WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 1964
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
WEDNESDAY, FEBRUARY 5,1964 TIlE MICHIGAN DAILY PAGE THREE
WASHINGTON BRIEFING HIGHLIGHTS CONFERENCE:
College Editors Hear Key Policy Aides
Nearly 400 college editors were
briefed by top State Department
officials in Washington Monday
on American foreign policy devel-
opments concerning Russia, Asia,
Latin America, Africa and inter-
The briefing session climaxed a
weekend conference held in New
York on "A Responsible Press in a
Changing World" sponsored by the
Overseas Press Club, the United
States Student Press Association,
the United States National Stu-
dent Association and the Reader's
The conference heard leading
foreign correspondents discuss
their work and spent Saturday in
workshop sessions on Africa, Asia,
Latin America, Europe and the So-
viet bloc. Panelists included news-
men and experts from area uni-
In addition to Asst. Secretary of
State for African Affairs G. Men-
nen Williams, Deputy Asst. Sec-
retary of State for Inter-American
Affairs Ben S. Stephansky, Asst.
Secretary of State for Internation-
al Organization Affairs Harlan
Cleveland, whose talks are report-
ed below, Agency for International
Development deputy administrator
Frank Coffin, Under Secretary of
State for Political Affairs W. Aver-
ill Harriman and Asst. Secretary
of State for Public Affairs Robert
S. Manning spoke.
By PHILIP SUTIN
National Concerns Editor
Special To The Daily
WASHINGTON - The United
States is willing to undertake "full,
unlimited discussions," with Pan-
ama, once Panamanian demands
are phrased in "proper diplomatic
language,' official United States
sources said Monday.
The sources said that the United
States is willing to talk on any
subject the Panamanians wish.
They claimed that a Panaman-
ian demand for a structural re-
vision of the Canal Zone treaty,
prejudges the discussion on the
issue and therefore makes discus-
They illustrated this difficulty
by pointing to Berlin, where the
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United States has refused to nego-
tiate with the Russians on a peace
treaty with the two Germanies
and a solution to the Berlin prob-
lem, as the Russians have formal-
ly suggested, because the agenda
G. MENNEN WILLIAMS
The United States is probing like
infantry advancing on a broad
front, reaching agreement in some
areas and probing the hard pock-
ets with diligence and care," they
Possiblie future agreements in-
clude a consular treaty, civil air
service between New York and
Moscow and some increase in
trade, they said.
The "spirit of detente" has
brought a number of secondary
problems to the fore, they indicat-
ed. Thus the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization can enjoy the "lux-
ury of disagreement" and other
nations can press war-like stances
without fear of involving them-
selves and the nuclear powers in
Special To The Daily
WASHINGTON-The welding of
United States policy to interna-
tional organizations was describ-
ed Monday by Asst. Secretary of
State for International Organiza-
tion Affairs Harlan Cleveland.
Organizations like the United
Nations can accomplish certain
ends which the United States by
itself cannot, he explained.
Cleveland said the United Na-
tions gives the United States op-
tions it would not otherwise have.
It can provide a forum to blow
off steam in a dangerous interna-
tional dispute, a roving am-
bassador who can listen to various
disputes, a United Nations pres-
ence or police force that can
keep the peace at low political
and economic cost, he said.
He saw great implications in
peace forces for they are being
trained to be soldiers without ene-
However, there are difficulties.
"The United States are paying
part of the piper without calling
the whole tune. Then the So-
viets are in the wings. One coun-
try, one vote results in power dis-
parities," he commented.
He pointed to the use of re-
gional and international organiza-
tions during the Cuban missile
crisis. The State Department plan-
ned United States presentations
is prejudiced. Instead, the two
countries have limited their dis-
cussions to informal talks.
The way can be further opened
once the Panamanians end vio-
lence against the Zone and restore
formal diplomatic relations, the
However, they noted that "the
United States' responsibility for
the canal is not going to change.
Not even the Panamanian leader-
ship is interested in taking over
responsibility for the waterway."
They pointed out that the canal
serves as lifeline to Latin Ameri-
ca and provides $85 million a year
to the Panamanian ,gross national
On other matters, they said that
the United States and the Soviets
have "not reached a detente.
There are still large, dangerous
problems to be met."
They praised, however, such ad-
vances as the "hot line" between
Washington and Moscow, the nu-
clear test ban treaty and co-oper-
ation in outer space.
"But this doesn't spell detente.
with an eye to future precedents
in both the Organiaztion of Amer-
ican States and the United Na-
The OAS was used to get Latin
American approval of the United
States naval blockade and to as-
sociate the hemisphere in this
Meanwhile, the Security Coun-
cil became a sounding board to
present the evidence for United
States action. The mediation serv-
ice of the secretary-general was
used to provide a face saver for
Soviet Premier Nikita S. Khrush-
chev and a United Nations in-
spectional service was blocked by
Cuban Premier Fidel Castro, turn-
ing world opinion from "David"
Castro versus United States "Go-
liath" to "outlaw" Castro in 10
days, Cleveland said.
The assistant secretary warn-
ed the American people to accept
the frustrations of being a major
power. "The more powerful, the
more successful a nation is the
more other people's troubles be-
come our own. The United States is
the world's greatest power and
must use the most restraint. It is
a trying test of maturity."
Cleveland did not see early Red
Chinese entry into the United Na-
tions. "The two-China question is
really not up. Both governments
oppose it. The United States can
still oppose the entry of the Chi-
However, he indicated that the
French, who tried to establish a
two-China policy, may have to
back down in the face of pressure
He cited the UN's peace keep-
ing machinery as a deterrent pre-
venting an Arab war over Is-
rael's impending diversion of wa-
ter from the Jordan River.
