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September 21, 1960 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1960-09-21

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The American Student-I1960

Seventieth Year
Trth Will Prevail" STUDENT PuIcATONs BLD.* ANN ARBOR, Mic.. * Phone No 2-3241
Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

Wayne State Unshackles;
'U' Still Limits Freedom

)NSIDERATIONS of academic freedom re- the issue, The Daily's editor
cently prompted Wayne State University's dead end in a five year era
rd of Governors to rescind a 10-year-old tect academic freedom in
umunist speakers ban in the interest of this campus has been reach
licies which permit us to behave as a uni- SL had sought to seat s
ilty should behave," in Wayne President the Lecture Committee, w
:-ence Hillberry's words. poor administrative record
parallel situation occurred on this campus is to administrate the Reg
February, 1949, when a hopeful Daily edi- says, "no address shall be
al pronounced, "The rescinding of the 10- the destruction or modifica
ith-old political speakers' ban has again by violence or other unlaw
ted the administration and student body on
concept of education." ONE OF ITS first moves a
aculty Senate and Student Legislature alike of the ban was to deny1
struggled to eliminate the ban, and ap- to ousted Michigan State;
aded the Regents' announcement that richny, who openly revealed
akers' regulations would thereafter be the Communist party but s
.dled by the Committee on University Lec- did not and would not adv
es. the government. Zarichny
before a sutdent crowd, "a
3E DAILY EDITORIAL pridefully pointed able loud speaker," for mo
out, "The University Lecture Committee will after the Lecture Comm
sinister the liberal new regulations. It will permission to speak in a U
dj courage and wisdom in carrying out its Such a preposterous ep
,1 duties." question as to the practical
he campus community, in its relief, ne- Lecture Committee. The c
ted to note the ambiguity of President vious threat to freedom of
-hven's expressed belief that the changed tion, implied or active.
s would "be administered and accepted in
spirit in which the Regents have acted." L LATER URGED the c
committee had been in existence for 14 in mind that "the fund
rs, under the Regents' direction. the University is the free
he Regents' bylaw provision. established in pression of ideas and tha
8-an election year-stated that "speeches turity, intelligence and go
support of particular candidates of any dent body requires that th
tical party or faction shall not be per- Bylaw be interpreted as 1
ted" aconsonant with state law."
his abridgement of academic freedom cli- The strength of this sta
ced several years of precedent built up by was by responsible if ineffe
Lecture Committee, and broke the camel's ing the issue, is doubly ade
k of public opinion. The tension was eased the context of growing M
relaxation of the ban. State's move stands outG
reason to reconsider the 1
TI' BY 1952, the community's optimism had as a leader of the nation's
abated. "Hopes for liberalizing the present afford the taint of illiberah
side speaker restrictions were buried as the is obsolete.
ture Committee this week rejected the --
dent Legislature plan for a compromise on E
Russia's African Blunder

rial asserted. ". . . A
of struggle to pro-
its real sense on
tudent members on
which had made a
. Its overt function
gents' Bylaw which
allowed which urge
ation of government
ful methods."
after the 1949 lifting
permission to speak
student James Za-
d his affiliation with
tated firmly that he
vocate overthrow of
spoke on the Diag
armed with a port-
ore than two hours
ittee had withheld
University building.
isode raises serious
1 effectiveness of the
ommittee is an ob-
access to fnforma-
ommittee to bear in
damental purpose of
discussion and ex-
t the level of ma-
od sense of the stu-
he existing Regents'
iberally as possible,
and, preceded as it
ective work concern-
mirable spoken from
fcCarthyism. Wayne
as a close-to-home
University's position
schools. We cannot
ism; 1953 "security"
Editorial Director

