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July 28, 1965 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1965-07-28

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Seventy-Fift bYear

The UN-Faltering

Yet ndispensable


Whereopinions Ae the.,420 MAYNARD ST., ANN ARBOR, MICH.
Truth wm PVai

NEWs PHONE: 764-0552

Editorials Printed in The Michigan Daily ex press the individual opinions of staff writers
or the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

DNESDAY, JULY 28, 1965


'U ShouldAsk Meyerson
To Replace Heyns

NOW THAT Roger Heyns has definitely
decided to leave the University to
become chancellor of the Berkeley cam-
pus, of the University of California, the
problem of selecting a new vice-president
for academic affairs becomes pressing.
Although Dean Haber of the literary
college maintains that there are plenty
of people at the University capable of
filling this position, there is no reason
why a competent "outsider" should not
be given the post.
The naming of a distinguished educator
to this high executive position a short
time before President Hatcher retires
should be looked on by the selections
committee as a chance to groom a new
rnan for the presidency.
QNE OF THE most'notable personalities
on the educational scene and a man
who most certainly is available is the
acting chancellor of Berkeley Martin
Being a strong, overt liberal, Meyerson's
Heyns' D
No Gre
APART FROM HUMAN interest value-
the drama of a man who painted him-
self into a corner--the sensation caused
by Roger Heyns' departure is absurd.
Unless he is replaced by someone who
rattles the administration building's win-'
dows every so often with a .truly radical
idea, the choice of his successor means as
little to the quality of education here as
does the changing of the seasons. Pros-
pects are dim.
A status quo attitude is the prime requi-
site for University vice-presidents. They
are allowed small and infrequent tri-
umphs, the victories of a politician.
At least this has been the pattern. Now,
the Regents have an opportunity to select
a real mind. They can attract their "whiz
kid" using the bait of the presidency. No
one currently high-up in the administra-
tion seems to be next in line for Presi-
dent Hatcher's job when Hatcher retires
in two years.
Heyns has endearing qualities. Two
years ago he elbowed Mississippi Gov.
Ross Barnett to one side of the podium
JUDITH WARREN .,........... Co-Editor
ROBERT HIPPLER ..................Co-Editor
EDWARD HERSTEIN.,............Sports Editor
JUDITH FIELDS . ......... .Buiness Manager
JEFFREY LEEDS ... Supplement Manager.
Second class pstage pald at Ann Arbor Mira'
Pubisahed daily Tuesday thr.,ugb saturdlay mo~rning

educational philosophy has antagonized
the conservative regents of the Univer-
sity of California. A defender of freedom
of speech for students, Meyerson was
appointed acting chancellor of Berkeley
after the policies of the then Chancellor
Edward Strong provoked student demon-
strations and riots. He has been strongly
supported by faculty and students alike
at his post at Berkeley, and has proved
himself a capable academic adminis-
Because of the conflict of philosophy
between Meyerson and regents such as
Chairman Carter and oil interest repre-
sentative Pauley, the University of Cali-
fornia lost a good administrator.
_BY HIRING Roger Heyns, California got
another good man, but the leadership
vacuum still exists at 'the University.
This vacuum could be filled well by
Martin Meyerson.
at Loss
in Hill Auditorium when the audience be-
came unruly and won our hearts by push-
ing a little harder than was necessary.
BUT NOT ONCE did he formulate any
plan out of the ordinary in the con-
text of general University policy.'
For a man touted as the successor to
the University presidency, he did little-
content to act the part of the stolid
enactor of decisions made elsewhere and
nurtured in different minds. His tenure
as vice-president bears no mark of an
original mind. In short, he was President
Hatcher's boy all the way.
CALIFORNIA will probably be pleased
with Heyns. They discarded a more in-
tellectual and liberal man than Heyns in
Acting Chancellor Martin Meyerson.
Finally there was the comedy of Heyns'
decision to leave.
When his father leaked confirmation
of Berkeley's offer, high echelon Univer-
sity officials reportedly put the deep
. freeze on Heyns. He became persona non
gratis since no one likes an administra-
tor who is pondering whether his respon-
sibilities are worthy of his talents.
rTHUS HEYNS' DECISION was actually
made for him. He couldn't have func-
tioned at all in the climate which had
suddenly grown very cold to his presence.

