Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue


Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

September 29, 1960 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1960-09-29

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.

(4r M11id gan aiy
Seventy-First Year
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.



Lodge Seeks Expansion
In Youth Exchange Programs
HENRY CABOT LODGE must be commended the fragmenting effect of national partitions
for his concern with international student in order to approach the ideal of an open
exchange, recently expressed in a concrete forum of ideas on an international scale.
five-point proposed program to expand present Hardly less important is the good will that
government-sponsored exchange. develops from the sharing of educational re-
His main point dealt with the need for sources with other countries; this form of
more exchange with communist countries. foreign aid is perhaps one of this country's
"Today a mere handful of Russians are study- strongest obligations.
ing in the United States," the Republican Lodge's proposal, I think, represents a legiti-
vice-presidential candidate said in a campaign mate and careful consideration of a vital area
speech at Asbury Park, N. J. "We should be where expansion and modification must be
able to accomodate many more from Russia reviewed continually.
and the Iron Curtain countries, perhaps as
many as 1,000 a year. If the Russians are HOWEVER, it raises some questions as well.
unwilling to pay their share of the students' The National Student Association, which
tuition and expenses in American colleges, we carries on extensive international student
should be willing to pick up the bill." exchanges of its own, outlined a warning re-
He further pointed out that "dividends from garding exchanges in its working papers for
throwing open a free and democratic society this summer's National Student Congress,
to the inspection of communist youths would urging clarification and focus on the primary
far outweigh the cost." educational goals of such programs,
"There has been too great a tendency, in the
LODGE SAID the international education midst of tensions of the cold war, to seize
program administered by the state depart- upon educational interchange as a quick
ment presently provides for exchange of about panacea to international problems and to
6,000 American and foreign students each year consider it as an immediate solution to
- a third American students studying abroad emergency situations.
and the rest foreign students brought to this "Programs have been endorsed as a sure-fire
country. Foreign students included in this weapon against the spread of communism.
figure represent about ten per cent of those in They have been cited as a means to guarantee
America. support abroad for U.S. foreign policy. Some
Other points in his proposed program would even claim that they will immediately prevent
expand goals and means of the government war and assure a peaceful, stable world.
program at present. "Although it is true that well planned and
Lodge wants government assistance to well operated exchange programs can and do
American-sponsored schools abroad increased contribute to these important objectives, they
from the present six million dollars yearly. cannot be justified primarily on this basis. It
He would establish "freedom scholarships" for should be made eminently clear that inter-
outstanding foreign students with qualities of national interchange programs are not a
potential leadership, psychological wonder drug which, if taken
More of the foreign currency in which the in correct doses, will cure all the grave social
United States is paid for the sale of some and political ills of the world," the papers
surplus crops should be used for the education conclude.
of Americans studying and doing research Unless primary educatonal and professional
abroad, particularly In some of the under- aspirations are realized, secondary gains in
developed countries, he said. understanding and development of other coun-
He is also in favor of embarking on a more tries will not be, the working papers assert.
comprehensive and systematic program to ex- With the expected boom of college-age people
plain American history, culture and ideals to in the nextten years, maintenance of ex-
foreign students when they arrive. change foreign student proportions in the
universities should be valued highly.
TpERE CAN BE no question of the benefits The Lodge proposal deserves praise for
of a vigorous international exchange pro- pointing out to the citizens and the government
gram. The increase of understanding and co- an important area for their consideration and
operation in the pursuit of educational goals united action.
is perhaps the most apparent. The world -JEAN SPENCER
academic community must strive to minimize Editorial Director
The First Election Debate f