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
first in a four-part series on the
new role of the American student.)
ON THE FIRST day of February
1960 the American student
formally and publicly awakened.
Four hopeful Negroes - all
freshmen at North Carolina A &
T College - quietly took their
seats at the segregated lunch
counter of a Woolworth's dime
store in Greensboro. They stayed
for one hour, until the store was
closed. Their request for coffee
had been ignored.
But their broader request was
not ignored. It contagiously spread
throughout the south - a power-
ful, passive demand for equal
human rights. Negro leader A.
Phillip Randolph, president of the
Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters, articulated the demand
and its implications - "A revolu-
tion is unfurling - America's un-
finished revolution. It is unfurling
in lunch counters, buses, libraries
and schools - wherever the dig-
nity and potential of man are
marching onto the stage of history
and demanding their freedom
With all the emotional and re-
ligious fervor of Randolph's de-
claration, the sit-in movement
fanned across North Carolina;
within a month had moved spon-
taneously through 70 southern
cities, ad spread to the North
where students picketed stores in
sympathy with the Southern
cause. And as students in the south
were arrested or removed from in-
stitutions of higher learning, stu-
dents in the north used all means
available to provide supporting
funds and legal aids.
The Greensboro incident had
signalled it all, and then some,
more than the student civil rights
movement, for elsewhere, students
began to move decisively in new
ON MAY 13 in San Francisco
they sang "America" and "Abolish
the Committee, We Shall Not Be
Moved" in the shining interior
of city hall, outside the chambers
where a nervous House Un-
American Activities Committee
carried on investigations. Late
that afternoon; friction erupted
into riot as motorcycle police
turned fire hoses on the excited
crowd. Over 60 students were ar-
rested. Many of them were beaten
or dragged down stairs. Most
folded their arms in passive ela-
tion, and the next day returned
5,000 strong to form a double line
entirely around the City Hall.
*~ * *
fornia last spring, both vigils,
signalled the development of the
new student emphasis. The first
was a personal vigil by a young
man on the University of Califor-
nia Berkley campus who sat pas-
sively for 50 hours with neither
food nor sleep, protesting com-
pulsory forms of ROTC: his action
was a dramatic reflection of a
nationwide student criticism of
the compulsory program which
has since been eliminated at some
The second California vigil was
massive in character, held in the

darkness beyond the gates of San
Quentin penitentiary where Caryl
Chessman was put to death after
an eleven-year wait. Again a
nationwide student reaction was
provoked, this time with futile
Kenneth Rexroth, writing this
summer in The Nation, has sensed
the source of outrage over the
execution on the part of the
American student: "On all the
campuses of the country - of the
world, for that matter - he seem-
ed an almost typical example of
the alienated and outraged youth-
ful "delinquent" of the post-
World War II era -the product
of a delinquent society. To the
young who refused to be de-
moralized by society, it appeared
that the society was killing him
only to sweep its own guilt under
the rug. I think almost everyone
(Chessman's supporters included)
over thirty-five seriously under-
estimates thespsychological effect
of the Chessman case on the
* * *
with the some vitality elsewhere
in the country. Thousands of stu-
dents were involved in demon-
strations supporting peace of dis-
armament, or against civilian de-
The student not only partici-
pated in mass action; he was ac-
celerating his attempts at formal
interaction: many were carrying
to Congress their protest of the
disclaimer affidavit-loyalty oath
of the 1958 National Defense Edu-
cation Act. Some Democratically-
constituted student governments
were moving into dynamic roles,
also, as they worked for the elimi-
nation of compulsory ROTC and
sent letters of protest to the
University of Illinois after it fired
Assistant Professor of Biology Leo
Koch who had published a letter
in the student paper at Cham-
paign-Urbana dealing with pre-
marital sexual relations.
There were individual demon-
strations which cropped up every-
where; not only the ROTC pro-
tester at Cal, but even three New
York high school students who
one by one rejected awards from
the "morally contemptible" Ameri-
can Legion.
* * *
REACTION TO the movement
from the adult community was
various, but usually derogatory.
An average adult opinion, if
formulatd at all, seemed to be
that the students were wild-eyed
idealists, doing the same things
students had done in the Thirties,
many of them dupes of the Com-
munist Party, many of them dis-
reputable, beatnik types.
Such opinions are dangerously
distorted and therefore a threat
to the whole future of the student
The first distortion is in the
linking of student movements
past and present. If one realizes
important distinctions between
student movements of various de-
cades, taking into consideration
both their general characteristics
and the social contexts in which
they emerged, it becomes evident
that Amerie is witnessing a stu-
dent movement of unique quality
and proportion, and that the pub-

