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January 18, 1961 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1961-01-18

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Laotian Situation: Confusion,

Seventy-First Year
Truth Wil Preall"
ditorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staf evriters
or the editors. This mss t be noted in all reprints.

DAY, JANUARY 18, 1961


Total Opportunity' System
Can Destroy Fraternity Structure,

evolved a rush plan called "total oppor-
unity" which seems to provide a perfect op-
portunity to destroy that school's fraternity
One chapter at William's, Beta Theta Pi, has
already suffered from the inception of "total
pportunity." The board of trustees of Beta'
ssued an injunction against the Williams chap-
er preventing it from initiating any member
r pledge "until further notice." The fact that
he injunction came after the Williams group
ad initiated a Negro sophomore in this fall's
rush may or may not show that Beta discrimi-
iates. The trustees claim it was issued because
f the "climate of opinion" at Williams which
hey interpret to be alien to the objectives of
3eta "especially in view of the policy of en-
orced, rush selection of fraternity members."
"Total opportunity" was developed by student
eaders at Williams last spring and put into ef-
ect this fall after the 15 fraternities on cam-
pus had voted on its adoption.
J7HE RUSH PLAN demands that every rushee
who lists all 15 fraternities in a preferen-
ial order be given at least one bid. If such a
ushee does not receive a bid, no fraternity can
ledge any of the men it has bid.
The rationale behind "total opportunity" was
xplained by Thomas Weinland, president of
he Williams chapter of Beta who helped create
he system. "Total opportunity," he said, brings
pressure on the fraternities to examine a rushee
'a second or a third time." This prevents a
poor first impression from hurting a rushee's
hances. "The good in an individual is often
not seen until you look closely at him a second
ime," Weinland contends.
TOTAL OPPORTUNITY" seems to have been
created for the benefit of the four or five
tudents every semester who rush and are not
While "total opportunity" guarantees that no
'ultimate force" be brought upon an individual
raternity by the administration, every rushee
nust receive bids or the fraternities will crum-
Weinland believes that the types of fra-
ernities at Williams are so diverse that every
Villiams student is bound to fit into one, and
hat there is at least one chapter that will want
ach person.
In the not very unlikely case that an in-
lividual rushee is not wanted by any house,
;ome group has got to take him. No pressure
rom the administration is needed; the internal
pressures within the system and the will to

survive will force one group to martyr its con-
cepts of fraternalism and accept the boy.
Just how this would be done is unclear.
Suffice it to say that some fraternity sooner
or later is bound to bid an individual it feels
is not a proper candidate for its peculiar broth-
erhood. Such an action would be completely
against the basis of the fraternity system.
Fraternities are self-confessed bands of men
who share common goals, aspirations, and ex-
perience. The group functions harmoniously ba-,
cause the members have a great number of sim-
ilar likes, habits and attitudes. Each fraternity
develops its own "character" and looks for
pledges who seem to have a similar personality
makeup as the composite membership.
BETA FRATERNITY, for example, had a con-
stitutional ruling that a member must be
unanimously approved by the local chapter be-
fore his initiation.
Whether or not the theory of compatible
members is a valid basis for membership selec-
tion, the social fraternities have accepted it as
a foundation stone in their systems and in
their debates.
In view of the type of enforced selection of
members practiced at Williams, it is not sur-
prising nor it is out of place for then national
fraternity to take the action it did so that in-
vestigation of the situation there can be exam-
ined more closely.
THE INVALIDITY OF the trustees' action
arises, however, from the possibility that
the injunction came because the trustees
thought the Williams chapter at Beta had
been forced to accept a member who is a
Beta's national executive secretary has con-
fessed that the complaint which lead to the
injunction came after the fall bids were an-
nounced, not when the "total opportunity" plan
was officially adopted.
Weinland said that his chapter has not been
forced by anyone to bid a man he did not want.
He said, however, that he knew of no other
Negroes in any chapters of Beta. The Beta
president at this University also said he knew
of no Negro members. The Chicago Maroon has
reported that "a couple of Negroes have been
initiated in Beta, but they, for all practical
purposes, were sneaked through; when it has
been known that a chapter was contemplating
initiating a Negro, great and successful pressure
has been brought to bear,"
The motives behind the injunction are cloudy
indeed, but it is certain to initiate difficulties
for Beta Theta Pi, Williams College, and all
the nation's fraternities.