Russia's .
At the UN
Associated Press News Analyst
S'NIKITA Khrushchev trying to
destroy the United Nations?
Canadian Prime Minister Diefen-
baker says the Soviet Premier's
proposal for a triumvirate at the
head of the secretariat would do
it. So does Henry Cabot Lodge.
Secretary General Dag Hammar-
skjold said it was not the attack
on him, but the Secretary-
General's office, which threatened
the future of the whole organiza-
Lodge, until recently chief dele-
gate for the United States, also
says, however, that the proposal
is "frivolous" and "with absolutely
no chance of realization."
* * * .
THAT'S WHAT most observers
think, too.
Doesn't it seem probable that
Khrushchev realized that?
Attempting to read Khrushchev'sj
mind is foolhardy. It is like tryingI
to translate Russian into English
-very difficult because there is
a fundamental difference in
Oriental and Occidental thinking,a
and therefore a difference in theI
thought behind 'the words. Com-
munist double talk makes it
If you go by what Nikita says
about it, you can fly off in all
* * *
IF HE FAILS in his reorganiza-
tion move move, he says there will
be no disarmament.
If he fails, he says, he will keep
trying to improve the UN.
If he fails, he says, there will be
tno normal relations between the
states which rm~ake up this organ-
ization" and there will be "an
aggravated situation" in which we
shall have to rely upon the
balance of forces," continuing the
state of cold war.
Those words must be taken
against the background of pre-
ceding events. The international
communists have just taken a
serious beating in their efforts
to make hay in the chaos of the
Congo. UN forces, in effect, were
interposed between the various
Congo politicians, and Soviet in-
filtrators were driven out as a
side product. Action had to be
swift in order to be effective.
THE RUSSIANS, thinking the
UN force would be nothing but
police, not daring to oppose in the
security council the world's desire
for an end to Congo atrocities,
went along.
When the true effect of the UN
Intervention became obvious, the
Russians tried to buck, claiming
Hammarskjold overreached his
authority. The General Assembly
gave Hammarskjold an over-
whelming vote of confidence.
Now, if there had been a com-
munist, a representative of the
West and a neutral in Hammar-
skjold's place, no effective deci-
sion could have been made. After
a long deadlock, the Security
Council would have had to re-
possess the issue, would have been
handcuffed by the veto, and would
have had to refer the matter to
the assembly,
** *
BY THAT TIME, the Russians
and Lumumba might have been
in charge of the Congo or the
nations would have been taking

unilateral action to prevent that,
and the world would have been
on the brink of war.
It is probable, then, that
Khrushchev does not want to
destroy the UN. He wants to have
the strings ready to tie it up in
future need. And he wants to
impress the newly emerging na-
tions with the power that he and
they could wield if they would
only come in with him.


j '

Soviet Policy Changed Since the Summit

Hard Line


z rU
" 1~2

cyl e -a^ {. L-s~~ttsw #st -*

Math-Philosophy Changes Proposed-


(EDITOR'S NOTE: Last week
literary college officials revealed
that the college curriculum ,com-
mittee had drawn up recommenda-
tions to the rest of the faculty for
extensive changes in the distribu-
tion requirements of the college,
This is the third in a series of ar-
ticles on these recommendations
and the distribution requirements
in general.)
FOLLOWING the general policy
of continuously considering the
literary college curriculum and
requirements, the college's cur-
riculum committee has readied a
report for the faculty recommend-
ing sweeping revisions in the dis-
tribution requirements in several
areas. One of the areas affected
is that of mathematics and phil-
At present, the literary college
requires that a student have, in
order to graduate, a two-semester
sequence in specified distribution
courses in either mathematics or
The curriculum committee's
recommendations urge the elimi-
nation of this requirement, with
the joining of philosophy and the
present humanities area and a
corresponding rise in the re-
quirement in this area to 12 cred-
its, rather than the presently re-
quired two-semester sequence.
* * *
THIS WOULD totally remove
all distribution credit from math-
These changes will be final if
they are given approval by the
literary college faculty, but would
affect only entering students, not
those already enrolled. They might

HISTORY has often turned on the hinge of
a single event, and the current, fateful
Presidential campaign may in the end prove
to have turned on the first Nixon-Kennedy
debate and its successors.
Up to then the campaign had gone sluggish,
Each of the candidates was running, as the
phrase has it, like a dry creek. Each was work-
ing away at his campaign in a kind of isolation,
local segment by local segment. The prevailing
mood was of apathy, doubt, indifference, lack
of commitment.
What was needed to make the campaign
come alive was a direct confrontation of the
candidates. This the first debate provided. It
was no Lincoln-Douglas affair, but it had
drama, dignity and tension. The UN debates
helped, since the audience which had watched
them must have wondered why the living
drama of the world crisis could not rub off
on the contest which was to decide who would
lead America in that crisis. For the first time
also, an audience of the leaders of the world's
nations was able, like the American audience,
to size up the two candidates as they con-
fronted each other and the world, faced the
same problems, answered the same questions.
I SHOULD GUESS that this debate furnished
Kennedy with his first real breakthrough.
The vast audience had a chance to compare
two programs for the nation, two visions of its
future, two men as personalities. It was an
exacting thing to watch, demanding much of
the viewer-listener, since he had constantly
not only to absorb what he saw and heard
but make reassessments of both men at each
point. An hour is not a long stretch for this
purpose but it is long enough for a judgment
to emerge. On all three scores-program, vision,
man-the judgment seemed to me strongly to
favor Kennedy, at Nixon's expense,
Curiously the whole debate turned on the
nature of the welfare state which has come
to stay in America. If the debate had been
between Kennedy and Barry Goldwater the
issue would have been sharp. Between Kennedy
and Nixon it was blurred by Nixon's I-agree-
with-your-ends-but-not-means attitude. But
Kennedy had the advantage because on every