lic had better being looking for
fresh explanations.
* * *
were rebelling but theirs was more
a process of "cutting loose" that
a direct, spontaneous and massive
protest. In the "Red Thirties"
students found promise of a better
world in various left-wing organ-
izations and they joined in great
numbers, many to quit in total
disillusion later on. After the
second world war, the students,
many of them veterans, returned
to the campus with confidence
and self-direction; not only many
student governments emerged as
a result, but the United States Na-
tional Student Association also
was founded.
The cutoff in rising activity
came with Korea, however, and
the ominous figure of Senator
Joseph McCarthy. During the Mc-
Carthy days student action slowly
became paralysed and mute and
there developed afterwards the
so-called "silent generation" of
the Fifties.
* * HA

[HE UN SESSION may or may not wrap it
up in legal form, but the fact itself cannot
shrugged away by the world Communist
tc. The fact is that Communism gambled
eavily on success in the Congo, and has suf-
red a severe setback.
Patrice Lumumba has bobbed up again, and
der the protective umbrella of the very UN
oops which he earlier attacked he talks jaun-
ly of a return to power. The Russians and
zechs also treat the Mobutu-Kasavubu regime
a yellowed sere leaf in a storm, to be swept
iickly away. Maybe so. Yet againt the fact is
iat both Communist embassies have been sent
acking from the Congo, baggage and techni-
ans and all. Even if they come back some day
>r further adventures, it will not erase what
appened: that they had a beautiful vacuum
11 ready to move into, and they muffed their
HE BIGGEST REASON is that while the
Russians moved fast, sending agents, techni-
ans, planes, and sinking their hooks into the
ost skillful Congolese demagogue, who also
ad the show of the strongest legislative sup-
)rt, they moved with a rigid dogma.
It was the dogma of power at the center, in a
intinent which is still deeply committed to
>wer at the rim. To put it differently, the
ussians came to Africa with their own ideas
>out a central government which runs the
iow, forgetting that Africa still has its own
Lies, and that one of them is the tribe and
e strength of its ties.
Lumumba seems to be a modern young man
ith modern ideas. Had he been able to use the
anes the Russians gave him, and the radio,
e might have got a foothold. Certainly he
ould have proved ruthless enough to satisfy.
e Communists. But he ran up against the
epest force in the traditional African society
-the tribal tie. When the normal ties of that
ciety are broken by the tumult of change,
id so many institutions are uprooted, the
ibal and regional loyalties become all the
ore important. Lumumba forgot this, and the
ussians did, too.
Editorial Staff
City Editor Editorial Director

The Russians have little excuse. They might
have studied Lenin's tactics. When Lenin took
power in 1917 he faced a revolt of the various
regions in the vast Russian expanse which
wanted to run their own shows. Lenin pre-
tended to give way, and granted them a meas-
ure of regional autonomy-in form. Actually
the iron hold 'of the Party in the end made it
a mockery.
THERE ARE OTHER reasons as well for the
Communist failure in the Congo. Usually the
Communists operate in a favorable intellectual
climate.. They are university students, intellec-
tuals, 'the press. With these they are often able
to reach into wealthy and even aristocratic
families, as witness Laos today. They had no
such chance in the Congo, where the Belgians
had not allowed any inellectual life to develop.
Nor was there an organized army to infiltrate
and subvert-only a makeshift force without
trained officers.
Finally, there was no real enemy target, since
the Belgians had already been pushed out.
Lumumba and the Communists tried to raise
the anti-colonial slogan, making a target of
Hammarskjold and the UN. But aside from
the UN technicians who got beaten up, this was
no go. Besides, the only deep enemy symbol to
unite warring African tribesmen is the white
man-and the Russians too ,are white.
The diseases of the tribal mind, whatever
they may be, seem less vulnerable to the Com-
munist appeal than the diseases of the modern
mind - guilt, self-hatred, insecurity, loss of
THERE REMAINS the crucial question of the
UN role. Certainly the UN presence in the
Congo immobilized the political radio, the air-
fields, the use of gangs for political kidnaping
and assassinations. Which is to say by seeking
to master the chaos, the UN presence made it
harder for Communism to take advantage of
the chaos and gain power. This is not an indict-
ment of the UN and Hammarskjold, but one
of the facts of political life which the Com-
munists will have to face.
Unquestionably Khrushchev doesn't like it,
and he will step up the already violent ordeal
to which he and his satellites have submitted
Hammarskjold. One can scarcely blame the
Russians for trying to cover up their Congo
defeat by distracting public noises.
But more is involved here than a cover-up.
What is involved is the future of the UN in
the policing function which it will have to per-
form whenever chaos again breaks out in any

When Is The College Experience?