Daily Staff writee
THE COMIC OPERA situation in
Laos could be written up in a
combination movie of "The King
and I" and "The Mouse that
Roared" and the situation would
still not be covered. Considering
that most of the leaders of two
of the three warring factions are
half brothers and that at one
point both the United States and
Russia were opposing the one
group that could bring stability
to Laos, interpreting Laotian news
can be difficult. Even the political
science department is not sure
what is going on in that little
land, symbolically shaped like a
key that could throw us into war
at any time.
Laos is a little muddy under-
developed land that is *torn by
an internal power struggle of three
princes two of them half-brothers.
Each of the Princes have taken
a stand on how to aid Laos one
would ask communist aid another
favors the United States and the
third wants to be neutralist, get
aid from both and keep the other
two Princes in his cabinet where
he can watch them. No 'one would
probably care who won 'except
that there is a cold war and Laos
would be one more country in the
near east gobbled up. If gobbled
up, the Communist would be just
that much closer to India or we
would be just that much closer to
* * *.
SOMETIMES WE wonder why
anyone wants Laos, considering
that the only economic crop is
The principals in the struggle
are, pro-communist Captain Kong
Le, a paratrooper who is support-
ing the Neutralist factions and
Prince Souphanouvong (also writ-
ten as Souvanna Vong) one of the
half-brothers andleader of the
Pathet Lao. The Pathet Lao is
one of the successor bodies to the
Lao Issara (Free Laotian) move-
ment which after the Japanese
war fought for the independence
of Laos against the French. In
1949 the Lao Issara movement ac-
cepted the French grant of in-
dependence within the French
union, but the minority led by
Prince Souphanouvong remained
in rebellion with the support of
the Communist Vietminh (the
government of neighboring North
Vietnam). Prince Souphanouvong
has always denied he is a Com-
munist but Pathet Lao has re-
ceived the support of foreign Com-
munist governments as they op-"
pose the rightests.
The Neutralist leader, Prince
Souvanna Phouma (another half-
brother), has been called in to
head a neutral government twice,
in 1957 and again last spring. On
both occasions, rightests (influenc-
ed by the United States) have
thwarted his government and

taken over the reins. Generally,
the President of the neutralist
government has been Ngo Diem.
The pro-western group has been
led by King Savang Vathana, who
presumably turned over the reins
to his two sons after the first
fall of Souvanna Phouma's gov-
ernment. Cohort Phoui Sanani-
kone took the reins in a govern-
ment with no Pathet Lao re-
presentation. This government was
dismissed last year because it was
not stringent enough to the Com-
munists and more rightest Prince
Somsanith caie to power under
the strong army influence of Gen-
eral Phoumi Nosavan.
* * *
THE CIRCLE OF power was al-
most complete when on August
9th, 1960 pro-communist para-
trooper Kong Lee seized power and
asked for a more neutral, less
United States dominated govern-
ment. Souvanna Phouma was ask-
ed in again but, opposed to by both
the United States and the Pathet
Lao, failed to take offce and on
September 11 Prince Boun Oum,
of a former royal house in the
South, announced that he had
taken over. The United States
came out for Boun Oum and then
the National Assembly withdrew
support of Souvanna Phouma and
backed Prince Boun Oum. The
King, we suppose giving up on his
sons, appointed Prince Boun Oum
Prime Minister. This action pre-
sumably drove Captain Kong Le
into the Pathet Lao as they are
now fighting as a United Front.
This coalition of Kong Le and the
Pathet Lao, termed as the rebels,
are fighting with direct communist
support for a government of Sou-
vanna Phouma. Rightests have
been winning the Assembly battles
because the United States Agencies
provide most of the aid upon
which Laos depends. Thus the
United States has strong lobbying
been many and varied.
Until 1954 Laos was an indepen-
dent state within the French
Union. However the war between
the French and the communists in
Viet Minh was distrubing the area
and Laos was invaded in 1953 and
1954. A conference of. France,
Britian, the Soviet Union, China,
Laos, Qambodia, Vietnam and the
Vietminh movement met in Gen-
eve in 1954 to try to end fighting.
The Geneva conference ended hos-
tilites and decided that all forces
should be withdrawn, the Pathet
Lao should remain in the two
northern provinces which they
occupied "pending a political
settlement." A n international
commission comprised of India,
Canada and Poland was to super-
vise the carrying out of the agree-
Laos agreed not to join any
military alliance and not to have'
on its territory any foreign miIi-