phase of the welfare state they discussed-
minimum wage, health insurance, farm aid,
federal aid to education-Kennedy was affirm-
ing while Nixon was qualifying, Kennedy was
on the offensive while Nixon was on the
If anyone doubted Kennedy's liberal position
before, there is no longer any basis for doubt.
But along with the program itself, what
counted was the passion behind it. Here is
a man who in a brief spell of time, under
the stress of events, has found maturity because
he has found conviction, His answers were
not learned by rote, to be repeated parrotlike,
they came readily and swiftly because they
were part of what he felt.
BUT THE SHARPEST difference lay in the
two men themselves. Both were being
sedulously careful, of course, to present them-
selves at their best. Kennedy tried not to look
boyish, Nixon tried to dispel the old picture
of the hatchet-man and to present an unfailing
sweet reasonableness. But there are limits to
what you can do in doctoring your image.
The truth manages to come through.
Nixon emerged as an anxious man, overager,
overexplaining, repeating himself, assuring
everyone of his opponent's sincerity and his
own, At one point his tension was so great
that he offered by inadvertence to "get rid of
the farmers" before he stumbled into the clear
to get rid only of their farm surpluses, If a
team of psychologists were watching, and
comparing notes, their reports on Nixon as a
personality would be worth reading. The
product of an age of anxiety, he showed the
characteristic marks of his era.
Kennedy, by contrast, was alert, crisp, quietly
cdnfident. His economy speech revealed a spare
and muscular mind. An intellectual, he sought
neither to hide nor parade that quality. He
spoke an thought swiftly, and his words-
while rarely memorable-were the right words
in the right place. He could demolish an argu-
ment in two sentences. He knew his stuff, as
Nixon did too, but he marshalled it more
f',,rln,,Iv ha Asnrhnla *c4a of-t *np -rnLflP

even be delayed until after next
year, literary college officials said,
since a great deal of time would
be required to make the necessary
changes in parts of the program.
THE PRESENT recommenda-
tions are the final culmination of
a long and complicated history
of investigation by faculty groups,
both formal and informal, into
the mathematics-philosophy re-
For a long period of time, much
of the literary college faculty has
been concerned with the fact that
the mathematics-philosophy un-
ion does not have any real basis.
Originally, the union of the two
areas was justified by their com-
mon use of "clear and exact rea-
soning," according to the An-
nouncement of the college.
Two other basic similarities al-
so appear and are cited in the An-
nouncement: "Both deal with
questions that have a greater gen-
erality than those of any science
or other discipline. Both also,
though in different ways, furnish
tools for the study of other sub-
jects: Mathematics in providing
methods of computation and sta-
tistical techniques for the sci-
ences, philosophy in treating of
the methods of reasoning and of
leading ideas and values that have
played a part in our tradition."
LATELY, HOWEVER, there has
been much worry about the ques-
tion of whether or not the dis-
tribution courses in these areas,
as they are and not as they might
be, fulfill this purpose.
Certainly many philosophy dis-
tribution courses are not courses
in logic, which many faculty
members feel are the only type
that should be included in the
area if it is to follow the general
outline of its purpose.
Equally certainly, many of the
mathematics courses used for dis-
tribution credit are of the type
that one faculty member has call-
ed "problem-solving." These too
are not really fulfilling the basic
purpose of the area, many faculty
members feel.
ANOTHER feeling that his con-
tributed to the final recommen-
dations is that mathematics is
primarily a "tool" subject, use-
ful mainly in the sciences and
social sciences (and, outside of
the college, in engineering),
Others favoring the change
point out that the demand for
mathematicians, scientists, and
engineers is rising drastically, both
increasing the load of students
taking mathematics and pulling
qualified teachers to posts in non-
academic fields.
They point out that this has
already required the use of a
1arn --r - a m fh -+f-

its students from the engineering
college, upholding the view that
much of the teaching must go to
future technical workers.
Also on the side of the proposals
is the fact that, although a defi-
nition of the exact area of the
humanities is hard, many philoso-
phy distribution courses seem to
fit better in this area than with
* * -
ON TIRE OTHER side of the
coin, there are arguments against
the recommendations.
Many feel that the science dis-
tribution program is hurt by the
lack of mathematical maturity of
the students in it, particularly as
the level of achievement of in-
coming high-school students has
been found to be extremely low.
(However, those in favor' of the
recommendations point to recent
evidence that this achievement
level is on the rise.)
One faculty committee stated:
"One of the essential character-
istics of science is quantification.
A distribution course, one of whose
main objectives is to acquaint the
student with the nature of sci-
ence, ought to contain evidence
of this characteristic of science.
There are at least four natural
science distribution courses which
do not call for any mathematics
at all at the present time (1957)."
Most of those who emphasize
the "tool" aspect of the courses
but who oppose the change seem
to favor a move establishing a
basic competence level in mathe-
matics as a requirement.
This would be something similar
to the present foreign language
requirement of fourth-semester
proficiency in a language, though
almost certainly not so demand-
(Tomorrow: Conclusions.,)
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The
Michigan Daily assumes no editorial
responsibility. Notices should be
sent in TYPEWRITTEN form to
Room 3519 Administration Building,
before 2 p.m. two days preceding
General Notices
Recreation Swimming-Women's Pool:
Women Students: Mon. through Fri.,
5:10-6.00 p.m.; Tues. and Thurs., 8:00-
9:00 p.m.
Co-Rec Swimming: Saturday evenings
7:30-9:00 p.m.; Sundays, 3:00-5:00 p.m.
Faculty Night: Families with small
children, (under 8 years of age), Fri.,
6:30-8:00 p.m.; other faculty families,
Fri., 8:00-9:30 p.m.
Michigan Night: Employees and fam-
ilies, Sun. 7:15-9:15 p.m.

