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December 06, 1960 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-12-06

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preme Court


Convention on Constiti





College Enrollment Hits High

CINCINNATI (/P)-Enrollment
In the nation's colleges reached an
all-time high this fall-for the
eighth straight year-Garland 0.
Parker, University of Cincinnati
registrar reported yesterday.
The forty-first annual enroll-
Inent survey, made for the edu-
cational journal, School and So-
ciety, showed 1,016 accredited uni-
versities and four-year colleges
have 2,039,854 full-time. students
and a grand total of 2,942,541 full-
time and part-time students.
Of 933 schools which also re-
ported in the fall of 1959, the in-
crease amounted to 6.2 per cent in
full-time students. The grand to-
tal reflected a 5.5 per cent rise
in student populations.
The survey has been conducted
since 1919 by Raymond Walters,
now president-emeritus of Cincin-
nati. Parker took over the job this
year after Walters became ill.
Large-Scale Production
Parker said, "The big schools
continue to get bigger but so do
the smaller ones. Higher education
appears to be increasingly a mat-
ter of large-scale production."
Parker pointed to "significant
increases in freshman enrollment."
In 856 institutions reporting this
year and last there were 495,269
freshmen this fall for a gain of
11.4 per cent.
"Freshman figures are impor-
tant not only because they indi-
cate trends in professional choices
but also because they presage fu-

ture full-time and total enroll-
Examining freshmen statistics
by fields of study, Parker report-
ed 'those training to be teachers
up 13.7 per cent over last year
-the largest increase for any
freshman group. The 1959 increase
over 1958 was 6.3 per cent.
Here are the 20 largest uni-
versities in the United States:
1) College of the City of New
York, 77,621; 2) University of
California, 49,169; 3) State Uni-
versity of New York, 44,388; 4)
New York University, 41,348;
5) University of Minnesota, 37,-
904; 6) University of Illinoi,
30,796; 7) University of Wis-
consin, 30,028; 8) University of
Michigan, 27,629; 9) Indiana
University, 26,791; 10) Univer-
sity of Missouri, 25,929; 11)
Ohio State University, 25,151;
12) University of Texas, 24,-
993; 13) Michigan State Uni-
versity, 24,523; 14) University
of Washington, 24,160; 15) Co-
lumbia University, 23,620; 16)
Pennsylvania State University,
21,656; 17) Wayne State Uni-
versity, 21,534; 18) University
of Maryland, 19,478; 19) Tem-
ple University, 19,201; 20) Pur-
due University, 19,152.

Parker said, however, "the on-
coming rush of students now in
the elementary schools will create
demands for many more teachers
than we have in service and in
Arts and sciences showed the
second largest freshman gain, 12.7
per cent (last year, 6.9 per cent).
In sharp contrast to the small
0.3 per cent increase last year,
business administration fresh-
men took a jump of 11.0 per cent
this fall.
Agriculture showed the small-
est of current freshman increases,
1.3 per cent, reversing last year's
trend, when there was a 1.5 per
cent drop from 1958.
Significant Upturn,
Another significant freshman
upturn was in engineering, where
"in recent years the paucity of
able freshmen has been a matter
of great national concern," Park-
er said. This fall's 3.4 per cent
Increase contrasts with losses of
4.7 per cent last year and by 7.6
per cent the previous year.
Of all freshmen students, wom-
en showed a 13.9 per cent gain
and men, a 9.6 per cent gain.
Turning to full-time enrollments
by types of institutions, Parker
found 68 large universities under
public control had an increase of
6.9 per cent; 58 large private uni-
versities, 3.3 per cent increase:
and 628 independent four-year
arts and sciences colleges, 6.2 per
cent increase.
Other increases: 62 independent
technological institutions, 4.9 per
cent; 146 teachers colleges, 9.5
per cent; fine arts, applied arts,
and music schools, 1.0 per cent;
and theological schools, 2.2 per