First of Three Articles
ON ITS twentieth anniversary,
the United Nations is con-
fronted with the contradictions of
its own existence today.,
The 16th Assembly Session
named 1965 the "year for Inter-
national Cooperation," expressing
the deep conviction that "wider
and more intensive international
cooperation provides one of the
most effective means of dispersing
international tensions."
It is believed that the world
would be well served "both by an
Increasing awareness of the exist-
ing level of international coopera-
tion" and by a marked increase in
projects in diverse fields which
are jointly udertaken on an in-
ternational level.
IT WAS HOPED that 1965
would be a promising year of en-
thusiastic advance toward peace
and international cooperation.
Yet, unfortunately, the UN in
1965 faces grave threats to its
own life. Though characterized as
"man's last hope," the UN is in
a crisis and the performance of the
General Assembly, which adjourn-
ed on February 18 until Septem-
ber without transacting any sub-
stantive decisions on any subject
apart from a few decisions of a
routine nature, has given rise
to the question of whether or not
it will survive.
The main issue of deadlock has
been the question of financing of
UN peace-keeping operations. This
abortive session was also marked
by the withdrawal of Indonesia,
the first country to leave the UN.
CHINA wholeheartedly welcom-
ed the withdrawal and called the
Indonesian action "just, correct
and revolutionary." Though China
itself in the past clamoured to
get admission into the UN, it de-
nounced it and called for the
setting up of a revolutionary rival
united nations,
Another desperate weakness of
the UN was mirrored in its in-
ability to stop war in Southeast
Asia. Observers have noted with
concern a decline in the prestige
of the UN which has consequently,
stimulated tension and antagon-
Students the world over who
look to the UN as the one great
hope for the future must review
these developments with all ser-
iousness and deep concern.
HOWEVER, it is sincerely hop-
ed that the present paralysis of
the UN will be a temporary phase
and that it will be able to face the
challenges successfully, though its
original charter may need a re-
vision, as it is felt today, in order
to keep it in step with the chang-
ing world situation and circum-
Seemingly the tussle over peace-
keeping operations of the UN has
brought the 19th session of the
General Assembly to an abortive
adjournment and according to
some, the organization has come
close to collapse.
However, this is not a well-
assessed assumption, thoughnthe
crisis itself is not a simple one.
crisis is that some nations, having
seen and participated in the UN
since its birth 20 years ago, have
only an ambiguous picture and
vague conceptions about it.
Some are skeptical about its
utility since it has not seemed to
have any realtpurposeto them for
the last 20 years.
THE UN WAS created as a r-
sult of the nations' earnest desire
to avoid the horrors of war, and
a sincere desire to create the
peaceful atmosphere of an inter-
national family-for they did not
want to again be thrown back to

the dreadful experience of war.
These nations felt that the UN
has not come up to its aspirations
-to their expectations,
This.pessimistic conclusion may
seem Justified, for' the UN has
probably not prevented any war.
But the organization has felt it-
self limited and sometimes handi-
capped by the attitude of member
nations. Consequently, it has not
achieved its own expectations.
Yet one cannot underestimate
the service performed by the UN
in the cause of world peace and
progress. In fact, the nations fac-
-ed with the threat of nuclear de-
struction have seen a vital interest
in the international organization,
which is capable of making ef-
fective the interests they have in
common. The last 20 years speak
of the UN's ability to deal with
such issues with creditable suc-
Indonesia came into being in 1949
with the help of the Good Offices
Committee of the UN, which end-
ed the long hostilities between In-
donesians and their colonizers.
During the same period, the
hostilities between the Arabs and
the Israelis was stopped by the
UN and its observers are still
maintaining the peace on the bor-
.v..~. - - - -4nen ,,.-,-,