(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the
final article in a series discussing
orientation as a University pros-
pect and a University problem.)
Editorial Director
A CENTRAL problem in select-
ing means of orientation is
simply that the wished-for end is
deeply paradoxical.
The kind of student a Univer-
sity welcomes most heartily -
intellectually creative, aware of
challenges to his mind and con-
science, responsible - will not
and cannot feel "at home". He
may resent attempts to adjust him
to his new environment. He may
criticize the superficiality of ten-
tative steps to put him at ease,
recognizing the ambiguity of the
program without sensing the le-
gitimate concern for him from
which it stems.
Education in the broad sense,
he knows, will equip him to make
adjustments in his environment -
not vice versa.
* * * .
ORIENTATiON alarms him -.
it represents the long arm of the
The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of The Univer-
sity of Michigan for which The Michi-
gan Daily assumes no editorial respon-
sibility. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3518 Ad-
ministration Building, before 2 p.m.
two days preceding publication.

bourocracy; it wants to make an
IBM card of him.
"All I need," muses the enter-
ing student," is a little background
information - where the library
is, when rush starts, what the
angle is on grading, how to meet
University orientation, much of
it, is worse than worthless - it's
Its lack of meaning for a large
number of participants - during
a week of nervous tension and
exhaustion at best - leaves an
unpleasant taste in their mouths.
Recent improvement measures
seem to aim at making the after-
taste saccharine rather than bit-
ter, but it is nonetheless un-
IT IS INFINITELY difficult to
find a meaningful way to lead a
student into an atmosphere of
stir, of unfamiliar, if expected,
demands. In an atmosphere where
the value placed on change,
progress, development, is high, no
student who interacts with the
enviroment can remain oriented to
it for long at a time.
The week-long introductory per-
iod can be highly significant if
it is borne in mind that it is
orientation to an orientation, and
that the broader orientation can-
not and should not ever end.
Looking at the problem from
this angle with pragmatic goals,
many of the questions regarding
means are clarified.
* * 9*
ORIENTATION, .it becomes
clear, provides information to new
students not as insulation against
shocks, but as arms and tools
they will need in dealing defini-
tively with the university exper-

in environment is none the less
real for the freshmen because it is
totally abstract. The new student
kmws, rationally, that he is brand
new in the community. He feels
his newness with an irrational,
scared hope for success - he half
wishes someone would tell him
how (and, incidentally, define
And here the University knows
better than to take advantage of
It is in the interest of any
educational institution that its
members be able to define and
strive for individual goals.
BUT ENTERING students are
perhaps more self-consciously in-
dividuals than ever after in their
college careers, and if they sur-
render any part of their in-
dividuality the university suffers,
however willing or unknowing
their submersion is.
New students half anticipate,
half dread the University's first
move to grab them and start
educating them. The University
had better see that they under-
stand that education is their busi-
ness as students.
The freshman class, its first
week on campus, is the finest
quality captive audience in Amer-
ica-it is capable and willing to
respond creatively to the new
information, wants opinions and
ideas, wants value judgements to
turn over and examine. If the
university community is non-
plussed and bothered by the mute
and curious newcomers, it can
remain passive a couple of weeks.
Soon the new students will begin
to read books, where information,
-n - .snsnyri o% l~ a man Or a