S Battleground av
'.4 S lot
cc Ilion "

Area Chinese.
Indian border

' Pallstain
* Gurma
-Rural Cpital

iChinese- Burmese
ndry Settlement"



1 Y (see inset)
.' Thfbailand a
Won by C4mmunists >it
' AP Newsfeatures

aY i

1 p" o

tary bases except for two French
bases with a limited number of
,men in each. Laos also declared
its intention to "integrate all
citizens, without discrimination,
into the national community," and
for this purpose to hold, general
elections in 1955. The United
States did not sign the Geneva
agreements but issued a deelara-
tion that it would not disturb
them by force or the threat of
* * *
THE "POLITICAL settlement",
of the Pathet Lao with the Lao-
tion gpvernment was a neutralist
government with the Pathet Lao
represented by two seats in the
National Assembly, with the
chance to win as many more as
they could, and the Pathet Lao
leader, Prince Souphanav Vong in
the cabinet.
But the Pathet Laowon too
many seats in the election for the
comfort of the anti-communists
and the United States. Under
pressure from rightest groups and
United States Agencies, Souvanna
Phouma's first neutralist govern-
ment' was dismissed in favor of
the right wing government of Mr.
Sananikone. In this government,
the Pathet Lao had no representa-
tion and the merry-go-round be-
gan again.
At the moment the even more
rightest government of Prince
Boun Oum is fighting for its life
against the Pathet Lao.
A flurry of counter-agression
charges have gone through Seato
and the United Nations and the
nations are now lining up for a

long diplomatic and guerilla war-
fare seige. Laos is a bad place to
fight because of the open frontiers
with both China and North Viet-
nam and modern warfare cannot
be used in the jungle.
* * *
THERE ARE TWO major sug-
gestions for solution. Cambodia
has suggested a revival of the
Geneva conference of 1954 which
ended the fighting in Indochina.
This conference would have the
additional members of neighbor-
ing Burma and Thailand and the
three nations of the International
Advisory Commission, Canada, In-
dia, and Poland, that was set up,
to supervisethe agreements of
Geneva. This commission was
adjourned indefinitely in July 1958
at the request of the Laotian Sou-
vanna Phouma government, two
months before the rightest Phoui
Sananikoe government took office.
The second suggestion to revive
just the International Supervisory
Commission was made by the
Soviets. Canada has suggested that
this commission look into the
situation to see if anything could
be done before they officially con-
The communists do not recog-
nize the Boun Oum government
and hold that they are aiding the
legitimate government of Souvanna
Phouma. It seems that the Soviets,
at least do not wish to go to war
on Laos but are using it to push;
for an early East West Summit
The United States at this point
seems convinced that any con-
ference, a second Geneva or a
Summit would delay a real settle-