R. KHRUSHCHEV'S speech re-
veals how Soviet policy has
evolved since the crack-up at the
summit last May. The subject of
his speech was the historic upris-
ing of the submerged peoples in
Asia, Africa, and Latin America,
against the political and economic
hegemony of Western Europe and
North America. There is no issue
between him and us over the his-
toric fact that this hegemony is
being liquidated and that At is
being replaced by new constella-
tions of sovereign states. The is-
sue between us is not whether
what he calls colonialism is to be
ended. The issue is how the tran-
sition from dependence to inde-
pendence is to be brought about.
* * S
IT IS ON THIS point that his
position has changed since the dip-
lomatic disaster which wrecked the
summit and has brought about a
rupture of communications and
negotiations between the Soviet
Union and the Western powers.
Until the crack-up, as late as April
when he visited President de
Gaulle in Paris, Mr. K., though a
champion of the colonial revolu-
tion, was prepared to recognize
that the western powers have in-
terests, as for example in the se-
curity of the European settlers,
and hat a certain tolerance and
patience were necessary in making
the difficult transition to inde-
A crucial example of this was
his public indorsement of President
de Gaulle's Algerian policy, and
this carried with it the understand-
ing that during the series of sum-
mit meetings which were then con-
templated, the liberation in Africa
would be helped and guided by the.
United Nations and the great pow-
NOW WE SEE THAT since the
crack-up in May Mr. K.'s position
is that he will not facilitate the
transition to independence by al-
lowing the Western powers to col-
laborate. His new position is un-
conditional support of the ouster
of the Western powers and a re-
fusal to let them play any part in
the transition to independence,
The West, because of its imperial-
ist history and because of the cer-
tain residue of semi-imperialistic
privileges today, is in his present
mood disqualified from assisting
and guiding the new states.
The assault on the Secretary
General is a corollary of, is inci-
dental to, his policy of excluding
the West from the transition. Mr.
Hammarskjold's conduct of the
Congo operation has been a faith-
ful and a skillful attempt to facili-
tate the transition from Belgian
colonialism to Congolese independ-
ence. Mr. Hammarskjold's sin in
Mr. Khrushchev's eyes has been
that the UN mission has been ded-
icated to helping the Congo, which
is not ready for independence, to
overcome the obstacles on the way
to self-government. Mr. K's post
summit policy does not permit
Westerners to play any important
part in such a transition.
IT IS NOT CLEAR as of now
how much of Mr. K.'s new position
is a continuation of his wrath after
the U-2 and President Eisnhow-
er's avowal of our right to over-
fly the Soviet Union. It is not
clear how- much of his new posi-
tion is considered policy. I would
guess that not even Mr. K. himself
could answer these questions today.
For what is now evident is that
these questions .will be answered
only if, when, and as the crack-up
is repaired and communication is
restored. The speech Mr. K. deliv-
ered on Friday is not the speech he
would have delivered last April.
For then he recognized that Brit-

ain, France, and the United States
had a necessary and useful part to
play in the rise of the new nations.
On Friday he seemed to say that
we were untouchables and have no
part to play.
THE ISSUE he raised on Friday
will have to be arbitrated by the
new nations. They must decide
whether they want the help of
the West, the help of the Com-
monwealth, and the help of the
French Community, and the help
of the United States. We have no
power and no desire to compel
them to accept our help. But if
they are wise in their own in-
terests, they will take help where
they can get it, and with the
smallest amount of string attached
to it. They will make sure that
they do not become wholly de-
pendent on any one government,
and they will guard, as they would
the apple of their eye, the author-
Ity and the dignity and the uni-
versality of the United Nations.
They will find if they look into
it while they are here that in
these matters there has been a
great change of opinion in the
past few years. There was a time
when we regarded their neutrality

It's Not Where You Are.. .*

ti u'

Back to Top

© 2022 Regents of the University of Michigan