tinued to be one of the hottest
spots of the world.
IN ADDITION, the fact that
the territory of the Congo (Leo-
poldville) has not been split into
secessionist states and its rescue
from a widening civil war owes
most creditably to the UN, whose
20,000 troops drawn from 21 coun-
tries fought for the preservation
of the independence of the state
after it became free from Belgian
colonialism in 1960.
These operations continued un-
til June 1964 when financial dif-
ficulties compelled a wind-up.
Another war was stopped in
Cyprus where the UN stands as
a buffer between the Greeks and
Turks. UN withdrawal from any
of these places could witness re-
sunmption of hostilities and butch-
ering of innocent inhabitants. For
instance, as soon as the UN force
had to leave the Congo, the fight-
ing broke out again.
or observers also provides the
opportunity for hostile nations to
ponder the proposals for peace
and settlement of issues and some-
times, a suggestion by a third
party, neutrals or the UN Secre-
tary General, may be acceptable
to both parties, because of its
genesis, from a neutral source.
Even in direct confrontation be-
tween hostile powers, the UN may
at least provide a face-saving
service (1962-Cuban crisis) and
help conflicting states to come
out without losing much.
The UN has also become the
convenient means of contact
among over a hundred countries.
Many small nations, which cannot
afford the expenses of maintain-
ing their missions in various capi-
tals, use their representatives in
the' UN for maintaining inter-
national relationships and diplo-
matic contacts.
Apart from this; the UN has
provided opportunities for diplo-
matic negotiations. The question
of the Berlin Blockade in 1948-
1949 was settled through this
process. It is significantly valu-
able in promoting diplomatic un-
derstanding between hostile na-
THE QUESTION of banning all
nuclear tests and armaments en-
gagedtthe serious attention of the
17-nation Disarmament Commis-
sion of the Security Council and
after a 16-month sitting, the coin-
mission succeeded in producing
the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty by
the United States, the Russia, and
Great Britain on August 5, 1963.
This treaty-which bans all nu-
clear tests except those held un-
derground-came into force on
October 10, 1963, when over 100
nations followed the three signa-
tories in adherence.
This has been one of the fnost
outstanding achievements in this

-Associated Press

DESPITE PROBLEMS WHICH THREATEN ITS EXISTENCE, the United Nations offers such indis-

pensable services as the World Health Organization, World Bank
tional, Social and Cultural Organization.

field (though some countries, in-
cluding China and France, did not
take a favorable attitude), and
the first concrete step toward
limiting the nuclear armament
race and thus promoting world
peace and a sense of security to
nations threatened by nuclear
agencies of the UN are other im-
portant arms of the organization
devoted to extremely - useful
(though it may seem unspectacu-
lar) work in economic and social
fields; some of these are the
United Nations Economic, Social
and Cultural Organization, the
International Labor Organization,
World Health Organization, and
Food and Agriculture Organiza-
Most of these agencies have in-
volved themselves in assistance
work in the "third world."
The creation of the United Na-
tions Organization in the Congo
was also equally significant,
though less spectacular. The World
Bank and the International De-
velopment Association are provid-
ing assistance in financing the
development, of less developed.
areas and also the re-building of.
war-devastated areas.

THE UN is also trying to solve
the problem of population growth
and is helping over-populated na-
tions by technical assistance in
their efforts to solve population
problems involved in economic and
social development.
At present, a five-man commis-
sion is advising the government of
India on a long-range program of
action and research while con-
centrating primaryattention on
immediate steps in family plan-
ning, birth control and Popula-
tion check. The United Nations
Population Commission, decentral-
ized in regional commissions, has
assumed increasing responsibili-
ties for regional and technical as-
sistance projects as well as re-
search and technical work in the
demographic field in Africa, Asia,
the Far East and Latin America.
This versatile range of inter-
national agencies, surveying re-
sources, distributing food, assist-
ing agricultural improvement, car-
ing for needy children, controlling
disease and training technicians,
is of immense value and has in-
deed done most appreciable work
to improve the lot of needy so-
cieties all over the globe.
rendered considerable service,
though it has experienced des-