ment in Laos indefinitely wh
the rebels strengthened their po
tion with Soviet bloc aid. Ther
fore the United States has be
stalling and pouring arms it
The Boun Oum governmne
seems to be amenable to any c:
ferences as long as they first-r
cognize the legitimacy of the.BO
Oum government.
De Gaulle is officially backi
the Cambodian suggestion of
second Geneva conference and
generally in- favor of talking i
stead of fighting.
Britain, with the experience
her successful, Malayan fighti
behind her seems convinced th
no military decisions cou.ld '
won by the West in actual confli
Britain has recognized the Bo
Oum government and is favoral
to a new control commission
India's Nehru has written ale
ter to the White House hoping f
a' peaceful settlement. Nehruis.
favor of a return of the Inte
national Supervisory Commissi
and is still recognizing the Gover
ment of Souvanna Phouma w
took refuge in Cambodia Dec. 9.
If the Pathet Lao win the ci
war Laos would no doubt be
Communist state, as North Vie
nam is. If Prince Boun Out
forces win, guerrilla, warfare wou
probably continue more succe
fully than in South Vietnam a
there would be no real stabili
for Laos. The real hope for La
lies in another government of N
tional Unity such as the one th1
Souvanna Phouma twice attemr
ed to set up. But . . we shall sE

Three Suggestions For University Co-Ordinating Agencies

The Two Decisions


IN HIS LAST messages on the State of the
Union and the budget, President Eisenhower,
as was his constitutional duty, had stated his
own views about economic policy. They differ
Importantly from those of the incoming Ken-
nedy administration, and they point to cer-
tain basic issues which will now be much dis-
cussed. As it happens, there is available for the
discussion not only Mr. Kennedy's campaign
speeches but the report of Prof. Paul A. Sam-
uelson, which was made public about ten days
As between the Eisenhower and Kennedy po-
sitions on the recession, the budget, and the
state of the economy, there are two main points
of difference. The one is about the current re-
cession. The other is about the general condition
the American economy since about 1955 when it
has been shaped by the Eisenhower-Humphrey-
Anderson policy.
On the recession, President Eisenhower ex-
presses an unqualified optimism that the re-
cession will soon cure itself and that conse-
quently we shall have a small budgetary sur-
plus by June 30 next. The Samuelson report to
Mvr. Kennedy rejects the idea that we can
count on the recession curing itself quickly. The
report calls for some immediate but moderate
measures to reflate the economy-something
in the order of three to five billions of expendi-.
tures above the Eisenhower level. But these
suggestions are followed by warning that the
recession may grow worse.
AS OF NOW no one can tell whether the
stronger measures will be necessary. But
there is good reason to disbelieve in the Eisen-
hower optimism about the recession, that it
will quickly cure itself. There is an ominous
and pertinent precedent for this disbelief. In
early 1958, when the second of the Eisenhower
recessions was under way, the President pre-
dcted a small budgetary surplus for fiscal
L959, just as he is now predicting a small sur-
plus for 1961 and a large surplus for 1962.
But in fact, because of the recession, the 1959
budgetary year ended with a deficit of $12.00-

President Eisenhower said in a message on
the state of the union that "the expanding
American economy passed the half-trillion
dollar mark in gross national product early in
.1960. The nation's output of goods and services
is now nearly 25 per cent higher than in 1952."
IN THE YEARS 1955 to 1960--when the con-
sequences of the Korean War were over and
the Eisenhower-Humphrey-Anderson economic
policies were operating-our gross national
product increased from $448.000,000,OO to
about $503,000,000,000. (This is the President's
"half trillion.") These figures mean a rate of
growth of 2.6 per cent per year, which is among
the very slowest of the advanced industrial na-
tions of the worldl.
This sluggish rate of growth is at the root of
many of our domestic and of our foreign prob-
lems. The Samuelson report to Kennedy says,
"Had our economy progressed since 1956-not
at the dramatic sprint of the western European
and Japanese economies or at the rush ofthe
controlled totalitarian system, but simply at the
modest pace made possible by our labor force
and productivity trends-we could have ex-
pected 1961 to bring a gross national product
some 10 per cent above the 500 billion dollar
level we are now experiencing."
President Eisenhower's convictions on this
point were put forward most explicitly'by the
Chairman of his Council of Economic Advis-
ors, Mr. Saulnier, who once testified in 1949,
"As I understand an economy, its ultimate pur-
pose is to produce more consumer goods. This is
the object of everythinig we are working at: to
produce things for consumers." Then he went
on to say that "if you take total gross national
production, you find growth in recent years has
lagged. But if you look at consumption-the
thing which, as I say, I regard myself as being
committed to maximize-you find that we are
dongi better."
The results show that if this was the right
goal, the Eisenhower administration has