A New Student Intensity
movement of the Sixties synthe-
sizes certain aspects of past ac-
tivity, particularly the mass-action
emphasis of the Thirties and the
independence of the post-World
War II days.
The current movement is dif-
ficult to assess for several rea-
First of all, many of the involv-
ed students are firmly opposed
to the "pat answer" and there-
fore hesitate to discuss the totality
of the movement.
Second, wide distances between
centers of the drive, for instance
between Montgomery and Berke-
ley, prevent communication about
possible point problems and send
activity in scattered directions.
Third, it is clearly only a minor-
ity of students making themselves
heard. A much larger segment of
the American "silent generation"
student community still seems to
shun social and political action.
Fourth, students in different
areas are characterized by quite
different attitudes. Students on
the West Coast have a much high-
er degree of political and organ-
izational sophistication than does
the student in the South. The
southern student civil rights
movement is a single-issue move-
ment at present, and in addition,
a movement infused with emotion-
al and religious ualities found
nowhere else. In the North and
East students tend to lack both
the deep religious involvement
found in the South, as well as the
often emotional, ideological in-
volvement found on the West
Coast. This is largely due the fact
that the Northern student has not
so far found himself in the middle
of a crisis such as the lunch-
counter protests or the San
Francisco rioting. Such experien-
ces have emotionallyconsolidated
a great bloc of students and
prompted them to continue de-
fiant activity.,
of the movement, however, there
are certain common elements
which are found everywhere -
Rexroth has called it a "mass,
moral vomit" which suggests the
movement's temendous urgency,
its concentration on straight
moral issues, its unplanned; un-
directed spontaneity, and its
mixed qualities of hope and des-
To label aspects of the move-
ment communist - inspired, as
Harry Truman and J. Edgar
Hoover and the Saturday Evening
Post have done this year, implies
a faulty perception of student life.
The active, creative minorities
leading the students on the West
Coast, and the mass of protesting
Negroes in the South, are amaz-
ingly autonomous in their rela-
tions with outside organizations,
be they the Communist, Demo-
cratic, Republican or Socialist
parties. Even groups like the
American Civil Liberties Union
and the NAACP, which tradition-
ally have led fights for greater
human rights, have been often
left behind the urgently-moving
students this year.
* * *
IT IS OBVIOUS. that many
madtsand manorgmaniaions

broad framework of political, so-
cial and economic ideas. The plain
fact is that many a student is
rebelling precisely because the old
political forms are unsatisfactory,
precisely because the men who
espouse them are unprincipled or
Instead of an ieology, it has
been -an attitude which has unified
almost every phase of student ac-
tion this year. The attitude is one
of simple desire for a humane
social order in America, in which
human capacities might be de-
veloped without infringement on
the self-dignity of any individuals.
It is not a broad-based frontal
attack at all aspects of American
life; it is a response to various
disturbing issues if and when they
crop up.
* * *
IT IS AN ATTITUDE of willing-
ness, a new willingness to take
up responsibilities of the indivilual
to the democratic order. It is a
personal attitude, though often
expressed in massive form. It is
definitely a moral attitude, simple
and humble. As an example, one
might refer to the feelings of
Sandra Cason, a student at the
University of Texas who paiici-
pated in the Southern Human Re-
lations Seminar this summer.
Talking of students and the sit-
ins. Miss Cason said:
"I cannot say to a person who
suffers injustice, 'Wait', Perhaps
you can. I can't. And having de-
cided that I cannot urge caution
I must stand with him. If I had
known that not a single lunch
counter would open as a result
of my action I could not have
done differently than I did. If
I had known violence would re-
sult, I could not have done dif-
ferently than I did. I am thank-
ful for the sit-ins if for no other
reason than that they provided me
with an opportunity for making
a slogan into a reality, by turning
a decision into an action. It seemn
to me that this is what life Is
all about.,. I am concerned that
all of us, Negro and white, realize
the possibility of becoming less
inhuman humans through coM-
mitment and action... "
spair over the possibility of nu-
clear extermination before the
student moves into the "adult"
But, in another sense, the stu-
dent has adopted an optimistic or
exultant attitude. Archibald Mac-
Leish once expressed the necessity
for a certain hopefulness to under-
lie human action: "It is only to
the free unfettered gesture of the
human soul that men wholly and
believingly respond. They will, in
a crisis, rise againstarrogance.
They may, for a time, fight from
hatred. But only to hope will they
give themselves entirely."
It is no coincidence that two
old spirituals have come to have
emotive meaning and a guiding
tone for many students across the
country. The words are straight-
forward and embody much of the
significance of the new student
We shall not, we shall not be
We shall not, we shall not be

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