The recent Arab summit meet-
ing had more effects in smooth-
ing inter-Arab relations-getting
all the Arab countries to recog-
nize one another-than in plan-
ning military action against Is-
rael, he added.
By KENNETH WINTER
Special To The Daily
NEW YORK - Though it re-
mains far from its goals, the Al-
liance for Progress has so far been
successful, speakers at this week-
end's college editors' conference
of the Overseas Press Club agreed.
Votes of confidence in the 10-
year, $20-billion Latin America de-
velopment program came from a
panel of journalists and a govern-
ment official, and, in Washington,
from Ben S. Stephansky, deputy
assistant secretary of state for
The Alliance has contributed a
sense of unity and a common goal
- peaceful development - to the
Latin American nations, Arthur
Bonner of CBS News asserted. "If
it had done nothing else, this
would be a great advance. Presi-
dent Kennedy, as a politician, un-
He criticized Kennedy a n d
others for promising a "revolu-
tion" when launching the Alliance.
"This was totally unrealistic and
raised false standards. Journalists
have had to write against a myth.
We have had to say the Alliance
is failing, but only because of the
myth that was first put forward."
But John M. Cates, Latin Ame-
rican adviser to the United States'
mission to the United Nations,
argued that a "rather strong revo-
lution" of Latin social and polit-
ical institutions will be required,
Speakers also noted several bar-
riers to Alliance progress:
-Communists, particularly Cu-
bans, thwart it whenever possible.
"It's very important to. do away
with Red Cuba," Enrique Rojas-
Velas of United Press Internation-
-The lateness of such a pro-
gram makes its orderly progress
difficult. "Latin development has-
n't kept pace with the rest of the
world," Cellario noted.
-High birth rates are gobbling
up progress, but speakers disagreed
on prospects for birth control. Ro-
jas-Velas said there is "no possi-
bility" because of the Catholic
church's opposition. But Cates
pointed out that Chilean law per-
mits it and Cellario said the Latin
American Church is "very liberal"
on the question.
Special To The Daily
retary of State for African Af-
fairs G. Mennen Williams urged
Americans to compare Africa's
current problems with those of
the United States in its first years
"Africa, on the whole, made a
peaceful transition to independ-
ence. It is a tribute to the Afri-
can nationalists and to the colon-
ial powers who led them to it."
One party government does not
mean totalitarianism, he said.
The people put theirfaith in one
party to carry them into independ-
ence and this carries over into the
first years of the new nation. The
United States had only one party
during Washington's administra-
tion, he pointed out.
But, Williams continued, there is
a dialogue inside the parties, with
factions acting like those in Amer-
ican, one-party dominated states.
"I hope this is just transitory."
This hope for democracy in the
long run is why the United States
is continuing to aid Ghana, which
is consolidating power to one par-
ty, he noted. "It saill has pretty
well-developed divisions within the
party. There is hope for democra-
cy in the long run."
Williams called for added for-
eign investment to help raise the
low standard of living where aver-
age income is little more than $100
THOMAS C. MANN
WORLD NEWS ROUNDUP:
Bombs Further Cloud Cyprus
and said "there has been progress"
in this direction.
And "some classes are beginning
to see the need to institute 'some
reforms to achieve the Alliance's
goals," Alberto Cellario, associate
editor of Life en Espanol, observed.
Stephansky listed some of the
program's - accomplishments to
date. He cited:
-"A growing spirit of self-help
in the Latin American nations."
Because t h e s e countries are
matching the $20 billion American
contribution with $80 billion, they
no longer simply wait for hand-
-Tax reform, which has gotten
upper classes to begin paying their
share. All Alliance nations have
taken some steps.
-"Major undertakings" in land
reform, making land allocation
more porductive and equitable, in
-Basic long-range planning, a
"fundamental" necessity and a
prerequisite to United States aid.
-Housing for 1.5 million Latin
-"Potable water, sanitation and
sewage systems" for 25 million.
-Higher education expendi-
-Health centers to combat yel-
low fever, malaria, yaws and other
previously prevalent diseases.
Stephansky added that the ap-
pointment of Thomas C. Mann as
head of both the Alliance and gen-
eral State Department Latin Ame-
rica policy "should cut some of
the inefficiencies" in the United
States' end of the program.
r ..! 4N
a.r fJ b
By The Associated Press
Makarios of Cyprus last night
made it plain to the British gov-
ernment that he insists any Atlan-
tic Alliance force sent to keep
peace come under the authority
of the United Nations Security
Then, while British and Ameri-
can officials set out to salvage
their joint plan from what they
considered damaging restrictions,
new violence broke out in Cy-
prus as bombs exploded at the
United States embassy.
WASHINGTON -- The United
States expressed shock last night
at the "irresponsible" bombing at-
tack on the United States embassy
in Nicosia and called for punish-
ment of the offenders. The evac-
uation of United States depend-
ents from Cyprus was "authoriz-
JACKSON, Miss. -- The state
rested its case yesterday, on the
eighth day of the trial of Byron
De La Beckwith, charged in the
rifle slaying of Negro leader Med-
don B. Johnson's "war on pover-
ty" got a stinging slap rfom the
House Agriculture Committee yes-
terday when it voted to pigeonhole
an expanded food stamp plan for
* * *
MOGADISHU, Somalia - Pre-
mier Chou En-Lai of Red China
yesterday dismissed France's plan
to maintain relations with Na-
tionalist China as "a procedural
question or a question of courtesy."
At the same time, it was dis-
closed that Chou would make an-
other, four-nation tour of Africa
some time in the near future.
* * *
NEW YORK - Stocks dipped
slightly on the New York stock
exchange yesterday with the Dow-
Jones 30 industrials down 1.42, 20
rails down .99, 15 utilities down .08
and 65 stocks down .66.
SWed., Feb. 5th
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