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
second and final article in a series
on co-ordination in the state uni-
Daily Staff Writer
1961 session of the state legis-
lature, several new proposals on
higher education have been ad-
vanced. Gov. John Swainson in his
state of the State message sug-
gested a new council on higher
education. Composed of legislators,
private citizens, and members of
the governing boards of the state's
colleges and universities, the group
would review past studies, propose
new ones and make recommenda-
tions to the governor.
Another suggestion was offered
by Rep. Arnett Engstrom (R-
Traverse City) who urged that the
Legislative Service Bureau hire
a co-ordinator to collect and make
recommendations.cNo new legis-
lation is needed to effect Eng-
strom's proposal as the bureau al-
ready has been empowered to make
such an appointment and pay the
official from regular bureau funds.
These proposals reflect the cur-
rent trend of organizing co-
ordinating agencies. These groups
fall into three general types -
(1) one central board for all state
colleges and universities, (2) a
compulsary co-ordinating board
or agency supervising local ad-
ministration of theinstitutions,

(3) voluntary arrangements of one
sort or another between all the
state colleges and universities.
* * *
tral boards of control for their
institutions of higher education.
The first of these was established
by South Dakota in 1896 and the
last by Arizona in 1945.
The trend toward this type of
co-ordination has disappeared due
to inefficiency of the arrangement.
Under such a system every major
decision by local administrators
would have to be cleared with a
central board. This leads to
bureaucratic delays. The establish-
ment of a central control board
over previously independent in-
stitutions is harsh and abrupt,
hampering the operation of the
component colleges and universi-
The second method is less cen-
tralized and is gaining popularity
among those who favor compul-
sory co-ordination of state col-
leges and universities. Among the
states that have adopted com-
pulsory co-ordinating board sys-
tems, there is a great deal of
variation in the power of the
agency and the operation,
A current trend among such
systems is toward a lessening of the
power of the central organization.
The first states that adopted the
plan, Oklahoma and New Mexico,
gave their co-ordinating boards
much authority over budgets of
the member institutions and plan-
* * *
adopted this system, their cen-
tral agencies were reduced to more
advisory capacities. California, the
last to use this method, gives its
Co-ordination Council for Higher
Education very limited power. It
only serves as advising agency for
the governor, reviewing budgets
and capital outlay plans of all
state institutions, and as arbiter
of disputes among the various
In California, co-ordination is
achieved by the defining of func-
tions and roles under a "Master
Plan." The University of Califor-
nia is to provide instruction in the
liberal arts scienes. nnr onfes-

arts, science and vocational courses
to the 14th grade to prepare stu-
dents for employment or further
study at a higher institution.
The "Master Plan" specifies
basic entrance standards for each
level of education. The University
of California takes the top 12.5
per cent of the state's high school
students. The colleges are limited
to the top third of secondary
school classes, and the junior col-
leges take the rest.
* * * .
UNDER SUCH A plan California
hopes to avoid the institutional
clashes of the past and to create,
an effective system able to educate
the rapidly increasing number of
resident young people.
The third approach to co-
ordination is through voluntary
co-operation between institutions,
According to Prof. Merritt Cham-
bers of the University's Carnegie
Center for the Study of Higher
Education, Ohio and Indiana are
prime examples of this system. In
these states cost studies, budget
and other fiscal matters are
agreed in advance before they are
submitted to the Legislature. In-
diana extends agreements to
capital outlay programs of its
four institutions as well.
In Michigan, the state colleges
and universities are operating un-
der a voluntary co-ordination
system. However, co-operation is
in a rudimentary stage of develop-
ment. It has not attained the high
degree of discussion and agreement
evidenced in Ohio and Indiana.
The Council of State College
Presidents meets only about once
each month and is just now at-
tempting to set the basic stan-.
dards necessary for co-ordination.
At present there are no uniform
accointing, budgeting and enroll-
ment reporting procedures among
the nine state institutions. The
smaller universities have not con-
ducted cost analysis studies which
are important in making compari-
sons and in determining efficiency.
Continued research in these areas
was approved at the Jan. 9 meet-
ing of the council. It will be a long
time still before some standard is
* * *
THlE COUNCIL 191 alhn lnoking

