also uses the
editorial technique of the wipe
whenever the story line indicates
the crowding in of event upon
fateful event.
He has a ;weakness for the ar-
resting image which is sometimes
altogether admirable-witness the
misty landscape layered in broad
tones like a painting by Rothko,
which_ opens and closes the film.
But it is also often distressing:
repetitive shots of medieval ban-
ners waving in the breeze, or of
armored cavalry rising out of a
bass-drum soundtrack, which we
have already seen in Eisenstein's'
"Nevsky" and countless derivative
epics ever since. In a creative art-
ist of Kurasawa's stature, this
really isn't good enough.
THERE ARE otherwise two ma-
jor fascinations to this film. The
first is the acting of the film's
Macbeth, Toshiro Mifune. In be-
tween knocking back his sake like
a cowboy barfly, and submitting
by subtle Stanislavskian degrees to
his wife's persuasions, he is able
to rant and rush about, kill and
die, with a vehemence far beyond
the abilities of any western star.
There have been very few actors
who have signalled greatness pure-
ly in their screen performances but
Mifune is one of them.
The second fascination lies In
the perception the movie affords
us into Japanese life and culture.
Kurasawa has been accused by his
native critics of a "European style"
and like many of his more recent

films, "Throne of Blood" has been








Distribution Requirements Fail
To Provide Liberal Education

lihood, is about to take another step
toward liberalizing distribution require-
ments. The step will be in the right di-
rection, though still too small a step.
Distribution requirements should be
abolished. Their only legitimate purpose is
to try to insure that each student gets a
well-rounded education. However, there
are at least two reasons why distribution
requirements fail to meet this objective.
The first: they are too few to insure
that, by meeting them, a student will re-
ceive a liberal education. It is possible for
a student to take programs that include
no philosophy, no English beyond intro-
ductory composition, no economics, no po-
litical science, no history, no physics and
no chemistry. Yet surely a student with no
knowledge of at least most of these fields
cannot be said to be liberally educated.
time that distribution requirements do
not promise a liberal education, they may
hinder getting a good education. For ex-
ample, natural science department chair-
men argue that distribution requirements
prevent natural science majors from tak-
ing enough courses in their subjects.
Editorial Staff

Also, distribution requirements often
encourage a student to take the easiest
courses in the area. Sometimes they will
force a student to take a course 'he does
not like at all, thereby further alienating
him from that discipline. Grades in cours-
es outside a student's major count in his
grade-point as much as those in his ma-
jor, which is unfair to a student whose
future education or employment is linked
only to the major.
Other reasons could be enumerated but
the point is clear: distribution require-
ments do not do wefl, if at all, what they
are meant to do.
THIS DOES NOT MEAN that the concept
of liberal education should be thrown
away and that a student should be free
to undertake any course that suits his
fancy. A far more productive solution
would be to have entering freshmen take
achievement tests in every field important
for a liberal education. A passing score
could probably be set at a level near a
passing grade in the introductory courses
in each field.
Passing each part of the test would ex-
empt the student from taking any courses
in that field. Failure could mean that he
would have to either do enough studying
on his own to pass the test before his
junior year, or he would have to take the
introductory course in each area where
he failed. The number of credits required
to graduate would vary with the number
of fields a student could place out of.
Such a system would not solve all the

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(EDITOR'S NOTE: The writer is
aagraduate student studying Far
Eastern dance and music.)
AN ANCIENT Asian art form
which seemed doomed to ex-
tinction will be presented tomor-
row night at Rackham Aud. The
Sahm-Chun-Li dancers and mu-3
sicians from Korea will perform in
a varied program of court and
folk dances and mfusic.
For more than 1000years, the
patronage of the Korean royal
courts sustained and encouraged
the ancient classical traditions in
the protected and rarefied atmos-
phere surrounding the kings.{
Within this tradition, the music
and dance of the Chinese T'ang
dynasty (618-906 A.D.) has been
preserved as a living museum
downto thespresent day.
After the fall of the last Korean
dyniasty (the Yi dynasty, 1392-
1910) the court dancers were driv-
en out of the palace and took ref-
uge in restaurants and drinking
houses. The inevitable degenera-
tion of the ladies led to a moralis-
tic condemnation of their art by

Chun-Li Revive Ancient Art

THE COURT style of dancing is
essentially feminine and re-
strained and achieves the maxi-
mum effect from the minimum
means. Classical dance emphasizes
shoulder movements and gives
rhythm precedence over move-
The concept of time must be

momentarily abandoned while
watching court dancing in order
to be attuned to the esthetic of
spiritual values being quietly
shown. Spiritual inner poise is the
ultimate value in Korean classical
dancing. For Westerners, this
ethos demands a redefining of our
concept of dance.

THE ORIGINS of Korean folk
dancing are lost in pre-history but
it probably began in magic ritual.
In contrast to the court style, folk
dances are vigorous, masculine and
unrestrained. The first number to
be presented, "The Nong-Ak"
(farmers' festival dances and
songs), invokes the blessing of the
powers-that-be on the efforts of
the farmer. The "Sal-Pu-Ri," an-
other folk number, is the dance
to exorcise the devil. The dancer
herself is believed to possess magi-
cl powers and the dance demands
intense concentration.
"Pan-Soni", both a court and
folk genre, is an operatic narrative
sung entirely by one person. We
will hear only an excerpt from an
opera that perhaps takes hours
to perform. The hoarse quality of
the voice is achieved by breaking
a membrane in the vocalrchords
of the singer at a young age. When
the wound heals, the singer is
capable of a great range of tone
and pitch and commands the
varied techniques demanded by
"Pan-Sori." All changes of scen-
ery, character, costume, make-up
and lights must be suggested by
changes in the singer's voice. The
only sunort for the singer is a


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