ves Ruling
On Stations
Avoids Constitutional
Questions in Ruling
preme Court yesterday outlawed
discrimination against negro pas-
sengers in restaurants that regu-
larly serve interstate bus travelers.
Avoiding constitutional ques-
tions that might have had an im-
portant bearing on other issues
involving negro rights, the court
based its 7-2 decision on the Inter-
state Commerce Act.
The ruling struck down the con-
viction of Bruce Boynton, a Negro
traveling from Washington to
Selma, Ala. who refused to leave
the restaurant for whites in the
Trailways bus terminal in Rich-
Boynton was fined $10 under a
Virginia law which makes it a
misdemeanor to refuse to leave
premises on demand of persons in
Justice Hugo - L. Black, author
of the decision, went no further
than necessary to decide the case.
He noted that constitutional ques-
tions had been raised In Boyn-
ton's appeal, including the due
process and equal protection
clauses of the 14th amendment.
"We think there are persuasive
reasons, however, why this case
should be decided, if it can, on
the Interstate Commerce Act con-
tention raised in the Virginia
courts," Black wrote.
Constitutional Question '
"Discrimination is the core of
the two broad constitutional ques-
tions presented us by petitioner
(Boynton), just as it is the core
of the Interstate Commerce Act
question presented ot the Virginia
courts. Under these circumstances,
we think it appropriate not to
reach the constitutional questions
but to proceed at once to the
statutory issue."
The court thereby avoided any
hint as to what attitude it might
take on lunch counter sit-down
demonstrations in the South, as
well as on other similar questions.
Black said the court was not
holding that every time a bus
stops at an independent roadside
restaurant the Interstate Com-
merce Act requires that restaurant
service be supplied in harmony
with the provisions of the act.
"We decide only this case, on its
facts, where circumstances show
that the Terminal and restaurant
operate as an integral part of the
bus carrier's transportation ser-
vice for interstate passengers,"
Black said. "Under these circum-
stances, an interstate passenger
need not inquire into documents
of title or contractual arrange-
ments in order to determine
whether he has a right to be
served without discrimination."

LANSING (P-The drive for a
constitutional convention rolled
forward yesterday under a new
head of steam generated by Michi-
gan Republicans and the state
The action by the GOP state
central committee came as no sur->
prise, but approval by the union's
political education committee
was.a complete reversal of form.
August (Gus) Scholle, state
,AFB,-CIO president, said his tunion-
would support the ballot proposi-
tion chiefly in hopes of "restoring
representative government in
The question of calling a con-
vention to rewrite the 52-year-old
state constitution was endorsed

by voters Nov. 8 and will be
up to a statewide vote in the :
ular spring election April 3.
The Democratic state cer
committee, which also met for
first time since the general e
tion, took no stand either way
a constitutional convention.
subject was not even discussed.
Before the election, the comri
tee, took a neutral stand 'on
issue, advising Democrats to i
as they saw fit. The decision I
cognizance of a wide split in D
ocratic rhnks on the question.
Gov. G. Mennen Williams
party support for a convention
Gov.-elect John B. Swain
spearheaded the opposition.



-AP Wireplioto
FORMER PREMIER-Patrice Lumumba (right) was taken into
custody last week by forces of strongmnan Col. Joseph Mobutu.
Troops loyal to Mobutu yesterday surrounded the Stanleyville
stronghold of Lumumba.
Mob utu Troops Threaten
Lumumba's Stanleyv'ille
LEOPOLDVILLE (M)-The Congo Army's chief said yesterday his
forces have surrounded Stanleyville, stronghold of ex-premier Patrice
Lumumba's Communist-leaning lieutenants.
Col. Joseph Mbutu said only a United Nations plea to avoid
bloodshed stayed him from sending his soldiers into liquidate rebels
in that capital of Oriental province.
Mobutu warned, however, that his soldiers will strike at the city
if either the United Arab Republic or Sudan try to send arms to Stan-
elyville. He also threatened to cut off some Nile headwaters in the
Congo vital to both the United Arab Republic and Sudan, if neces-
sary. Mobutu ordered the UAR diplomatic mission out of the Congo

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last week, charging it was trying
to restore Lumumba to power. Su-.
dan works closely with the UAR.
A triumvirate of former deputy-
premier. Antoine Gizenga, Lum-
umba's younger brother Louis, and
Bernard Salumu, a former Lum-
umba secretary, rules Stanleyville.
The three threaten to set up an
independent state in Oriental
province in reprisal for Lumum-
ba's arrest.
A United Nations official denied
reports that Oriental province al-
ready had seceded from the Con-
go, saying: "Secession may come
one day, but it has certainly not
come yet."
He said reports were received
from Stanleyville yesterday saying
Salumu had scheduled a series of
public meetings to discuss the fu-
ture of the province. Salumu told
newsmen in Stanleyville Friday
the province wants to remain
part of the Congo, provided Lum-
umba is recognized as head of the
legitimate government.
Stanleyville always has been a
Lumumba stronghold and United
Nations officials believe Mobutu
underestimates the difficulties he
faces if he tries to seize the city.
It also was noted Mobutu's threat
to cut off Nile headwaters in-
volves a vast and difficult engi-
neering project.


World News
By The Associated Press
Nations Secretary - General Dag
Hammarskjold yesterday called on
Congo' President Joseph Kasavubu
to permit the International Red
Cross to examine imprisoned Pa-
trice Lumumba and obtain as-
discrimination against Negro pas-
. . ,.
WASHINGTON - The govern-
ment ordered yesterday that na-
tions receiving United States aid
stop spending those dollars in 18
countries and Hong Kong, which
the United States considers in
strong economic shape.

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'll ll

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