and engaged John Dale Russell,,
chancellor and executive secretary
of the Board of Educational Fi-
nance of the State of New Mexico,
to direct the survey.
Russell 'issued a report on co-
ordination in Michigan in July,
1958. In it he urged creation of a
"Coordinating Board" for higher
education of the compulsory type.
The agency would collect and ana-
lyze data on programs, facilities,
finances ad operations from the
various institutions and give this
material to the Legislature and
other agencies that would need
such data.
A second function would be to
furnish state fiscal authorities
with an estimate of operating and
capital outlay appropriations for
each institution. The report would
also include the original request
of the institution and the board's
Third, the "Coordinating Board"
would advise the Legislature on all
policy matters affecting the devel-
opment and operations of higher
education in the state. Russell,
names new institutions, new ser-
vices, and policies, fees, out-of-
state students and development as
examples of such matters.
The board would make continu-
ing studies on the state's higher
education needs and the effective-
ness of present programs. Russell
stresses such studies' value to the.
Legislature, institions and public,
saying they are "one of the im-
portant methods by which a non-
coercive type of coordination can
be introduced and maintained."
* * -
,board would serve as an advisor
to the state colleges and univer-
sities on development and opera-
tions problems. No compulsion
from the Board would be involved
with giving advice,
Finally, the "Coordinating
Board" would make audits and
checks to test accuracy and uni-
formity of the reports of the
various institutions. Russell sees'
auditing authority as necessary for'
the effective functioning of the
According to the Russell plan,
the "Coordinating Board" would

'ences of other states are
available for evaluation.
It is time for action on
problem. Continued pressure
the state colleges and univer
and fiscal difficulties den
some form of co-ordination
rangement that allows the
system of higher educatio:
function efficiently and effect
yet at the same time mains
the institutionr autonomy.


ioj .

to the

(EDITOR'S NOTE: The foflowin
was received as an, open letter U
University Plant Manager Alfred 8
CONSIDER IT an utter a
complete outrage that you
someone under you has perm
ted the continued operation
the brush grinding engine du
ing the busiest hours of the da
Being a passionate amateur arbi
culturist myself, I am fully in a
cord with :our desire to preser
and beautify through pruning I
venerable elms and maples th
shade our campus. But this brt
chopper does not prune/ trees,
merely grinds the twigs that a
pruned. I suppose that the chc
ping engine is employed to save
small amount of wages and redu
the number of man-hours of I
supporting crew to pick up I
twigs and cart them away.
But evidently you did not ca
to consider that by this decisi
you brought to a standstill, or
least very seriously impaired, I
activity of this University, nam
instruction. These past mornin
while I was trying to present to
comparatively large class of gre
uate students the subject of Ma
well's equations, a rather diffic
subject as you will agree, the :
lentless din of the twig eng:
made it impossible to achieve I
requisite concentration both f
me as well as for my audience.
The noise produced by this e
gine, as it macerates a few inc
thick twigs is all out of propo
tion to its usefulness. For t

(Continued from Page 2)

hours: Monday through Friday, 8:00
a.mn. to 12:30 p.m.
Employers desirous of hiring part-
time or temporary employees should
contact Bill Wenrich, at NO 3-1511, ext.
Students desiring miacellaneous jobs
should consult the builetin board in
Room 1020, daily.
11-Psychological subjects (hours to be
1-Laundry clerk (4-6 p.m., Monday-
Friday, and 8 a.m. til 4 p.m. Satur-

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