and the United Nations Educa-
perate weakness. Since December
1963, it has, however, been plung-
ed into deeper and deeper trouble.
The General Assembly adjourned
on February 18 until next Septem-
ber without doing any substantial
business. The recent UN setbacks
are causing profound uneasiness.
In the words of Secretary Gen-
eral U Thant, "We are witnessing
a definite reversala of the slow
progress the UN has made toward
stability and world peace. A fur-
ther drift in this direction, if not
arrested in time, will mark the
closing of a chapter of great ex-
pectations and heralding of a new
chapter in which the world or-
ganization will provide merely a
debating forum, and nothing else."
WHETHER THEN, the organi-
zation can be revitalized depends
on the outcome of the negotia-
tions about the UN's whole peace-
keeping function that are now
proceeding among the members
of the new special committee.
Many observers now predict that
some solution will come out of
these proceedings providing for a
return of UN functioning as be-
TOMORROW:The legal tech-
nicalities involved in the finan-
cial crisis whichi threatens the
life of the United Nations.




.r' t ;
Y _ 4
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MORE AMERICANS ARE reading non-fiction, poetry sells poorly, and serious drama fails on Broadway. These are symptoms of the
current literary trends. Meanwhile, more Americans are watching television. Universities must take a more realistic look at literature and
offer courses in contemporary authors and the mass media.
Literature Needs Modern Media Courses


Second of a Series
BOOKS OF poetry gather dust
on; dealers' bookshelves, nov-
els are outsold by non-fiction,
serious plays close down faster
- than Edsel distributorships and
all the while, the television tube
glows with its blue lights 6 hours
and 48 minutes every day in 48.9-
million homes.
What is happening? And what
should be happening in response
to it?
It would be easy to merely point
out the change and call for some
drastic revision in our present
educational and literary institu-
tions. Yet, certainly it is wiser to
combine the best of the old with
the new; this must be the pri-
mary concern in this question of
literature too - to combine the
sensitivities and dedication of the
past with new media.
OF THE THREE groups in-
volved in literature - the writers,
the readers, and the teachers of
both - only the writers and tea-

of modern literature. And for lit-
erature in general, emphasis is
placed upon the history of litera-
ture-including some of the duller
and less relevant authors of his-
tory. In a praiseworthy effort to
avoid fads and mediocre modern
authors, some teachers of modern
literature go to the other extreme
and avoid recent, important au-
thors. Few teachers use works
more modern than ten or fif-
teen years ago-recent in terms of
4000 years of literature, but old
in more personal, contemporary
OFTEN WRITERS themselves
ignore the changes in attitudes
toward literature, even though
they -- the people who have some-
thing to say - should be the ones
most concerned with them. Both
in what some of them write -
-highly personal, involuted, at worst
incomprehensible and unmoving-
and in what they choose to write
-the- less self-disciplined, some-
times less popular forms of poetry
and short fiction-they often ig-
nore the fact that communication

could gain a critical understand-
ing of modern literature-televi-
sion, non-fiction, movies, advertis-
ing, comic strips, song lyrics-in-
stead of an understanding of lit-
erature that stops dead at 1950.
would study, one at a time, all
the fields of modern writing; for
example, advertising, to take the
worst of the possible fields. Study
would center on finding out why
advertising writing is like it is,
why it changes.Is beautiful adver-
tising writing possible? Does it
ever reflect some of the basic is-
sues of the moment?
Fields like television and com-
ic strips could be studied much
the same way as we study Joyce
or Dickens, except perhaps with
a different slant: instead of ask-
ing why so good, why so bad?
It takes just as much critical abil-
ity to really understand and ana-
lyze a bad television series as it
does to praise Joyce.
Does "Peanuts" express the hu-
man condition? Is "beautiful"

THE STUDY of English at a
school like this seems to be geared
to producing teachers, to turn-
ing out a class knowing more
about everyone who ever wrote
than the last one, hence, add-
ing to the sum total of research
and knowledge.
Yet many students who enter the
field are not concerned with old
writers or academic studies. The
English curriculum is the largest
academic field in terms of de-
grees awarded, annually awarding
35,300 degrees, and ranking only
behind business and education.
The English degree-since it en-
compasses the language, the most
essential ingredient of every en-
deavor-should be a far more
"philosophical" degree than it is.
The English major should be able
to talk with authority to the his-
torian, the political scientist, the
economist, and sociologist. As it
is now, many English majors-16th
to 18th centuries-have a tough
time talking with any other than
other English majors - 16th to
18th centuries.


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